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Are Essay Mills committing fraud? An analysis of their behaviours vs the 2006 Fraud Act (UK) © The Author(s) 2017. Published: 25 January 2017. Many strategies have been proposed to address the use of Essay Mills and other ‘contract cheating’ services by students. These services generally offer bespoke custom-written essays or other assignments to students in exchange for a fee. There have been calls for the use of order the custom thesis legal approaches to tackle the problem. Essays On The Wardrobe? Here we determine whether the UK Fraud Act (2006) might be used to tackle some of the order the custom thesis, activities of companies providing these services in the UK, by comparing their common practises, and their Terms and Conditions, with the Act. We found that all the sites examined have disclaimers regarding the use of their products but there are some obvious contradictions in the activities of the sites which undermine these disclaimers, for example all sites offer plagiarism-free guarantees for the work and at least eight have advertising which appears to contradict their terms and conditions. We identify possible areas in which the Act could be used to pursue a legal case but overall conclude that such an approach is unlikely to a thesis, be effective. We call for a new offence to be created in UK law which specifically targets the the custom thesis, undesirable behaviours of these companies in the UK, although the principles could be applied elsewhere. We also highlight other UK legal approaches that may be more successful.
The use of so-called ‘contract cheating’ services by students has been a source of controversy and debate within Higher Education, particularly in essays the last decade. ‘Contract cheating’ refers, basically, to the outsourcing of thesis assessments by students, to third parties who complete work on their behalf in return for a fee or some other benefit (Lancaster and Clarke 2016 ). These services offer ‘custom assignments’ of lincoln almost any form, although custom written essays appear to be the most common. Students are often able to specify the thesis, grade they want (although there is no guarantee this will be delivered), request drafts, referencing styles and almost any other custom feature (Newton and Lang 2016 ). Services available are quick and cheap (Wallace and Newton 2014 ) and students underestimate the severity with which universities penalise the use of a thesis defense contract cheating services (Newton 2015 ). Order? Perhaps the simplest arrangements are directly between students and ‘custom essay writing companies’, many of whom are ‘listed’ companies with sophisticated advertising campaigns. However there are many ways in which students can use third parties to complete work for them, with the contract spread across continents; writers may act as freelancers, working in a different country to the student and their institution. Electric Essays? These freelance writers may make use of online auction services to thesis, advertise and organise their work and these may be in the witch yet another country, and there may be another intermediary; an individual who receives the order from the student and order then posts the essay on hajj-pilgrimage, work on the custom thesis an auction site (Newton and Lang 2016 ; Sivasubramaniam et al. 2016 ). Essays On The Lion The Witch And The Wardrobe? Thus there are multiple actors in contract cheating, one or more of whom may be liable if their actions violate the order the custom thesis, law; students, their universities, the persons paying tuition fees, writers, those who employ writers, the websites which host the writers, advertising companies, those who host the advertising, and so on. Here we focus primarily on UK-registered essay-writing companies. Across education, a student who completes an assessment to earn credit towards an award is normally required to do so on the explicit basis that the submission is their own independent work.
Ideally, both students and staff are given guidance about what constitutes academic misconduct and the consequences of such misconduct (Morris 2015 ), in a manner that promotes a positive, constructive approach to application, fostering ‘academic integrity’ (Thomas and Scott 2016 ). If a student submits work that is shown to comprise, in whole or in part, material that is not their own independent work then that student will normally face a range of penalties, administered by their university, for the custom, academic misconduct. In the defense, UK these usually include cancellation of marks for thesis, the relevant module or the relevant component of the module subject to any mitigating circumstances (Tennant and Duggan 2008 ). Historically, these behaviours have not been dealt with through legal mechanisms in the UK (QAA 2016 ) and this applies to plagiarism outside academic circumstances which, in the words of Saunders,”. is not in itself illegal; it is essay only illegal if it breaches an established legal right, such as copyright, or offends against the law of misrepresentation or other legal rules” (Saunders 2010 ). However, a commonly used test in making legal decisions is to determine how a ‘reasonable person’ might view a particular behaviour. If asked to thesis, describe the purchasing of essays for submission for the purposes of gaining academic credit it seems logical to conclude that a reasonable person would conclude that such behaviour is ‘fraudulent’, particularly given the language associated with it (e.g. ‘cheating’). If another individual has knowingly assisted in daughter mother relationship that activity then they might reasonably be said to have assisted, conspired or colluded in order the custom such academic fraud, cheating or dishonesty. If a student has purchased written work from essays on the the witch and the another individual or a company for the purpose of passing it off as his or her own work then it is clear that the student commits academic misconduct, but what of the order the custom, individual or company that supplied the work in return for payment? To what extent is that individual or company (an ‘assistor’) complicit in such misconduct? What is the a thesis defense, potential liability of the assistor and order thesis can action be taken against them? Are the assistors by their action inciting academic fraud? Unless the a thesis defense, assistor is a student in the same institution an educational institution cannot normally take action against the assistor under internal disciplinary procedures. In addition, and perhaps more importantly, is there the possibility of fraudulent behaviour in the relationship between the student and order thesis the company?
Broadly, legal wrongs committed in England and Wales may be addressed through the civil or criminal law (UK Government 2016a ). An action in civil law is taken by a wronged individual at a thesis defense, their initial cost. This cost is thesis often prohibitive and also normally requires the lincoln electric essays, formulation of the custom thesis a claim recognised by the law that evidences loss or damage to the individual claimant caused by the defendant and for which a remedy is daughter mother relationship sought. Thus the order the custom, ability of educational institutions (or a student for that matter) to essay on hajj-pilgrimage, take civil action against assistors is limited. Action in relation to UK criminal law is normally undertaken by the custom, and at the cost of the state through the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) but requires a criminal offence to have been committed (private prosecutions at private cost are possible but relatively rare). Essays? The Code for Crown Prosecutors sets out the basic principles to be followed by order the custom thesis, Crown Prosecutors when they make case decisions. Crown Prosecutors must be satisfied that there is enough evidence to provide a “realistic prospect of conviction” and that it is the defense, public interest to pursue a prosecution (UK Government 2013 ). A purpose of this paper is to assess the the custom thesis, extent that a business organisation who supplies an essay or written work upon instructions from a student in return for money might be liable under the criminal law of on the wardrobe England and Wales for an offence under the Fraud Act 2006 (The Act) (UK Government 2006 ). The Act commenced operation on 15 January 2007 by the Fraud Act 2006 (Commencement) Order 2006 SI 2006/3200. The Act applies to offences committed wholly on or after 15 January 2007 and extends to England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
In August 2016 the UK regulator of Higher Education, the Quality Assurance agency, considered all approaches to the custom thesis, deal with contract cheating, a problem which they stated “poses a serious risk to the academic standards and essay mother relationship the integrity of UK higher education” (QAA 2016 ). Their consideration of possible legal approaches under existing law concluded that the Fraud Act was the “nearest applicable legislation”, but they did not reach a firm conclusion on its use, stating that “Case law appears to indicate a reluctance on the part of the courts to be involved in cases involving plagiarism, deeming this to be a matter for academic judgement that falls outside the competence of the court (Hines v Birkbeck College  3 All ER 15)” (QAA 2016 ). In their conclusion, the QAA state that the order, UK 2006 Fraud Act is “untested in relationship this context”. Here we explore the detail of the Fraud Act further, and the custom thesis compare it to the established business practises of violence UK-registered essay-writing companies, with a particular focus on their Terms and Conditions. Order The Custom? We first compare the commonly observed practises of essay-writing companies (Newton and Lang 2016 ) to the UK Fraud Act 2006 (UK Government 2006 ). We then specifically compared the Terms and Conditions of dissertation on media some UK-based companies and their advertising to Sections 1-7 of the Act to determine whether or not these companies are committing an offence under these sections of the Act. As part of a separate project we identified approximately 1000 distinct websites offering essay-writing or related services to students in Higher Education. We analysed the sites to identify those which indicated that they are owned by companies listed at Companies House in the UK, meaning that they are able to the custom, run as ‘legitimate’ businesses and that they are subject to regulation by UK law, having been ‘incorporated’ under the Companies Act 2006 (UK Government 2016b ). We analysed 26 sites operated by a total of 21 apparently distinct companies; each had separate listings at Companies House. Daughter Relationship? We also analysed a handful of additional sites from Australia and the USA, making a total of 31 sites.
We have not included the identity of the specific companies in order thesis this publication for the following reasons: 1. We do not wish to further advertise the essay on hajj-pilgrimage, services of the custom these companies, either through this publication or through any publicity associated with it. Essays Lion The Witch And The? 2. We have no guarantee that the company number given on these websites is actually that of the company which runs the site. In some cases the names are the same but in thesis others this is defense not the case. 3. The content of this article is thesis academic opinion and not the basis for legal proceedings. We have shared, confidentially, the identities of the companies with the reviewers of this manuscript and also with the essay, UK Quality Assurance Agency who also identified a number of UK-based companies in order their recent report on essay mills (QAA 2016 ). Essays On The And The Wardrobe? Questions asked of the different websites and the number/percentage of sites for which the answered was considered to the custom thesis, be ‘yes’ Is there a disclaimer of daughter essay mother relationship liability in order the custom thesis respect of use?
Are there contractual terms and conditions relating to daughter essay mother relationship, use? Are customers able to specify the quality (grade) of the work)? Is the Intellectual Property in the work retained by the company? Does the work come with a ‘plagiarism-free’ guarantee? Does the site state that the products are to be used for ‘research’ only? Does the site offer ‘qualified’ or ‘expert’ writers?
Is the advertising potentially misleading (compared to disclaimer/terms + conditions)? Shown below are questions that we asked of the websites. We then considered the Fraud Act in detail, informed by answers to the questions below. The Act (UK Government 2006 ) provides for a general offence of fraud, defined through the three ways of committing it, which are (1) by false representation, (2) by failing to disclose information and (3) by abuse of order thesis position. Each is dealt with in a separate Section of the Act. It is also an offence, under the Act, to obtain services dishonestly and/or to possess, make or supply articles for use in fraud(s). Section 3 Fraud by defense, failing to disclose information. We will consider Section 2 of the act (‘fraud by false representation’) later in this paper but at this point it is appropriate to briefly address Section 3 of the Act which makes it an offence to fail to disclose, to another, information for which there is a legal duty to disclose. For instance failing to disclose information in relation to order, a contract of insurance or a doctor failing to disclose to mother relationship, a hospital that certain patients referred by him or her for treatment are private patients, thereby avoiding a charge for the services provided. A legal duty to disclose information can arise as a result of order thesis a contract between two parties or because of the existence of a particular type of professional relationship between them; for example, a solicitor/client relationship. In its report on Fraud (Report on a reference under section 3(1)(e) of the lincoln electric essays, Law Commissions Act 1965 No.
276 Cm 5560 2002) the Law Commission made the order thesis, following comments about the circumstances in which a legal duty might arise: “7.28 … Such a duty may derive from statute (such as the on the, provisions governing company prospectuses), from the fact that the transaction in question is order one of the utmost good faith (such as a contract of insurance), from the lincoln electric essays, express or implied terms of a contract, from the custom of a particular trade or market, or from the existence of a fiduciary relationship between the parties (such as that of agent and principal). 7.29 For this purpose there is thesis a legal duty to disclose information not only if the defendant’s failure to disclose it gives the victim a cause of action for damages, but also if the law gives the essays lion wardrobe, victim a right to set aside any change in his or her legal position to which he or she may consent as a result of the non- disclosure. For example, a person in a fiduciary position has a duty to the custom thesis, disclose material information when entering into a contract with his or her beneficiary, in the sense that a failure to make such disclosure will entitle the beneficiary to writing center for college application, rescind the contract and to reclaim any property transferred under it.” Thus a key question is whether essay mills owe a legal duty to their customers to disclose information? For example, whether they are under a legal duty to disclose to customers that if they submit the purchased essay without proper attribution that they are committing academic fraud. There is order the custom thesis no obvious legal fiduciary relationship between the defense, assistor and the customer (a fiduciary is someone who has undertaken to act for or on behalf of order the custom thesis another in a particular matter in circumstances which give rise to a relationship of trust and confidence). Thus the relationship between student customer and essay mills appears to be entirely contractual. On Hajj-pilgrimage? In the first instance therefore the legal duty on the part of the order, company is simply to comply with the terms and conditions of the contract which for the most part are set in the terms and conditions of business drafted by essay, them. These do not routinely place a legal duty on order thesis the company to disclose information about the possible consequences of use by a student and in any event as discussed below they routinely warn against the submitting of the essay without proper attribution.
Section 3b (i) and (ii) of the Act go on to provide that an offence is only committed if by failing to disclose information the defendant “ intended to make a gain for him or to cause loss to another or expose another to a risk of loss” . By failing to give information that use of the essay through submission at lion the witch, an educational institution may lead to an academic misconduct claim a company intends to make a financial gain, i.e. continue in business and there is potential for risk of loss by the student customer. Order The Custom? However essay mills are not usually under a legal duty in the first place to provide this information and in fact as discussed below the terms and conditions of business usually specifically address this point through disclaimers in relation to use of the essay (Similarly an offence under section 4 of the Act – abuse of position - is effectively negated). On Media? We consider the position in order relation to advertising used by essay mills later in this paper – there is a legal duty not to mislead established other than through the essays on the lion and the wardrobe, Fraud Act 2006. Making a false representation – section 2. This section of the Act states the following. dishonestly makes a false representation, and. to make a gain for himself or another, or. to order the custom thesis, cause loss to essay on hajj-pilgrimage, another or to expose another to a risk of thesis loss. it is untrue or misleading, and. the dissertation, person making it knows that it is, or might be, untrue or misleading. the person making the representation, or. any other person. The Custom? A representation may be express or implied. For the on media violence, purposes of this section a representation may be regarded as made if it (or anything implying it) is submitted in any form to any system or device designed to receive, convey or respond to order, communications (with or without human intervention)” (UK Government 2006 ). Thus Section 2 of the Act makes it an offence to commit fraud by false representation. Subsection (1)(a) states that the representation must be made dishonestly. A Thesis Defense? The current definition of dishonesty was established in R v Ghosh 1982. (Campbell 1984 ) That judgment sets a two-stage test. The first question is whether a defendant’s behaviour would be regarded as dishonest by the ordinary standards of reasonable and honest people.
If answered positively, the second question is whether the defendant was aware that his or her conduct was dishonest and would be regarded as dishonest by reasonable and honest people. It seems reasonable to assume that the activities of essay writing companies would be considered ‘dishonest’ by order the custom, ordinary standards, particularly when considering the media coverage given to dissertation violence, their activities (Henry et al. 2014 ; Andrew Bomford BBC Radio 4’s PM programme ). The Custom? However it is by on the the witch, no means certain that the second limb of the test would be satisfied given the the custom, rationale and justification for essay writing services usually deployed by essay mills (for example, that they offer similar services to those offered by legitimate providers, such as librarians, or they supplement study skills support that may be lacking in educational institutions (Newton and Lang 2016 )) and the terms and conditions of business (Table 1 ). However, given the aforementioned publicity around their activity, a claim that they were not aware that their conduct was dishonest and writing center for college would be regarded as dishonest by reasonable and honest people is the custom subject to legitimate challenge. Daughter Essay Relationship? In any event dishonesty is only a relevant consideration if there is, first of all, a false representation. Order The Custom Thesis? In simple terms this would mean, for example, advertising that the purchased essays were legitimate to use as a student’s own work. Furthermore subsection (1)(b) of the Act requires for application, the offence to be made out that a person must make the order the custom, representation with the intention of violence making a gain or causing loss or risk of loss to another.
The gain or loss however does not actually have to take place. Subsection (2) defines the meaning of “false” in thesis this context and subsection (3) gives the dissertation on media, meaning of “representation”. A representation is false if it is untrue or misleading and thesis the person making it knows that it is, or might be, untrue or misleading. Subsection (3) goes on to provide that a representation means any representation as to fact or law, including a representation as to a person’s state of mind. Subsection (4) provides that a representation may be expressed or implied. It can be stated in words or communicated by conduct. There is no limitation on the way in which the representation be expressed and therefore it could be written or spoken or posted on a website advertising essay writing services. Section 5 of the Act defines the meaning of “gain” and “loss” for the purposes of sections 2 to 4. Essays On The The Witch And The Wardrobe? Under these definitions, “gain” and “loss” are limited to gain and loss in thesis money or other property. The definitions are essentially the same as those in section 34(2)(a) of the Theft Act 1968 and section 32(2)(b) of the lincoln, Theft Act (Northern Ireland) 1969.
The definition of “property” which applies in this context is based on section 4(1) of the Theft Act 1968 1 which includes money and order thesis all forms of property including intellectual property. Therefore in each case of a thesis a potential offence under sections 2-4 of the Act, the defendant’s conduct must be dishonest and their intention must be to make a gain or cause a loss, or the risk of a loss, to order the custom, another. Unlike the deception-based offences in the Theft Acts, no gain or loss need actually have been made. An individual or company providing an essay or coursework to a student for money clearly intends to make a gain for the purposes of the Act even if a student fails to essay on hajj-pilgrimage, pay. Here now we consider the order thesis, specific questions addressed in Table 1 to determine whether or not false representations that were dishonest (in the in essay on hajj-pilgrimage the R v Ghosh sense) were being made with the intention of making a gain. All of the companies analysed made some sort of statement, in their terms and conditions, that essays supplied are to be used solely for ‘research purposes and for assistance only’ or use a variant of this form of disclaimer. Some go further and state that no permission is given to copy the work in relation for use with third parties without reference to the company. With reference to the terms and conditions alone it cannot reasonably be argued that an individual or company is making a false representation for the purposes of the Act as they clearly present, in the terms and the custom thesis conditions, the electric, services being supplied to order thesis, student customers and the use to which essays may be put, although it has been demonstrated that every few consumers actually read online terms and conditions (Bakos et al. 2014 ). However ignorance of the terms is relationship not a ground in the civil law that they should be ignored. 2 A degree of thesis protection is on hajj-pilgrimage given to consumers under the Consumer Rights Act (UK Government 2015 ) which applies a ‘fairness’ test to all ‘non-individually negotiated’ contracts.
These give limited protection when agreeing to unfair terms by checking a box on a website relating to order thesis, terms and on media violence conditions. Some websites also carry advertising and exhortations designed to persuade and legitimise activity, for thesis, example statements to essay for college application, the effect that students need not ‘waste time’ doing the work themselves; the recent QAA report contained numerous examples of these (QAA 2016 ). The test for potential liability under section 2 of the Act is whether or not the representation is order untrue or misleading and the person making it knows that it is, or might be, untrue or misleading (italics are authors emphasis) . It is arguable that there is nothing false about such statements – the essay center for college application, essay mills are being quite open about the rationale for their services. As such the representations made by essay mills are not necessarily untrue but may be misleading in that they create an impression that essays may be used legitimately, albeit contradicted by the terms and conditions accepted by the student. There has been significant publicity over the use of purchased essays by students and it is legitimate to suggest that those offering such services are aware or ought reasonably to be aware of order the custom thesis this use. This is evidenced in part by the terms and conditions of some of the essay mills which acknowledge that the essays supplied may be submitted in some form by a thesis defense, students as their own work subject to a disclaimer that proper referencing as to the source is made by the student. Therefore a reasonable and honest person might well take the view that such advertising is misleading as it might cause a student to reasonably conclude that purchasing an essay and order submitting it as their own independent work is violence a legitimate option, but when purchasing essays students are required to acknowledge by checking a box that they have read the terms and conditions of supply which usually contradict and clarify statements made by way of advertising. Essay Mills may also point out that students would know or ought to know what actions on their part constitute academic misconduct. The Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008 are designed to protect customers from false or deceptive advertising or advertisements that leave out important information. Local Authority Trading Standards Services and the Office of Fair Trading have a duty to enforce the regulations using the order the custom, “most appropriate means”.
These range from informal regulatory (or self-regulatory) procedures to a civil action for an enforcement order, and, in the worst cases, criminal proceedings (UK Government 2016c ). A reasonable person might also consider that some of the statements used by Essay Mills in their advertising constitute an incitement to commit academic fraud. However, as we explained previously, courts are reluctant to engage with plagiarism cases in Universities and academic fraud is not normally a criminal offence; the student falsely represents the on media violence, work as his or her own but the immediate gain made by the student is order the custom academic credit and not money or property directly. However there is nothing in the section that requires the gain to be immediate and gain in terms of higher remuneration or salary may be made later but there is on the lion wardrobe a question of whether this gain is too ‘remote’ – this ‘remoteness’ is a perceived weakness of the Fraud Act as currently drafted (e.g. see http://www.criminallawandjustice.co.uk/features/Fraudulent-Education ). In addition, although the objective test of dishonesty in R v Ghosh may be made out, the order the custom, second aspect of the test (whether the student subjectively views the act of submission as dishonest) may be difficult to establish beyond all reasonable doubt particularly given the advertising adopted by essay writing companies. The advice given by the educational institution concerning academic misconduct will be important in this context.
Making or supplying articles for use in frauds (Section 7) Section 7 of the Act makes it an offence to daughter essay relationship, make, adapt, supply or offer to supply any article knowing that it is designed or adapted for use in the course of or in connection with fraud, or intending it to be used to commit or facilitate fraud. Section 8 extends the meaning of “article” for the purposes of sections 6 and 7 and certain other connected provisions so as to include any program or data held in electronic form. This should include an essay stored or supplied electronically. Order The Custom Thesis? 3. makes, adapts, supplies or offers to supply any article; for essays lion and the, use in the course of or in connection with fraud; knowing that it is designed or adapted for the custom, use in the course of or in connection with fraud (Section 7 (1) (a)) or. intending it to be used to commit or assist in the commission of fraud (Section 7 (1) (b). “Knowledge” in Section 7 (1) (a) is a strict requirement 4 although in practice, the use to which the article can be put is likely to provide sufficient evidence of the defendant’s state of mind. Essays Lion? Furthermore as noted above the publicity over the custom thesis student use of supplied essays would lead to a reasonable conclusion that a supplier of an essay on hajj-pilgrimage, essay has relevant knowledge for the purposes of the order thesis, offence. However the manufacture of dissertation on media articles that are capable of being used in or in connection with fraud but have other innocent uses will not fall foul of this section unless the manufacturer intends that it should be used in the custom a dishonest way (Section 7 (1) (b)).
The terms and conditions of writing for college application business will mitigate against the commission of an offence as essays are usually required to be used in a legitimate manner. had possession or control of; for use in the course of or in connection with any fraud. This section is based on Section 25 of the Theft Act 1968. It must be shown that the order the custom, Defendant had the article (essay) for dissertation, the purpose or with the intention that it be used in the course of or in connection with an offence. Therefore a general intention that he or another will commit fraud under Sections 1-4 of the Act will satisfy this requirement. “In our view, to establish an offence under Section 25 (1) the prosecution must prove that the Defendant was in the custom possession of the writing for college, article, and order the custom thesis intended the article to be used in the course of or in connection with some future burglary, theft or cheat.
But it is not necessary to prove that he intended it to be used in the course of or in connection with any specific burglary, theft or cheat; it is enough to dissertation on media violence, prove a general intention to use it for the custom thesis, some burglary, theft or cheat; we think that this view is supported by the use of the word “any” in Section 25 (1). Nor, in our view, is it necessary to provide that the defendant intended to use it himself; it will be enough to essays on the, prove that he had it with him with the intention that it should be used by order the custom thesis, someone else.” Section 7(2) of the Companies Act 2006 also is a further contraindication of the on media violence, commission of an offence under the Fraud Act 2006 by a company providing essay writing services. This provides that a company must not be formed for an unlawful purpose. 5 The decision by the Registrar of companies to incorporate a company suggests in the first instance that the business of the company is lawful. That decision is subject to judicial review 6 and order a certificate of incorporation is not conclusive evidence that all the daughter essay mother, company’s business is order legal. If a company is registered with an illegal or immoral purpose then the Crown (but not an individual citizen) might apply through the Attorney –General to cancel the registration made by the Registrar. Defense? 7. Although companies that offer essay writing services may have been established prior to the coming into force of the Companies Act 2006 the requirement of incorporation for lawful purposes only is an established principle applying in respect of the incorporation of companies prior to this date.
Thus at the custom thesis, the time of incorporation the essays on the lion and the, Registrar must have been satisfied that the essay writing companies were formed for a lawful purpose. The conclusion drawn by the authors therefore is that the terms and order the custom conditions of business accepted by students (notwithstanding the protections given by the civil law) effectively negate or make it difficult to establish the elements of dissertation a criminal offence under the order, Fraud Act 2006. On Hajj-pilgrimage? In their recent report “Plagiarism in Higher Education”, the QAA recommend investigating legislative approaches to tackle contract cheating in the UK and identified the UK 2006 Fraud Act as the most obvious means to pursue action (QAA 2016 ). Here we conclude that the the custom, Act, as it currently stands, is unlikely to provide a successful platform for addressing contract cheating through legal means – particularly if the aim is to prosecute the companies who offer these services. This is despite there being some obvious contradictions within the websites – all of the sites contain some form of statement that their products are ‘to be used for research purposes only’ yet all also offer some form of ‘plagiarism-free guarantee’. It is difficult to on hajj-pilgrimage, conceive of a situation where a plagiarism-free guarantee would be needed for a custom-written essay, unless it was to be used for submitting as the customer (student’s) own work. The companies may need to the custom, protect themselves from essays on the the witch wardrobe copyright violation, but this is distinct from plagiarism and would be a matter for the companies rather than something advertised to their customers. It might be considered that the behaviours of students using these services could fit UK legal definitions of fraud although, as explained earlier, the courts have traditionally been reluctant to intervene in academic issues. There are also a number of potentially damaging consequences to the criminalisation of student behaviour in this way, such as the undermining of trust between students and order the custom thesis their universities and the role of on hajj-pilgrimage university staff in such a situation; which would turn academic misconduct into a legal situation. The Custom Thesis? At the on hajj-pilgrimage, very least, this would seem likely to deter action. There is a general presumption that some form of intention or knowledge (mens rea) is necessary for the commission of a criminal offence because of the impact of criminal penalties (including loss of liberty).
However, some offences are specifically enacted as offences of ‘strict liability’, meaning, basically, that there is no requirement to demonstrate ‘intent’, fault’ or ‘negligence’, although these may then be considered when determining a penalty. Strict liability normally applies in circumstances where protection of the public is paramount (eg a breach of health and safety regulations). Order The Custom? The authors propose that a new strict liability criminal offence is essay mother relationship enacted specifically addressing the order the custom thesis, supply of academic essays to avoid the need for essay on hajj-pilgrimage, a prosecutor to establish intention or knowledge as a prerequisite to criminal liability. The integrity of assessment in Higher Education is at stake and most students progress to roles or employment that will have a significant impact on members of the public, some very directly (e.g. nurses, doctors, lawyers) “No person shall, for financial consideration, or the promise of financial consideration, prepare, offer to prepare, cause to be prepared, sell or offer or advertise for sale to any person any written material which may be submitted as a coursework, dissertation, essay, project report or any other form of assignment (written or otherwise) by order the custom, a student in a university, college, academy, school or other educational institution to such institution or to a course, seminar or degree program held by such institution” Offences of strict liability promote high standards of on media care, provide a strong deterrent, make enforcement easier and the custom thesis usually operate in center relation to businesses in which the penalty is a fine so that individual liberty is not at stake. However the penalty should be substantial to avoid companies simply viewing a fine as an order the custom, expense of the business or a nominal tax on illegal enterprise. A strict liability offence may be coupled with a defence of essay all due care to mitigate against the potential harshness of a strict liability offence.
The defendant can avoid conviction by the custom, proving that he or she took all due care to avoid committing the offence. “No person shall, for on media violence, financial consideration, or the promise of financial consideration, prepare, offer to prepare, cause to be prepared, sell or offer or advertise for sale to any person any written material which the seller knows, is informed or has reason to believe is intended for submission as a coursework, dissertation, essay, project report or any other form of assignment (written or otherwise) by a student in a University, college, academy, school or other educational institution to such institution or to a course, seminar or degree program held by such institution” Internationally there have been efforts to pursue contract cheating through legal means and these were described in order the custom detail in essay a recent chapter of the the custom, Handbook of Academic Integrity (Newton and Lang 2016 ). To summarise here, there are specific laws preventing contract cheating in essay 17 states of the order thesis, USA, but these laws date back to lincoln essays, the 1970s and have rarely been used successfully. More recently New Zealand developed a law which made it illegal to advertise or to provide ‘third party assistance to cheat’ and this includes circumstances beyond essay writing, such as sitting an the custom, exam on behalf of another. Again, this law does not appear to have been commonly used. Partly this may be due to the jurisdictional issues posed by contract cheating. As described in the introduction, there are multiple actors involved and each may be in a different country. Perhaps the greatest value in establishing a law preventing contract cheating would be to writing center for college, de-legitimise these services in the eyes of students; having a deterrent, rather than a curative, effect.
Despite our conclusion that the current activities of UK-based essay writing companies do not appear to violate the terms of the 2006 Fraud Act, we have identified other possible legal approaches to addressing contract cheating via a legal means. Order? The first is in essays and the wardrobe the apparent discrepancy between the terms and conditions used by the companies, which frequently urges caution in the use of purchased assignments for misconduct, and the custom thesis their advertising which can actively encourage it. In the lion the witch, UK this is, potentially, a violation of the “Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008” which are designed to protect customers from false or deceptive advertising or advertisements that leave out important information. Local Authority Trading Standards Services and the Office of Fair Trading have a duty to order the custom, enforce the dissertation on media violence, regulations using the “most appropriate means”. These range from order the custom informal regulatory (or self-regulatory) procedures to daughter essay relationship, a civil action for an enforcement order, and, in the worst cases, criminal proceedings (UK Government 2016c ). The Custom Thesis? Legal approaches should be viewed as just one means by which contract cheating could be tackled, particularly given the limitations of a thesis a legal approach outlined above.
Other strategies could include the increased use of assessment modalities which are not so easily purchased, such as face-to-face presentations and practical skills assessments (reviewed in (Newton and Lang 2016 )). The Custom Thesis? Additional approaches would also benefit from support through regulation, such as a requirement from accrediting organisations to include a minimum proportion of face-to-face assessment. In summary then, the current status of the UK Fraud Act ( 2006 ) does not lend itself to successful legal pursuit of essay writing companies in the UK. However this could be addressed with a modification to the Act. The principles identified could be adopted in other countries. Read with section 34(1) of that Act and essay mother relationship section 4(1) of the Theft Act (Northern Ireland) 1969 (read with section 32(1) of that Act). L’Estrange v F. Groucob Ltd  2 KB 394. Order The Custom Thesis? R v Akpom  EWCA Crim 2662 The defendant worked in a registry office.
It was alleged that he had deliberately issued false birth certificates for non-existent children, knowing that they would be used for fraud. Violence? Five birth certificates were found in the possession of professional fraudsters for their use in making fraudulent claims for benefits. A certificate was held to be an order the custom, ‘article’ R v Montila  UKHL 50. A Thesis Defense? R v Registrar of Joint Stick Companies, ex parte More  2 KB 197. R v Registrar of companies, ex parte A-G  BCLC 476 – attempted registration of a company to carry on the business of prostitution. Bowman v Secular Society  AC 406. The authors would like to thank Dr Patrick Bishop of the College of Law and Criminology for order the custom thesis, reviewing the manuscript prior to submission. MD is Associate Professor in the College of Law and dissertation on media Criminology and Director of the Swansea Academy for Inclusivity and Learner Success. He is thesis a solicitor of the defense, senior courts of thesis England and Wales (non practising).
He analysed the content of the websites against the UK 2006 Fraud Act and wrote the manuscript with PN. VI Is a student author who undertook a research role as part of the Swansea University student internship scheme. PN is the Director of Learning and daughter essay Teaching at the custom, the Swansea University Medical School and has a research interest in academic integrity. He identified the sites and their common practises. Mother? He also wrote the order, manuscript with MD. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and dissertation on media indicate if changes were made. Andrew Bomford BBC Radio 4’s PM programme The man who helps students to cheat. In: BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-36276324 . Accessed 1 June 2016 Bakos Y, Marotta-Wurgler F, Trossen DR (2014) Does anyone read the thesis, fine print? Consumer attention to standard form contracts.
Social Science Research Network, Rochester, NY Google Scholar Campbell K (1984) The Test of essays Dishonesty in R. v. Order Thesis? Ghosh. Camb Law J 43:349–360. doi: 10.1017/S0008197300112632View ArticleGoogle Scholar Henry R, Flyn C, Glass K (2014) ?630 and I’ll put you on the way to a first’ Google Scholar Lancaster T, Clarke R (2016) Contract cheating: the outsourcing of a thesis defense assessed student work. Order The Custom? In: Bretag T (ed) Handbook of academic integrity. Springer, Singapore, pp 639–654 Google Scholar Morris EJ (2015) Academic integrity: a teaching and learning approach. On The And The Wardrobe? In: Bretag TA (ed) Handbook of academic integrity. Springer, Singapore, pp 1–14 View ArticleGoogle Scholar Newton P (2015) Academic integrity: a quantitative study of confidence and understanding in students at order, the start of their higher education.
Assess Eval High Educ 0:1–16. doi: 10.1080/02602938.2015.1024199Google Scholar Newton PM, Lang C (2016) Custom essay writers, freelancers, and other paid third parties. In: Bretag T (ed) Handbook of academic integrity. Springer, Singapore, pp 249–271 Google Scholar QAA (2016) Plagiarism in Higher Education - Custom essay writing services: an exploration and next steps for the UK higher education sector Google Scholar Saunders J (2010) Plagiarism and the law. Daughter Relationship? Learn Publ 23:279–292. doi: 10.1087/20100402View ArticleGoogle Scholar Sivasubramaniam S, Kostelidou K, Ramachandran S (2016) A close encounter with ghost-writers: an initial exploration study on background, strategies and attitudes of independent essay providers. Int J Educ Integr. doi: 10.1007/s40979-016-0007-9Google Scholar Tennant P, Duggan F (2008) Academic Misconduct Benchmarking Research (AMBeR) Project Part II Executive Summary Google Scholar Thomas J, Scott J (2016) UK perspectives of academic integrity. In: Bretag T (ed) Handbook of academic integrity. Springer, Singapore, pp 39–53 Google Scholar UK Government E (2006) Fraud Act 2006. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2006/35/contents . Accessed 10 Sept 2016 UK Government (2013) The CPS : The Code for Crown Prosecutors Google Scholar UK Government (2015) Consumer Rights Act 2015 Google Scholar UK Government (2016a) Your rights and the law - GOV.UK. Google Scholar UK Government (2016b) Incorporation and names - Publications - GOV.UK. Google Scholar UK Government (2016c) Marketing and advertising: the order, law - GOV.UK Google Scholar Wallace MJ, Newton PM (2014) Turnaround time and market capacity in contract cheating.
Educ Stud 40:233–236. doi: 10.1080/03055698.2014.889597View ArticleGoogle Scholar. Lion And The Wardrobe? Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Share on LinkedIn Share on Weibo Share on Google Plus Share on Reddit. By continuing to the custom, use this website, you agree to our Terms and Conditions, Privacy statement and Cookies policy. © 2017 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. Part of and the Springer Nature.
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Reservation System in India: Concept, Arguments and Conclusions. Reservation System in India: Concept, Arguments and Conclusions! Reservation in order common terms refers to an act of reserving, keeping back or withholding. Reservation in on hajj-pilgrimage the Indian Context : Reservation in Indian law is a form of affirmative action whereby a percentage of the custom thesis, seats are reserved in the public sector units, union and state civil services, union and state government departments and in all public and essay writing center for college, private educational institutions, except in the religious/ linguistic minority educational institutions, for order thesis, the socially and educationally backward communities and defense, the Scheduled Castes and the custom, Tribes who are inadequately represented in these services and institutions. The reservation policy is also extended for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes for representation in the witch wardrobe the Parliament of India.
The underlying theory for the provision of reservation by the state is the under-representation of the identifiable groups as a legacy of the Indian caste system. After India gained independence, the the custom thesis Constitution of India listed some erstwhile groups as Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST). The framers of the a thesis Constitution believed that, due to the caste system, SCs and the STs were historically oppressed and denied respect and equal opportunity in Indian society and were thus under-represented in nation-building activities. The Constitution laid down 15% and 7.5% of thesis, vacancies to government aided educational institutes and for jobs in the government/public sector, as reserved quota for essay mother, the SC and the custom thesis, ST candidates respectively for a period of a thesis defense, five years, after which the situation was to be reviewed. After introducing the provision for reservation once, it got related to vote bank politics and the following governments and the Indian Parliament routinely extended this period, without any free and fair revisions. Later, reservations were introduced for other sections as well. The Supreme Court ruling that reservations cannot exceed 50% (which it judged would violate equal access guaranteed by the Constitution) has put a cap on reservations. Order? The central government of India reserves 27% of higher education, and individual states may legislate further reservations. Reservation in most states is at 50%, but certain Indian states like Rajasthan have proposed a 68% reservation that includes a 14% reservation for forward castes in services and education.
However, there are states laws that exceed this 50% limit and these are under litigation in the Supreme Court. For example, the caste-based reservation fraction stands at 69% and is applicable to about 87% of the population in the state of Tamil Nadu. Arguments Offered By Supporters of Reservation : a. Reservations are a political necessity in India. b. Although Reservation schemes do undermine the quality of education but still Affirmative Action has helped many if not everyone from on hajj-pilgrimage under-privileged and/or under-represented communities to grow and occupy top positions in thesis the world’s leading industries. c. Although Reservation schemes do undermine the essay center application quality, they are needed to provide social justice to the most marginalized and underprivileged which is their human right.
d. Meritocracy is order thesis, meaningless without equality. First all people must be brought to lincoln the same level, whether it elevates a section or decelerates another, regardless of merit. e. Reservations have only slowed down the order the custom process of “Forward becoming richer and backward becoming poorer”. Arguments Offered by Anti-Reservationists : a. Intellectuals and Philanthropists agree that reservations will divide India Reservation is daughter mother, similar to internal partition because in the custom addition to being a form of ethnic discrimination, it also builds walls against inter-caste and on hajj-pilgrimage, inter-faith marriages. Thesis? Vast majority of voters are discriminating against a newly created minority. b. Reservations are the on hajj-pilgrimage biggest enemy of meritocracy.
By offering reservation through relaxed entry criteria, we are fuelling inflation of moderate credentials as opposed to the promotion of merit based education system, which is the foundation of many progressive countries. Meritocracy should not be polluted by injecting relaxation of entry barriers, rather should be encouraged by offering financial aids to the underprivileged although deserving candidates only. Today the NTs and IIMs hold a high esteem in the custom thesis the global scenario due to essays on the lion their conservation of merit. c. Caste Based Reservation only perpetuates the notion of caste in society, rather than weakening it as a factor of social consideration, as envisaged by the constitution. Reservation is order, a tool to meet narrow political ends.
d. Affirmative Action can be provided at a more comprehensive level taking into account various factors of exclusion such as caste, economic conditions, gender, kind of schooling received etc. A comprehensive scheme of on hajj-pilgrimage, Affirmative Action would be more beneficial than reservations in addressing concerns of social justice. e. Allocating quotas is a form of discrimination which is contrary to the right to equality. f. There is great confusion in the “pro-reservation camp”. While they clamour for 33% reservation for women in parliament and order, state legislatures [and do not accept caste quotas as part of women’s quotas], they do not want special consideration for women in writing center for college quotas in higher education. This is implicit acceptance of the fact that there are multiple factors of exclusion and discrimination at work in society. g. The policy of reservation has never been subject to a widespread social or political audit.
Before extending reservation to more groups, the order thesis entire policy needs to be properly examined, and mother, its benefits over a span of nearly 60 years have to be gauged. h. Poor people from “forward castes” do not have any social or economical advantage over rich people from the custom backward caste. i. Essay For College Application? Combination of factors like Wealth, Income, and Occupation etc will help to identify real needy people. Most often, only the economically sound people make use of most of the the custom thesis seats reserved for “backward” castes, thus making the aim a total failure. j. There is fear that reservation once introduced will never be withdrawn even if there is essays wardrobe, a proof for upliftment of backward classes, due to the custom thesis political issues. For example, in the witch wardrobe Tamil Nadu, forward castes were able to secure only 3% of total seats (and 9% in Open Competition) in professional institutions at order the custom thesis, Undergraduate level as against their population percentage of 13%.
This is a clear case of reverse discrimination. k. Many cite the Mandal Commission report while supporting the idea of reservations. According to the Mandal commission, 52% of the Indians belong to OBC category, while according to National Sample Survey 1999-2000, this figure is only 36% (32% excluding Muslim OBCs). l. This policy of the government has already caused increase in brain drain and may aggravate further. Under graduates and graduates will start moving to foreign universities for higher education. Committees and Commissions on the Issue of Reservation : a. Center For College? 1882 – Hunter Commission was appointed. Mahatma Jyotirao Phule made a demand of free and compulsory education for all along with proportionate reservation/representation in government jobs.
b. 1953-Kalelkar Commission was established to assess the situation of the socially and educationally backward class. The report was accepted as far as Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes were concerned. The recommendations for OBC’s were rejected. c. The Custom? 1979-Mandal Commission was established to assess the situation of the essay relationship socially and educationally backward. The commission didn’t have exact figures for a sub-caste, known as the order thesis Other Backward Class (OBC), and used the 1930 census data, further classifying 1,257 communities as backward, to estimate the on hajj-pilgrimage OBC population at 52%.ln 1980, the commission submitted a report, and recommended changes to the existing quotas, increasing them from 22% to 49.5%.ln 1990, the Mandal commission recommendations were implemented in the custom thesis Government Jobs by essays, Vishwanath Pratap Singh. Student Organisations launched nationwide agitations. Order The Custom? Rajiv Goswami, a Delhi university student attempted self-immolation. Many students followed suit.
d. 2003- The Sachar Committee headed by lincoln electric essays, Justice Rajinder Sachar, and including Sayyid Hamid, Dr. T.K. Ooman, M.A. Basith, Dr.Akhtar Majeed, Dr.Abu Saleh Shariff and Dr.Rakesh Basant was appointed for preparation of a report on the social, economic and educational status of the Muslim community of India. Dr.Syed Zafar Mahmood was the civil servant appointed by thesis, the PM as Officer on Special Duty to on hajj-pilgrimage the Committee.
The committee submitted its report in the year 2006. Implementation of Sachar Committee Recommendations: Marching Towards ‘Inclusive Growth’: Welfare of Minorities, specially of the underprivileged section of order thesis, them, has been put high on the agenda of the UPA Government ever since it adopted ‘inclusive growth’ as its guiding principle of governance. Lincoln Electric? Otherwise too, in every meaningful democracy, it’s the duty of the order state, and as a corollary, responsibility of the majority community to ensure the welfare of minorities so that all sections of the society feel proud to be part of the democratic setup and thus contribute their best to the development of the nation. Specially in our historical context: where all communities and sections of people had marched shoulder to shoulder and laid down their lives in the War of Independence, the concept of ‘Inclusive Growth’ becomes sine qua non for the roadmap of development and progress. It was in this context that the Prime Minister, Dr.
Manmohan Singh, had appointed in March 2005 a High Level Committee under the essay writing center Chairmanship of Justice Rajindar Sachar to prepare a report on order the custom social, economic and daughter mother relationship, educational status of the Muslim Community of India. This study was necessary because till then there was no authentic information on the social, economic and educational backwardness, of this community, thereby hampering proper formulation and implementation of specific policies, interventions and programmes to address the issues relating to its socio-economic backwardness. This 7-member High Level Committee, popularly known as Sachar Committee, gave its report in November 2006 – and it clearly found that the Muslim community was really “seriously lagging behind in terms of most of the human development indicators.” The Government immediately sensed the gravity of the problem and started working on the follow-up action in right earnest. Of the 76 recommendations of the Committee, 72 were accepted. Ministry of Minority Affairs being the Nodal Ministry for examining these recommendations. And in less than a year, i.e., on 31 August, 2007 a statement on the follow-up action taken on the recommendations of the Sachar Committee was laid in both Houses of Parliament.
The progress of implementation is being reviewed regularly. Ever since the Government has been taking regular steps towards implementation of the custom, major recommendations of the Sachar Committee. Education being the most powerful means of socioeconomic transformation, a multi-pronged strategy to address the lion wardrobe educational backwardness of the Muslim community, as brought out by the Sachar Committee, has been adopted. The Madrasa modernization programme has been revised to make it more attractive by providing better salary to teachers, increased assistance for books, teaching aids and computers, and introduction of vocational subjects, etc. This scheme, now known as Quality Improvement in Madrasa Education, has been launched by the Ministry of Human Resource Development. A new centrally sponsored scheme of financial assistance for Infrastructure Development of Privately Managed Elementary/Secondary/Senior Secondary schools set up for minorities has been launched. National Council of order the custom, Educational Research and Training (NCERT) has prepared text books for all classes in the light of the National Curriculum Framework-2005. Thirteen universities have been provided Rs.40 lakh each for starting centers for studying social exclusion and inclusive policy for minorities and scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Essay Writing? Under the Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya scheme (KGBV), criteria of educational backward blocks has been revised with effect from 1st April 2008 to cover blocks with less than 30% rural female literacy and in urban areas with less than national average of female literacy 53.67 % (Census 2001).
Universalization of access to quality education at secondary stage (SUCCESS) has been approved. Setting up of order the custom thesis, new Jan Shikshan Sansthans (JSSs) is being incorporated in the revised schemes by the Ministry of Human Resource Development. Provision of more girls’ hostels in colleges and universities in minority concentration districts/blocks is proposed under the existing University Grants Commission scheme of the Ministry of HRD. Three scholarship schemes for center for college, minority communities viz., Pre-Matric, Post-Matric and Merit- cum-Means were launched and 6.89 lakh scholarships were awarded to students belonging to minority communities in order 2008-09. The corpus of lincoln electric, Maulana Azad Education Foundation, which stood at Rs. 100 crores, was doubled to Rs. 200 crores in December, 2006. The corpus was increased by Rs. 50 crores in 2007-08 and by Rs. 60 crore in 2008-09. A budget provision of Rs.115 crore has been made in 2009-10.
A revised Coaching and Allied scheme was launched and 5522 candidates belonging to minority communities were provided assistance in the custom 2008-09. The Multi-sectoral Development Programme was launched in identified minority concentration districts in 2008-09. Plans of daughter mother relationship, 47 Minority Concentration Districts (MCDs) in Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Assam, Manipur, Bihar, Meghalaya, Jharkhand, Andaman Nicobar Islands and order, Orissa were approved and daughter relationship, Rs.270.85 crores were released in order 2008-09. In the current Financial Year. Plans of more than a dozen more MCDs have been approved till date.
An inter-ministerial Task Force constituted to devise an appropriate strategy and action plan for developing 338 identified towns, having substantial minority population, rapidly in a holistic manner submitted its report on 8th November, 2007. The concerned Ministries/Departments have been advised to give priority towards implementation of their schemes in 338 towns. Economic factor being an important tool in the upliftment of a community, all public sector banks have been directed to essay on hajj-pilgrimage open more branches in districts having a substantial minority population. In 2007-08, 523 branches were opened in such districts. In 2008-09, 524 new branches were opened. Reserve Bank of India revised its Master Circular on 5th July, 2007 on order priority sector lending for improving credit facilities to defense minority communities. Rs 82864 crore were provided to minorities under priority sector lending during 2008-09. District Consultative Committees (DCCs) of lead banks have been directed to regularly monitor disposal and rejection of loan applications from minorities. The Government has accorded ‘in principle’ approval for restructuring of National. Minorities Development and Finance Corporation: A National Data Bank, to compile data on the custom the various socio-economic and basic amenities parameters for socio-religious communities, has been set up in the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation.
An autonomous Assessment Monitoring Authority (AMA), to analyse data collected for taking appropriate and corrective policy decisions, has been set up in the Planning Commission. A training module has been developed by the Indian Institute of Public Administration, for sensitization of government officials. The module has been sent to the Central/ State Training Institutes for implementation. Lai Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration (LBSNAA) has prepared a module for sensitization of organized civil services and it has been incorporated in their training programmes. Under Urban Infrastructure Development Scheme for Small and Medium Towns (UIDSSMT), additional central assistance of Rs 1602.20 crore has been sanctioned for 69 towns having substantial minority population, out of which Rs.659.37 crore was released in 2008-09. A High Level Committee, set up to review the Delimitation Act, has considered the concerns expressed in the Sachar Committee report and submitted its report. Dissertation On Media? Guidelines on Communal Harmony have been issued by the Ministry of Home Affairs. Thesis? Dissemination of information regarding health and family welfare schemes is being undertaken in regional languages in minority concentration areas.
State Governments and UTs have been advised by Department of Personnel Training for posting of Muslim police personnel in thanas and a thesis, Muslim health personnel and teachers in Muslim concentration areas. Order The Custom Thesis? State Governments have been advised by Ministry of Panchayati Raj and Ministry of Urban Development, to improve representation of a thesis, minorities in local bodies. The recommendations of the Joint Parliamentary Committee (JPC) on Wakfs have been received. These have been processed as per approved modalities. An expert group constituted to study and recommend the structure and functions of an Equal Opportunity Commission submitted its report on 13th March, 2008. This has been processed, along with the report of the expert group on diversity index, as per the approved modalities. To meet the ever growing need for ameliorating the the custom condition of minorities, and Muslim community in particular, the Annual Plan allocation for the Ministry of mother, Minority Affair is has been increased substantially to Rs 1,740 crore for the year 2009-10. The issue of order, reservation has remained a cause of disagreement between the on media violence reserved and the non- reserved sections of the society. The Custom? While the unreserved segments, keep on opposing the provision, the neediest sections from within the daughter essay mother reserved segments are hardly aware about how to get benefited from the provision or even whether there are such provisions. On the contrary, the creamy layer among the same segment is enjoying special privileges in the name of reservation and the custom, political factions are supporting them for vote banks. Reservation is dissertation, no doubt good, as far as it is a method of appropriate positive discrimination for the benefit of the the custom thesis downtrodden and economically backward Sections o, the society but when it tends to harm the society and ensures privileges for some at the cost of others for narrow political ends, as it is in the present form, it should be done away with, as soon possible.
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When Future Depends On Foundation. Consumers are becoming smarter every day. Access to everything we desire is a thought and the custom, finger swipe away. Marketing, specifically digital marketing, is becoming more consumer-centric, shedding it’s marketer-centric roots, like HubSpot talks about in their Inbound Marketing Course. I think more times than not, consumers today can sniff out the bull real quick and then call a company or brand out socially, which is a thesis defense, why credibility and transparency is essential to order thesis long term growth and essay on hajj-pilgrimage, success. These essential practices of transparency and truth should extend to order the custom thesis PR as well, not just the facade of them. When a strong brand code of ethics is developed and implemented, it benefits all parties involved long-term and defense, establishes trust when problems do arise. The Custom. During a recent PR crisis HubSpot handled with total transparency, did the on the lion wardrobe, company longterm good, a s this article points out. Owning the problem, apologizing for it and making sure it doesn’t happen again is usually the best way to gain the understanding and order the custom, sympathy of your customers, in turn maintaining long-term brand loyalty.
There isn’t much bad-mouthing someone can do when you own your mess and fix it. The world of advertising has made some strides in on hajj-pilgrimage, the scope of showcasing diversity in the ads they produce. In recent years, progress is being made in the right direction reflecting the social change of a wider acceptance of different types of order the custom thesis, people, cultures, sexual orientations, family types and the like. However, the violence, workforce within the ad industry is still very much white male dominant. The Custom. Historically, the industry has always been this way, but like this article (1) points out, the workforce within this industry “should reflect a representative sample of the population…. [because of the lack of diversity] this makes for ineffective and unrelatable advertising.” It would make a whole lot more sense if the majority of the people behind the creation of our media, better represented the majority of the consumers. If you really think about how America and it’s people came to be, you will realize that every single one of us can be traced back to an ancestor who migrated here. So why are we still lacking so much diversity within this industry when the a thesis, makeup of our country is so ethnically rich?
Different cultural experiences and perspectives are vital to a workplace, especially an industry that is designed to shape the minds of consumers. You would think that that’s a no brainer for those holding leadership positions. Order The Custom. In this NRP article (2), Cyrus Mehri, a workplace discrimination employment lawyer says that the biggest problem within discrimination in the ad industry is in fact in those critical leadership roles, along with a huge lack of diversity in creative and essay, account services departments. Egoism runs deep and true in this industry, especially in those leadership positions. Yes, it is about what you know, but time and time again we hear, “it’s about who you know” that really matters. And while you do have to be talented and driven in this industry, minorities face a whole other hurdle to overcome. Let’s also discuss how underrepresented women are in the industry. Watching the short film Diversity in order, Advertising (3) , a huge element that I can closely relate to are the stats about females: 85% of all advertising is aimed towards women, who are primary consumers, yet 90% of essay, all communication campaigns are created by men. An extended side to this is the industry support for working mothers. With unrealistic expectations and more importantly workforce support, women are expected to go through everything associated with childbirth and immediately jump back into work as if nothing happened. The most prominent and obvious solutions to order the custom thesis add diversity to this industry would be to instill a deeper value of it in current and future leadership roles that are represented by the majority.
Like mentioned in the film reference above, in order for a thesis diversity to really resonate within an agency, it has to thesis be the heartbeat of and the, your business plan. I believe that there is a global mental shift towards celebrating diversity, screaming for the undeniable to happen. We are headed that way, like molasses. Overall, diversity can only be a positive thing. Diversity should be a factor that brings us closer together; a celebration of differences that unite us. Where there are diverse people and ideas, there is deeper conversation, connection, deeper empathy. Jeremy Scahill’s Dirty Wars gives you a first hand look at the dangers journalists go through and the responsibilities they hold to the public in pursuit of the truth. His documentary film is centered around the unfolding truths of classified operations carried out by an American military unit called Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC). After watching the documentary, I completely agree that Scahill was guided by the key elements of journalism, being verification, duty to order thesis the public, and doing so honestly with a balance from all perspectives in his reporting.
Scahill wholeheartedly follows the principle of journalistic truth. The Witch And The. As Tom Rosenstiel and Bill Kovach write in their book, The elements of journalism, “All truths – even the laws of science – are subject to revision, but we operate by them in the meantime because they are necessary and order the custom thesis, they work.” Scahill’s pursuit of the truth is daughter essay mother, never ending; it constantly evolves as he continues digging for more. The Custom. It seems he is never satisfied with the version someone tells him, which is a great trait to have as an violence, investigative reporter. His pursuit of details in the truth, from all perspectives, and piecing together the puzzle is what seems to be his driving force. Many obstacles stand in thesis, his way, on levels of center, physical dangers to psychological ones. Aside from the obvious dangers of constantly being in order thesis, war zones like Afghanistan, Yemen, and Somalia, Scahill begins to also face threats as he digs deeper into uncovering the truth behind the daughter essay relationship, night raids and innocent deaths of entire families, including children and women.
He also begins to face mental problems such as heightened anxiety, insomnia and levels of the custom thesis, paranoia. Although Scahill is on hajj-pilgrimage, a one-man-team, he explored all sides to the stories of the raids. “As a reporter you learn that every story has conflicting points of view, ” he said in the film. “You try to understand all of them without letting your own get in the way.” Whenever he heard of a tragic raid, he not only visited the victims’ family and friends for interviews, but also reached out to U.S. military professionals, ranked high and low, to get the entire picture. Most theU.S. military and order the custom thesis, CIA professionals were reluctant to tell specifics on military operations and procedures, and most importantly why they were being carried out with so many mistakes resulting in loss of lincoln electric, innocent lives. During the first raid that Scahill investigates, NATO first openly denied responsibility of innocent people getting killed by the custom thesis, the JSOC raid, tried to cover it up, then finally was left to reveal the truth and take resposibility . Through his investigations, Scahill openly says he believes the essays on the and the wardrobe, families, when NATO and the U.S. military official reports often say that the killings were related to taliban or the victims own family had slain them. As his investigations continue and Scahill discovers more immoral and order the custom, illegal covert JSOC operations, you can tell that it all begins to takes a toll on him. From the beginning of the film, you can see his heartfelt reactions and essay writing for college application, concerned look as he listens to thesis the victims’ stories. Dissertation On Media. As he uncovers more details about each raid, the distress is seen on order the custom thesis his face even more.
Scahill works for lion The Nation magazine. I believe he is order the custom thesis, following the principle that “journalism’s first loyalty is to citizens.” He reports all the details, no matter how gruesome or troubling and asks pressing questions to essays on the lion wardrobe get to the bottom of the thesis, issues during these JSOC raids. Violence. I definitely do not feel he is pursuing these stories for money and fame. During the film, he mentions that investigative journalism topics usually fall on order the custom “deaf ears.” And when he was catapulted into for college application the spotlight with his Blackwater story, he certainly was not expecting it. I think in the beginning of Scahill’s investigations, he still feels a connection to the those he believes he is working for, but the thesis, deeper he digs into uncovering the ugly truths of the JSOC operations, and the more resistance he gets from the U.S. Essay Writing Application. government, the less safe and “close” he starts to feel. However, I don’t think this hurts his overall objectivity. He continues to report from all perspectives, still meeting resistance from the the custom thesis, U.S. military. Scahill is very thorough when it comes to verification.
Not only does he take notes during his interviews and get documents, he knows how to listen very keenly and asks the right questions. Dissertation On Media. He pursues interviews with the top sources and often follows the the custom, facts to the next source he needs. When he interviews, you can tell he is very neutral in his body language and tone. I would say Scahill is a great reporter. He is unbiased in a thesis, his reporting. Although it may seem that he may be trying to the custom thesis take sides with the victims of the JSOC raids, I don’t believe that is the case. He presents all the dissertation violence, facts as they are and is completely transparent in his motives and order, methods when reporting the many sides of the essays lion the witch and the wardrobe, stories. Order The Custom Thesis. His reporting is original, and he is on violence the ground and in action doing all of the heavy lifting. He doesn’t fabricate any information because I think he is truly serious about getting the truth out into the open for all to know.
I believe he expresses humility at every point of the reporting and has even more of it towards the end. Scahill’s role as a journalist shifts during the documentary film. The Custom. In the beginning, he knew what he was getting into, but I don’t think he knew the heavy weight or depth of the issues at hand. Center For College Application. As he uncovers all these horrible truths, his role evolves from investigative journalist into a human activist. Ben sits comfortably in a cozy, dark corner of the coffee shop, sipping his cold beer as he finishes up the day’s work on his laptop.
His blue eyes are warm and determined. He looks up to his wife, softly carrying on order their conversation as she rocks their baby son to sleep. Cordle outside of his nutrition club. He’s fit, and you can see his built muscles through a tight grey shirt. Across it reads “Herbalife Nutrition.” Right of the bat, you can tell health and fitness is lincoln, important to order the custom him. Essay Center Application. It’s a huge part of the custom thesis, his lifestyle, but he doesn’t look like a scary, typical workout “meathead.” He’s friendly, and his big smile invites you in for electric a chat. The Custom. He’s definitely someone that can carry on a conversation about anything. Today, Ben Cordle, 36, is a successful businessman and health coach. He has a beautiful family and a flourishing business. Daughter. Cordle owns The Nutrition Hut, a fitness club, in the busy community of Austin Ranch within The Colony, Tx. His passion is to help people not only improve their physical form, but to flourish and better themselves from the inside out.
At one point, however, Cordle was the one in need of a major intervention. He was born and raised in Alabama and grew up in a typical southern family. His mother was a nurse and the custom, father was in the military. In his childhood, the family lived in a trailer home. “We were not poor, but we got by,” Cordle said. “But I think that’s what made me want to be rich [as an adult].
It made me want to take money, or the lack of, out of the essay, equation.” Through out his youth and teenage years, Cordle always played sports, which he credits helped him stay on the right path in this adolescence. Then, during his senior year in high school, he quit sports and started hanging out with the order, wrong crowds. He started experimenting with drinking and smoking weed. Quickly realizing the way his current lifestyle would trend and wanting more structure in his life, Cordle enrolled himself in the U.S. Writing. military. He served during 1997-2001, during which he was deployed overseas to serve in the Kosovo War.
Often working 16 hour days, Cordle said the military gave him more drive. “It taught me a work ethic. It taught me how to go nonstop,” he said. “It taught me how to transform the work into my life and mesh the order the custom thesis, two.” After serving in the military for nearly five years, Cordle jumped into essay mother regular civilian life. He got married and enrolled at Auburn University to finish his degree in aerospace engineering. He was on the right track once again, but didn’t feel at peace. “I came out a completely different person,” he said. “[the military] matured me a lot, but I don’t think I was ready to be matured.” Hoping to better their situation, Cordle moved to thesis Dallas in 2002 with this now ex-wife. He continued going to school and switched his major to writing center for college civil engineering. He got an engineering job at Halff Associates where he worked for the next three years. “Then I started to lose interest,” Cordle said. “I knew I was going to push through because I needed to, but I kinda started to look around and I remember thinking ‘I don’t want to turn out like them’.
These people are just office workers. They sit in offices their whole lives.” Realizing his longtime passion for health and fitness, Cordle decided he had enough of the office environment. He got into bodybuilding, but soon after started using steroids. While using, Cordle also went into illegally distributing the drugs. “With an engineering mindset, I wanted to figure out how to buy them cheaper, or make my own for personal use,” he said. Once he figured out a way to buy the drugs straight from the manufacturing plants in China, he slowly scaled his business. As the “dirty” money flowed in, Cordle finally quit his engineering office job.
He became an official personal trainer and the custom, sold the steroid online in secret bodybuilding forums. He even took on an apprentice and dissertation on media, taught him the ropes. As Cordle’s steroid business was approaching the five year mark, he was making over $20,000 a month. However, his marriage fell apart. The Custom. Things started to the witch wardrobe go downhill. In March of 2008, nine DEA agents busted into Cordle’s Dallas home. He was home alone with his infant daughter.
“The funny thing is, I saw it coming the thesis, whole time,” he said. “In your head, you try to center for college application talk yourself out of it like you’re overreacting, but I saw it.” Cordle was convicted in the custom thesis, July of 2008. Federal charges were dropped and only the state prosecuted. He was given 30 days in jail with a five year probation period. Cordle’s deal with the DEA was that he had to electric show them step by step how he ran his business. “I got lucky in so many ways,” said Cordle. The next few years, Cordle tried to get his life back on the custom track. Daughter Mother Relationship. Because of the custom, his two felonies, there was no options of getting another engineering job. He went back into personal training, but his life continued to get worse. He retreated back to writing for college application drinking and order the custom, drugs.
At the electric, time, his close friends just started in the Herbalife business. They tried to persuade Cordle to join with them, but he was sceptical. “I thought it was a joke at first. Then my friends started making $10,000 to thesis $12,000 a month,” he said about Herbalife. “The one thing that my [steroids] business did for me was break a glass ceiling of income potential and aspiration. Money is the hardest drug to quit. It doesn’t give you a perfect life, but it does take a lot of stress out.” Over the course of a thesis defense, a year, he watched his friends go from thesis, living on peoples couches to living the relationship, lavish life. Cordle was sold. He said he knew that with his engineering mindset he would be successful, if he fully applied himself. “If they could make it, I knew I could make it,” Cordle said. In 2010, he first attended the annual Herbalife Extravaganza convention.
That’s where Cordle also met his now wife, Megan. “That’s when I decided I wanted to the custom do [Herbalife] forever,” he said. “I was just blown away by it.” Ben teaching a class about nutrition and essay on hajj-pilgrimage, health. Cordle jumped into thesis the business, working non-stop, traveling between Texas and Oklahoma. He was breaking probation while traveling, but he was determined to get his life on track. In the defense, winter of 2011, Cordle got caught breaking the terms of his probation. Order The Custom. He was sentenced to daughter essay relationship serve six months in Dallas County Jail, while also attending a cognitive thinking program at order the custom an intermediate sanctions facility. “It’s the step before you go to prison.
It’s your last chance,” he said. While Cordle was away, he made the decision to essay mother relationship work on himself. He read 84 books, most centering around personal development. The author that really inspired him was Robert Kiyosaki. Cordle said it was during that time away that he realized success is all in the mindset. He said he remembers how amazed he was that all the people in the custom thesis, jail with him were so hopeless.
“Once you’ve lost hope, you’ve lost everything,” he said. That hope is what Cordle has always held on essay to. “You have to look past it all and look to the future because you know it’s going to get better,” Cordle said, “but the biggest thing is that you have to know.” After he got out of jail in 2011, Cordle became co-owner of Lemon Tree Nutrition Club in Oklahoma. He moved quickly up the ranks in Herbalife reaching the global expansion team, the first leadership position. During this time, Cordle also started to thesis work with a health and wellness nonprofit organization in Oklahoma, where he produced a project called the Bedlam Mud Run. The project fell through, but Codle plans to produce similar events in defense, the future to bring awareness to childhood obesity. Ben, right, with wife Megan, left, and order thesis, their son Jackson and essays on the lion the witch and the, daughter Melissa.
In 2012, Codle opened The Nutrition Hut. He married Megan March of 2014, and they recently welcomed their son Jackson on August 1. Cordle said he is most thankful for the strong support system around him, consisting of his wife and parents. “I would have made it somehow [without them], but I wouldn’t have made it this far,” Cordle said. The first time he told his story this past September was at an Herbalife convention in front of a few hundred people. The Custom Thesis. Cordle said that the daughter essay mother, experience was liberating and had people in tears. He is finally off felony probation and has big plans for the future. Aside from running “the hut” and helping people with personal development through Herbalife, Cordle said he wants to motivationally speak. Eventually, he plans to focus on order working with felons and underprivileged children, teaching them how to regain control and better their lives. “Nobody is going to a thesis defense follow you, if you are not a leader,” Cordle said. “It’s all belief.” The Nutrition Hut located in Austin Ranch. Action Outside of the custom, Sycamore Hall- UNT’s Early Voting Site.
Voting signs outside of essay on hajj-pilgrimage, Sycamore Hall. A desolate, chilly morning awaited Denton’s early voters today at the custom UNT’s Sycamore Hall. Violence. There was no voting line outside the building, but groups of order thesis, voting signs crowded the lawns near by. Although the campuses new polling site experienced a technologically rocky start, small pools of students were outside bright and early rallying up support for the most controversial local issue of fracking. Both pro and anti fracking ban enthusiasts were eager to catch the attention of sporadic people passing by. Cole Rollins spreading the pro drilling message outside of Sycamore Hall. Cole Rollins, 21, a psych junior at UNT, is against the ban. He said he feels that fracking is crucial to economic growth in Denton. “Drilling upstarts the for college, economy in Denton and order the custom, gives jobs locally,” he said. “When we independently produce oil, we don’t have to rely much on importing from lincoln essays, other countries.”
He said he feels there is not enough scientific evidence on effects of drilling to thesis local water supply or health to pass a complete ban on the matter. Angie Holliday, 22, a UNT geology grad, said she cared about the defense, local fracking issue so deeply, she chose to reside in the custom, Denton after graduating to continue working on it. Angie Holliday talking to early voters outside of Sycamore Hall about the fracking ban. Holliday, who’s spent time with many locals living near extraction sites, said it’s a “very emotional battle because lots of locals have been affected.” Holliday, with fellow peers, set up an eye catching installation on campus to on hajj-pilgrimage promote the order thesis, ban on drilling in Denton. But she remains hopeful that the ban will pass. “There is overwhelming support because this is not a partisan issue,” she said. UNT’s Child Development Lab – a custom experience to children, students, teachers and parents. As you enter through a wooden gate neatly tucked outside Matthews Hall, you discover a world of play in the Child Development Lab.
Immediately, a colorful playground awaits. Inside, the lab is buzzing with excited children, eager teachers and students. Essay On Hajj-pilgrimage. The energy is high and activity is endless. The entrance to the Child Development Lab. The Child Development lab, established at UNT in the early 1930s, is a laboratory associated with the the custom thesis, College of daughter essay mother relationship, Education for preschool children between 3-to-5-year-olds. The lab’s purpose is to provide UNT students pursuing degrees in early childhood education, child development and play therapy, with a training site to learn about and directly interact with young children. Dr. Carol Hagen is the brains of the whole operation. She has been with the the custom thesis, Child Development lab for 30 years, and essays the witch and the wardrobe, became director in 1987. “Our prime purpose is to be a place where students in this field can observe and practice with young children,” Hagen said. “Ours is a lab school. That means we are not intending to be childcare.
Of course we care for the children, but it’s not the the custom thesis, intent.” Dr. Carol Hagan shows a center inside one of the lab classrooms. Hagen moves from lincoln electric essays, room to the custom room, having encouraging conversations with the kids along the way giving everyone her undivided attention. Warm and essays, enthusiastic, you can tell she has a true passion for what she does. “I just think children are the most fascinating people; the order, most honest people,” Hagen said. Center For College. “They think harder probably than most adults do.”
The Child Development Lab provides tailored experiences for each child, student, teacher and parent. There is no set curriculum used in the lab and it is always evolving and changing based on the individual needs of the children, said Hagen. Basic principles and best practices are applied that go hand-in-hand with the curriculum taught in the College of Education classes. The centers for the children inside a classroom at the custom CDL. The Child Development Lab has two large classrooms, divided by age groups 3-to-4 years old and 4-to-5 years old. In each classroom children participate in daily group activities, but are also given time to explore their own agendas with free play said Hagen. Within each classroom, different learning centers including art, books, water tables, blocks, music and outdoor play are provided to encourage children to discover. According to the lab’s website, “All interactions, activities, and learning materials are designed to develop self-esteem and positive feelings toward learning.” “It’s a play-based program, so it’s really based on a lot of research that children learn through play…through their experiences,” said Anna Lam, a master teacher at the Child Development Lab. Daughter Essay Mother. Her son, James, 3, attends the order the custom thesis, lab as well.
She said James is always happy there, and she wants nothing more as a parent. Anna Lam with her husband and their son James. In addition to teaching children in the older class, Lam also oversees about 20 student teachers each semester. “It’s is a good balance between working with children and working with adults, and trying to guide the dissertation, next generation of teachers,” she said. Brooke Kirbie, 21, is a UNT senior pursuing a teaching degree with a focus on interdisciplinary studies EC-6 with ESL certification. She attends the lab for 2.5 hours every week as part of her classes. Brooke Kirbie with Dr. Hagan outside in order, the lab’s playground. Kirbie said the on the lion and the wardrobe, lab gives her a place where she can directly apply and practice the childhood development theories she learns in class.
“Coming here, we are expected to interact with these kids,” Kirbie said. “I’ve never worked with preschool kids before- the youngest I’ve worked with is order the custom, 5 and essay mother, 6 years old in kindergarten so it was a new experience to me because (the younger kids) are very different.” The lab has an observation room above the order, two classrooms, where students like Kirbie can learn about child development by watching the center, activity and teaching strategies in the classroom. Approximately 15 courses in the College of Education require over 1,000 students per thesis semester to essays gain real world experience with the lab. Another benefit of the lab is the order thesis, diversity in children who are enrolled. They all come from different cultures, backgrounds and abilities. There is a total of 40 children enrolled this fall. “Students need to see a variety of children they are working with,” Hagen said. “We are fortunate to essays have a wonderful mix of kids.” Tilo and Anja Reinert with their children Paula and Peter enjoying the picnic put on by the Child Development Lab. Parents, like assistant professor in order the custom, physics Tilo Reinert, 45, and his wife Anja, 33, find the diversity in lincoln essays, children at the lab to contribute to a great environment.
After moving to the United States from Germany in 2009, the Reinerts immediately heard great things about the lab. Their daughter Paula, 4, is currently enrolled, and order the custom, their son, Peter, 2, will attend next year. Aside from the convenient on-campus location and competitive tuition of the lab, Reinert said he likes the concept of students teaching and learning from his kids. “You always need a good place to mother be educated,” Reinert said. “The Child Development Lab is something like this.” The preschool lab is open to children of order the custom, UNT students, faculty, lab teachers and local community members. Because the lab is on hajj-pilgrimage, so well known, it is not uncommon to have a current waiting list until 2018. Since the focus is on serving the order thesis, educational purpose of the dissertation on media violence, university students, the Child Development Lab operates on the university schedule: open Monday through Friday during the the custom, fall, spring and a thesis, summer semesters. The Custom Thesis. Parents can choose to enroll their children in the morning, afternoon or both sessions. “The program is fully licensed by defense, the Texas Department of thesis, Family and Protective Services, accredited through the National Accreditation Commission for Early Care and Education Program (NAC), and is a designated vendor for Texas Workforce Solutions Child Care Services,” according to the lab’s website. “We are the daughter mother relationship, only accredited program in Denton, so we have to meet very high standards,” Lam said. When discussing future plans, Hagen would “love to have a bigger center someday.” With other parts of the university growing substantially, she said she hopes the growth of the Child Development Lab is on the list.
Campus Resources for thesis Nursing Mothers. Like many working and student mothers, my experience has been nothing short of a balancing act. When I resumed my studies at UNT in the spring of 2014, just a mere 12 weeks after giving birth to my daughter, I had two strong, equally important goals: continue breastfeeding my baby and gets A’s. Going into the fall semester, I decided to take on more classes but worried about how I would succeed without taking a hit to my nursing supply. My biggest worry was finding a private room to pump. A bathroom was out of the essay, question, so I reached out to the Mayborn School of order thesis, Journalism advisors. I was kindly offered an essay for college application, office, should I need one. The next day, one of the advisors called me with great news: the General Academic Building had a lactation room I could use.
The accessibility to the lactation rooms has been resourceful because it provides a private and safe area to express milk in between classes, and order the custom thesis, I am able to coordinate my academic schedule more efficiently. Lactation room in the GAB. The majority of the lactation rooms on campus were installed in lincoln electric essays, the beginning of thesis, 2012, with the on hajj-pilgrimage, project finishing in 2013. This lactation rooms project was funded using Higher Education Assistance Funds and was put in order the custom thesis, place as a result of the violence, Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. This federal law states that employers with 50 or more people in their organization must provide a private space and order thesis, “reasonable break time” for mothers to express milk in private until their child is 12 months old.
The lactation rooms may not be used as a bathroom. Currently, there are eight lactation rooms on campus in the following buildings: Discovery Park Willis Library Gateway Center General Academic Building University Union Sage Hall Woodhill Square Kristen Farmer Autism Center. Amanda Dayton, 29, is the center application, project manager in the facilities department who was in charge of the lactation rooms project two years ago. Order Thesis. She said the application, feedback about the the custom thesis, rooms has been very positive so far. “They have been very well received as far as mothers coming back to work after six to eight weeks [postpartum] and needing the privacy and some place close enough to where they are working to accommodate that need,” Dayton said. Universal breastfeeding logo placed on all eight lactation rooms on campus.
The lactation rooms can be recognized by the universal breastfeeding logo placed on the door of each room. Each room has access to on hajj-pilgrimage an outlet so a breast pump could be used and includes a hand sanitizer dispenser mounted to the wall. Order The Custom Thesis. Each room is a thesis, also furnished with a changing table, a bariatric chair for mother and child, a side table and a lamp, if the nursing mother chooses to turn off the fluorescent overhead lights. All rooms are locked for safety reasons and the custom thesis, a building representative coordinates how the lactation room key will be designated or rented. Although the seven lactation rooms already on campus are a wonderful resource, not many mothers know of them.
Brittney Lee, 26, was a newly nursing mother last spring. Lee said she was adamant on nursing during her last semester at UNT, while finishing up her B.F.A. in interior design, but did not know that lactation rooms were available and essay for college, did not have easy access to one in the art building. “Maintaining my milk supply was extremely important to me when I went back to school and had to be away from order the custom, [my son],” Lee said. “To my knowledge, a lactation room was not available during that time. And if there was, it certainly was not anywhere near my building. Finding that private room in between classes, walking however far, would not have been convenient.”
Lee searched all over the building to find a safe, private place she could pump in between classes. With the help of her teacher, she was granted access to use a teacher lounge bathroom. Essays And The Wardrobe. Although Lee said she was thankful for the custom thesis the accommodation, it was not the on hajj-pilgrimage, best environment to express milk. Accessibility to an electric power source was very difficult, and she did not have much privacy. Lee said she was emotionally and physically affected by the lack of easy accessibility to a safe and private lactation room. “Nursing was very important to me, and for the health and growth of my baby. I wanted to nurse for a lot longer than I was actually able to,” Lee said. Janna Morgan, 35, is currently a senior project manager for UNT’s system facilities planning and construction department. She was a working and nursing mother before the lactation rooms were installed and used her co-shared office to pump during the day. Although she did not get a chance to use the lactation rooms, she said they would have provided her with a secure and comfortable space without inconveniencing her office mate. “I think these spaces are a wonderful addition to campus for students, faculty, staff and the custom, visitors who will benefit from a private, clean and secure place to nurse and pump,” Morgan said.
Changes to current lactation rooms will not be made, but as new buildings come up and needs arise, the facilities department will accommodate what is needed. “I have found that UNT has a very quick response to any kind of changes in defense, laws to the custom thesis accommodate diverse populations,” Dayton said. “UNT has been very quick to essay on hajj-pilgrimage address and meet those needs fiscally and quickly to change our campus to accommodate that.” Date: Oct. 10, 2014. Program: Morning Edition. Topics Discussed: Hard News, Profiles, Medicine, Breaking News, Political Coverage, Lifestyle, Trends, Science, Business,World News and. Being an active NPR lister, I love stories from order, Morning Edition most because I am usually driving in the morning. It gives me a chance to hear the latest during my commutes to class. The depth of coverage varies per story, but what keeps me most engaged is that this program mixes mostly feature stories about art and a thesis defense, entertainment with some hard news stories. I like the emphasis more to order be on positive or entertaining news, especially at the start of my day. This segment focused on many national topics.
I found the stories about daughter essay mother relationship Ebola to order be most interesting mostly because the matter is in our backyard. I absolutely loved the story about essay Malala Yousafzai receiving a Nobel Peace Prize. That was an empowering feature to listen to. Over all, I love getting my news from NPR. The Custom. The diversity and depth of all the programs and news stories is wonderful. Essay Writing Center Application. I feel the information reported is not biased, and that NPR caters to all types of audiences with their many shows. I feel like they have something for everyone. It is thesis, very seldom that I turn on NPR and switch to another station because I am not interested. The questions asked by reporters are very thought out and intriguing. The programs keep me engaged through out. Daughter. The way NPR produces their segments includes coverage of the story as well as how the matter will impact listeners.
NPR is order the custom thesis, definitely my first source for news. Date: Oct. 9th, 2014. Program: All Things Considered. Topics Discussed: Science, Political Coverage, Health, Hard News, Breaking News, Medicine, Profile, Trends, Economics, Sports News and World News. I really enjoyed the electric essays, Thursday program of order the custom, All Things Considered. The coverage wa sin depth and diverse in range of topics. I really enjoy that most of the time, NPR makes it a point to cover the essay, story accurately from order the custom, all the perspectives. I think the writing for college application, newsworthiness is sometimes subjective, but I enjoy having the mix of the custom thesis, hard and soft news stories. Although this program focused more on international, political and health news, the mother relationship, two stories within this segment that interested me most were” Millennials Are Blue Now, But Party Allegiance Could Be Up For Grabs” and” How College Students Battled Textbook Publishers To A Draw, In 3 Graph. “ I enjoyed the millennial’s political segment because it was great to hear perspectives from others in my age group about the dissatisfaction with the both the democrat and republican party.
Our generation is now the largest. We have so much influence for all types of change and order thesis, I feel like that is important to a thesis defense voice. I am very proud that NPR recognizes that importance and includes segments like these specifically targeted to our generation. The second story that intrigued me discussed the rising cost of the custom, textbooks and how students felt about the issue. Textbook prices are rising higher than food costs, cars and even health care according to NPR. Defense. Often times professors have no idea how much textbooks cost or don’t think about it initially based on thesis the “principle agent problem. “It was interesting to learn that when students buy used textbooks, this contributes to the problem and makes new textbook prices that much higher. Based on dissertation on media violence a survey of how much money students spend on average during the school year, overall the numbers are decreasing. To solve the problem and raise profits, publishers now want to push downloadable textbooks that are students cannot resell. I would not be surprised if online textbooks become more of a trend in the future.
Although this was an interesting story, it did not include any actual quotes or direct student perspectives. Order Thesis. They only had quotes from the textbook publisher and a professor.
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