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Teen Pregnancy Essay - 2529 Words
biography of life The Beethoven biography starts with his baptism. He was baptized on December 17 th 1770 at Bonn. Teen Pregnacy Essays! His family originated from bibliographic, Brabant, in Belgium. His father was a musician at pregnacy, the court of Bonn, with a definite weakness for alcohol. His mother was always described as a gentle, retiring woman, with a warm heart. Beethoven referred to her as his “best friend.” The Beethoven family consisted of seven children, but only the three boys survived, of whom Ludwig was the eldest. find on this site: On March 26 th 1778, at the age of 7 ½, Ludwig Van Beethoven gave his first public performance at Cologne. His father announced that he was 6 years-old. Because of this Beethoven always thought that he was younger than he actually was. Research On Alzheimer's Disease! Even much later, when he received a copy of his baptism certificate, he thought it belonged to his brother Ludwig Maria, who was born two years before him and died as a child. find on this site. In 1782, before the teen essays age of 12, Beethoven published his first work, 9 Variations in C Minor for piano on a march by on alzheimer's Earnst Christoph Dressler (WoO 63). The following year, in 1783, Neefe wrote in the Magazine of Music , about his student. “If he continues like this, he will be, without a doubt, the new Mozart.” In June 1784, on Neefe’s recommendations Ludwig Van Beethoven was appointed organist of the pregnacy court of Maximillian Franz, the Elector of Cologne.
Beethoven was 14 years old. Essay! This post enabled him to pregnacy, frequent new social circles, other than those of his father and family. Of Affection! Here he met people who were to remain his friends for teen essays the rest of essays.org his life: The Ries family, the Von Breuning family, and the charming Elenore, Karl Amendathe violinist, Franz Gerhard Wegelera doctor, and a dear friend who also went to Vienna. At home, little by essays little, Ludwig replaced his father. First of essays all financially, because Johann, who was often under the pregnacy essays influence of research on alzheimer's alcohol, was less and less capable of essays keeping up his role at the court. The young Beethoven felt responsible for his two younger brothers, an idea he kept for the rest of his life, sometimes to the extent of being excessive. Ludwig van Beethoven Music. Prince Maximillian Franz was also aware of Beethoven's music and so he sent Beethoven to Vienna, in 1787, to can computer replace teachers, meet Mozart and further his musical education.
Vienna was, after all, the capital city in terms of culture and music. Pregnacy! There exist only essay texts of disputable authenticity on the subject of this meeting between Mozart and Beethoven. Mozart is thought to have said “don’t forget his name you will hear it spoken often!” A letter called Beethoven back to Bonnhis mother was dying. The only person in his family with whom he had developed a strong and loving relationship with, passed away on July 17 th 1787. Five years later, in 1792, Ludwig Van Beethoven went back to Vienna, benefiting from another grant, for two years, by the Prince Elector, again to teen pregnacy, pursue his musical education. He never went back to the town of his birth. Bibliographic A Book! His friend Waldstein, wrote to him, “you shall receive Mozart’s spirit from Haydn’s hands” At Vienna, the young musician took lessons with Haydyn, then with Albrechtsberger and Salieri. He captured the attention of, and astonished Vienna with his virtuosity and his improvisations on teen pregnacy essays, piano.
In 1794, Beethoven composed Opus 1, the Trios for Piano. The following year, Ludwig Van Beethoven made his first public performance at Vienna (an “Academy”) where each musician played his own work. Objects Of Affection! Then followed a tour: Prague, Dresden, Leipzig, and Berlin, before leaving for teen a concert in Budapest. listen to on this site. Beethoven made numerous acquaintances at Vienna. Everybody in similarities, the musical and aristocratic world admired the young composer. These music-lovers were Beethoven’s greatest supporters. He became angry regularly with one or another of them, often making honorable amends soon afterwards.
His talent excused his excessive, impulsive behavior. In 1800, Beethoven organized a new concert at teen pregnacy, Vienna including, notably, the presentation of his first symphony. Although today we find this work classical, and close to the works of can computer teachers Mozart and teen, Haydn, at the time certain listeners found the similarities essays symphony strange, overly extravagant, and even risqué’. This genius, Beethoven, who was still a young, new composer, was already pushing the pregnacy essays established boundaries of music. find on this site. Beethoven wrote his third symphony in honor of a great man, Bonaparte. Can Computer Replace! He was seen as the liberator of the people, opening a door to hope during the French Revolution. Teen Pregnacy Essays! When the First Consul declared himself Emperor, Beethoven became enraged and essays.org, scowled out Bonaparte’s name from the score. On April 7 th , 1805, the Eroica symphony was played for the first time. read and listen on this site. In the years that followed, the creative activity of the composer became intense. He composed many symphonies, amongst which were the Pastoral, the Coriolan Overture, and the famous Letter for Elise.
He took on many students that he found young and attractive, and he therefore fell in love with several of them. The Archbishop, Rudolph, brother of the emperor, also became his student, his friend, and eventually one of his benefactors. In 1809, Beethoven wanted to leave Vienna, at teen essays, the invitation of Jerome Bonaparte. His long-standing friend, the Countess Anna Marie Erdody, kept him at Vienna with the help of essays.org his wealthiest admirers: the Archbishop Rudolph, the Prince Lobkowitz, and the Prince Kinsky. These men gave Beethoven and teen essays, annual grant of bibliographic essay within a book 4,000 florins, allowing him to essays, live without financial constraint. The only condition was that Beethoven was not to leave Vienna. Beethoven accepted. This grant made him the world's first independent composer. Before this contract musicians and composers alike (even Bach, Mozart, and Haydn), became servants in the houses of wealthy aristocratic families. They were thus part of the domestic staff, with no more rights than any other, but with the added task of composition and performance. Thus, for the musician of the day, Beethoven had outstanding circumstances and he was free to write what he wanted, when he wanted, under command or not, as he pleased. find on this site.
At the end of research on alzheimer's July 1812, Beethoven was introduced to Goethe by pregnacy Bettina Brentano. These two great men admired each other, but didn’t understand each other. Objects! The composer found the poet too servile, and the poet thought that Beethoven was “completely untamed.” Beethoven admired Goethe; he put music to teen pregnacy, several of his poems. There will always be regret that Beethoven was not better understood by Goethe. Then one of his benefactors, the Prince Lobkowitz, fell into financial difficulty and the Prince Kinski died from falling off his horse. Essay On Alzheimer's Disease! Kinski’s descendant decided to put an end to the financial obligations towards Beethoven. This started one of the composer’s many attempts at saving his financial independence. The Czech, Johann Nepomuk Maelzel, contacted Beethoven. Pregnacy! Genius inventor and probable inventor of the metronome, Maelzel had already met Beethoven and had created various devices to help Beethoven with his hearing: acoustic cornets, a listening system linking up to the piano, etc. In 1813, Beethoven composed “The Victory of Wellington,” a work written for a mechanical instrument made by how do you quote a sentence from in an essay Maelzel, the “pan harmonica” (or “pan harmonicon”). But it was above all the teen pregnacy metronome, which helped evolve music and Beethoven, who had taken interest straight away, noted scrupulously the markings on his scores, so that his music could be played how he wished.
The academy of 1814 regrouped his work, as well as the teachers essay seventh and eighth symphonies. This was also the time of the re-writing of Lenore as Fidelio, Beethoven’s only opera. This work eventually became successful with the public. Then the Congress of Vienna met, which brought together all the heads of state to decide the pregnacy future of Europe after Napoleon. This was one of Beethoven’s moments of glory. He was invited to play many times, bringing him recognition and admiration which made him very proud. On Alzheimer's Disease! Beethoven Bio Dramatic Life Changes. On November 15 th 1815, Kaspar Karl, Beethoven’s brother, died. He left behind his wife, whom Ludwig referred to as “The queen of the night” due to teen pregnacy essays, her activities, as well as a 9 year old son, Karl. Here Beethoven’s life was to change dramatically. Essays.org! His brother had written that he wished Karl’s guardianship to be exercised by both his wife and pregnacy essays, his brother, Ludwig.
Beethoven took this role very seriously, but the 45 year-old celibate, who could no longer hear, found it difficult to live with and objects of affection essay, understand a child and then a young man. This cohabitation was the cause of a new trial against the mother of the child, a generation conflict and numerous troubles. In 1816, Carl Czerny (future teacher of Franz Liszt and once Beethoven’s student) became Karl’s music teacher, but didn’t find as much talent in teen pregnacy essays, the boy as Beethoven hoped he would possess. At this time he ended his cycle of lieder “To the research disease distant loved one, and drafted the pregnacy first theme for his ninth symphony. Two years later, the Archduke Rudolph became Cardinal and Beethoven began composing his mass in how do you quote a sentence from a book essay, D. Pregnacy! It was never ready for the intonation, but the essays.org work was rich beyond compare.
Gioachino Rossini triumphed in Vienna in teen pregnacy essays, 1822, where he met Beethoven again. The language barrier and Beethoven’s deafness meant that they could only exchange brief words. The Viennese composer tolerated Italian opera only in moderationhe found it lacked seriousness. How many symphonies did Beethoven write? May 7 th 1824 was the date of the first playing of the ninth symphony and despite the how do you quote a sentence from a book in an essay musical difficulties, and problems in the sung parts, it was a success. Unfortunately it was not financially rewarding. Financial problems constantly undermined the composer. Teen Pregnacy Essays! He always had money saved, but he was keeping it for his nephew.
Then began the period of the last quartets of Beethoven music, which are still difficult even for today’s audience, who knows how to interpret his other works. He started to compose his tenth symphony. Of Affection Essay! Biography of Beethoven His Final Year. In 1826, Beethoven caught a cold coming back from his brother’s place, with whom he had argued again. The illness complicated other health problems that Beethoven had suffered from all his life. He passed away surrounded by his closest friends on March 26 th 1827, just as a storm broke out. The funeral rites took place at the church of the pregnacy Holy Trinity. It is estimated that between 10,000 and 30,000 people attended. Research Essay Disease! Franz Schubert, timid and essays, a huge admirer of Beethoven, without ever having become close to him, was one of the coffin bearers, along with other musicians. Schubert died the next year and was buried next to Beethoven.
The actor, Heinrich Anschutz, read the funeral prayer written by Franz Grillparzer, a great writer, in front of the doors of the Wahring cemetery, now Schubert Park.
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Teen Pregnancy Essay - 2529 Words
Modernity Essay: An useful Essay on Modernity in pregnacy India. The other widely expressed way of essays, coming to teen pregnacy essays grips with our lack of true modernity is to say that there are “multiple modernities”, and that the Indian variety is just another expression of modernity. Anthony Giddens has put a very sound thesis that modernity is multi-dimensional. It is neither monolith, nor liberal only. Nor it is democratic only. It has several dimensions. Indian sociologist, Dipankar Gupta in his book, Mistaken Modernity (2000), has made yet another statement which applies to of affection different nation-states. If modernity is multiple, it means that India should have its own variant of teen pregnacy, modernity. And, further, there are several or plural ethnicities in this country and a book, therefore modernity in this country has to be defined in terms of the social-historical and cultural conditions of teen essays, different regions or social segments of the nation.
When European countries had entered into industrial era, feudalism was on the wane. Essays.org? The series of revolutions which took place in teen pregnacy essays Europe, gave emergence to democracy and nation-states. And, interestingly, Europe had already experienced renaissance and replace teachers, enlightenment. Teen Pregnacy Essays? Such a kind of social conditions in Europe created modernity. And, with the increasing force of modernity, there came into existence the form of modernity which is replace teachers now called late modernity. Teen Pregnacy? The pioneers of sociology – Marx, Weber, Durkheim and Simmel – were the products of modernity, i.e., capitalism, democracy and industrialism. Indian social conditions were different. Our challenges were serious. Family Similarities Essays? There was colonialism and in princely states, feudalism. Our first priority was to get freedom, and our ambition was to build India into a nation.
Our pioneering sociologists, G.S. Ghurye, M.N. Srinivas, D.P. Mukerji, B.K. Teen Pregnacy? Sarkar, Radhakamal Mukherjee, S.V. Ketkar, B.N. Dutt and K.P. Chattopadhyay drew their value premises and perspectives on can computer, the approach to studying Indian society from nationalist reformation leadership of the 19ih century. All these sociologists had not encountered the challenges of industrialism and capitalism. Nor had they any experience of western modernity.
Specifying the orientation of pioneer Indian sociologists, Yogendra Singh, in his book Indian Sociology (1986), writes: The sociologists of the pioneer generation were less concerned with the teen pregnacy essays, professionalization of sociology as a discipline, in respect of concepts, theories, methodology of social observation or with establishing sociology as a branch of science. Their deeper concern, however, was with the issue of social relevance. Yogendra Singh spells out the issues of objects of affection, social relevance and says that pioneers of sociology in India wanted to focus on social change. For them, industrialism in whatever form it was brought by teen, colonial rule was not a challenge.
It was first a beginning of modernity and therefore they showed their concern for the study of you quote a book essay, family, kin, caste and village. And, what is pregnacy important is bibliographic within that the pregnacy essays, social background of most of the sociologists of this period was that they came from renaissant middle class, urban gentry; most were educated in European, particularly British universities; and had inherited in their consciousness both a substantial package of western philosophy of science, liberalism and humanism (both Marxist and non-Marxist) and deeper concern for issues of national identity, freedom from colonial rule and establishment of a culturally, economically and politically independent Indian society. Indian sociologists paid very little attention to of affection the study of modernity and its impact on Indian society. Modernity as a distinct form of teen essays, enquiry came late during the seventies. We have two very excellent research documents – Trends Reports sponsored by ICSSR and the book by Yogendra Singh (1986). In the Trend Report (1969-1979), Pravin J. Patel surveys the literature in industrial sociology in essays.org India and puts his concluding remarks: As a matter of fact quite a few studies on the reciprocal relationship between industrialization and society have a direct bearing upon modernization theory.
Similarly, some of the studies on industrial organizations, trade unions and industrial relations have explicitly or implicitly used the teen pregnacy essays, conceptual frameworks of structural-functionalism and the dialectical analysis. Pravin Patel in his comments very clearly observes that “we are not in a position to offer many generalizations which may be both meaningful and bibliographic essay within, empirically valid”. Yogendra Singh refers to the emergence of modernity and development late in the 1970s. In the annual conferences of sociology, it was for the first time that indications of the coming up of essays, modern society were given by R.N. Saxena (1972) on ‘Modernization in Development: Trends in India’; S.C. Dube (1976) on ‘Indian Sociology at the Turning Point’ and A.R. Of Affection? Desai (1981) on ‘Relevance of the Marxist Approach to the Study of Indian Society’. During 1970s and 1980s some efforts were made to study modernity. But it was in a sporadic way.
The Indian sociologists showed their concern for social change in India. But their social change was characterized by structural-functional analysis or in some cases structuralist or historical-structural paradigm. During this period social change was also studied with the perspective of Marxism. For instance, D.P. Mukerji stressed the relevance of studying modernity from Marxian paradigm. D.P. strongly believed that in order to pregnacy push the objects, history towards the next higher stage we shall have to modernize our traditions. It is illuminating to mention that the modernists in Europe did not discuss the bipolarity of tradition and modernity to analyze the later.
In India, approach to modernity has always been with reference to tradition. Whether Yogendra Singh or Dipankar Gupta, they invariably dwell on tradition to explain modernity. Teen Pregnacy? This bipolar approach seems to be borrowed from D.P. D.P. Mukerji and modernity : D.P. talked about modernity in an elaborate way. And what is further interesting is that D.P’s ideas about modernity have been discussed at length by T.N. Madan in his work Pathways (1994).
D.P. alleges that the essay, western concept of modernity is erroneous. He argues that to define modernity only in terms of industrialization, bureaucracy and democratization is teen mistaken. It abandons holism. It dispenses with all values. What should we do for accepting modernity in India? We should, first of all, distinguish genuine modernization from the spurious product and the clue lies in its historicity, Indian modernity, therefore, is bibliographic within rooted in its culture and history.
Western modernity has to be adapted with the genuine Indian culture. Commenting on the approach of D.P. in this respect, Madan writes: …. India’s intellectual and teen, artistic achievements were in no way inferior to those of the west. Hence, the urge for a synthesis of Vedanta, western liberalism and Marxism. Thus, the model of modernity which could be attempted in India, according to a sentence a book in an D.P. would be like this: Indian synthesis of modernity = Western liberalism and Marxism + Vedanta and Indian culture. Teen Pregnacy Essays? I.P. Desai very candidly accepts that the Indian sociologists have not moved away from the obsession of colonialism and national movements which characterized our past.
We have abundant studies on rural society, family, caste and kin and have studied social changes observed in these institutions. Our social change studies more than often talk about essays.org adaptive changes and pregnacy essays, we never move from the notion of the ‘Indian’. Our views about the ‘western’ is also the same as it was for the ‘pioneers’ of Indian sociologists. All this has resulted in the neglect of the study of objects essay, modern Indian society. Modernity, therefore, has remained an untouched area. After the attainment of teen, independence, whatever sociology developed in India was highly influenced by American and British sociology. Essays.org? It was massively anchored in functionalism.
There was a weak and teen pregnacy essays, fragile trend of Marxism. D.P. and Ramkrishna combined Marx’s dialectical logic with Indian traditions. Essays.org? A.R. Desai examined India’s social history in essays Marxian perspective. All through 1980s and 1990s the Marxian sociologists remained strict doctrinaire in this approach. They did not look at Indian reality in terms of Habermas, Giddens or Jameson; no influence of Frankfurt School is objects seen in their analysis. They have kept themselves from any study of modernity. At best, they have criticized the evil consequences of capitalism in class formations. Essays? It was in the beginning of 1970s that some serious efforts were made to define and analyze Indian modernity. Indian sociology witnessed a radical change in its approach. By 1980s, it became clear through the family similarities essays, works of teen pregnacy, Louis Dumont that Indian society cannot be studied without reference to of affection its traditions.
The notion of tradition became a key factor in the ideology of social structure in India. It was increasingly argued (by Dumont and Pocock) that the reality in teen essays Indian society in terms of ideology such as purity and pollution can only be studied ideologically. The discussion on essays.org, modernity at a book length level has been done by Yogendra Singh in his book, Modernization of Indian Tradition (1994) and Lloyd Rudolph and Susanne Rudolph in their work, The Modernity of Tradition. Besides these two books, there is a huge literature which deals with the processes of social change. Pregnacy? The social change studies focus on on alzheimer's disease, modernity but their reference to modernity is only in a very casual way. The features of modernity such as democracy, capitalism, secularism, civil society, state and development have not been discussed as a scientific discourse. Modernization in India is different from teen, European modernization.
Britain was cradle of bibliographic a book, European modernization. Industrial revolution of 18th century brought about teen gradual change in the social structure of western feudal society by transforming it first into a mercantile society and later into an industrial liberal society. In this process, the estates, mainly consisting of the serfs and the feudal lords, underwent cataclysmic changes. Peasants and serfs were transformed into can computer teachers industrial workers; feudal lords, especially in Britain, took more and more to commercial and industrial entrepreneurship; and traditional guilds in the cities became obsolescent and teen, guild masters replaced by projectors or entrepreneurs. The transition from one stage to the other was not smooth. The intervening periods were marked by pauperization of the uprooted peasantry, growth of essays.org, slum-like work houses in cities, sudden breakdown in the family structure and exploitation of the workers by an emergent entrepreneurial class which was more predatory than rational in orientation. Modernization in India came in a different situation. Here, colonialism and pregnacy, feudalism prospered side by similarities essays, side with capitalism. Traditionalism also existed with modernity rather the former got a new life also. The social conditions for Indian modernity were of different nature. Yogendra Singh traces the emergence of modernity in India in these words:
Modernization in India started with the western contact, especially through establishment of the teen pregnacy essays, British rule. This contact had a special historicity which brought about many far-reaching changes in culture and can computer replace essay, social structure of the Indian society. The basic direction of this contact was towards modernization, but in the process a variety of traditional institutions also got reinforcement. This demonstrates the weakness of assuming a neat contrariety between tradition and teen pregnacy essays, modernity. Yogendra Singh, M.N. Srinivas, Dipankar Gupta and others, who have discussed Indian modernity, have invariably discussed it in a bipolar way. It appears, any discussion of modernity in can computer India is teen pregnacy essays not possible without a deep understanding of its traditions.
This has not happened in the case of Europe. It is India’s historicity which makes it obligatory to deal in tradition for a discussion of modernity. We now turn to define modernity as is meant in India. M.N. Srinivas on you quote from essay, westernization and modernization : M.N. Srinivas has constructed the teen pregnacy, concepts of westernization and modernization. Essay Within A Book? These concepts have emerged from his empirical studies on the religion and society among the teen pregnacy, Coorgs of South India. Initially, he introduced the concept of replace essay, sanskritization. And, at a later stage, the developed the concept of westernization to explain social change in the caste system. Westernization is defined by Srinivas as “the changes brought about in teen pregnacy Indian society and culture as a result of over 150 years of British rule, the objects, term subsuming changes occurring at different levels… technology, institutions, ideology and values”. But, the term ‘westernization’ does not mean only the things of the teen pregnacy, west.
It is a comprehensive term and includes humanitarianism and rationalism besides values, ideology and technology. Acceptance of all these aspects of western society also means establishment of scientific, technological and educational institutions, rise of nationalism, new political culture and leadership in the country. According to objects Srinivas, the increase in westernization does not retard the process of sanskritization; both go on simultaneously, and to some extent, increase in westernization accelerates the process of sanskritization. Teen Pregnacy? For instance, the postal facilities, railways, buses and print media which are the fruits of western impact on India render more organized religious pilgrimages, meetings, caste solidarities, etc. possible now than in the past. Srinivas has not discussed modernization as an independent theme of social change in India. It is the by-product of his theory of social change. And, in fact, he prefers westernization to modernization. And Srinivas argues that since human ends are based on value preferences, it is doubtful that in a civilizational society like India rationality will work satisfactorily. And, for essays.org him, westernization also means primarily the British impact. Thus, the definition and meaning of modernization boils down to the following points according to Srinivas:
1. Westernization and modernization are interchangeable, though in India’s social change westernization is preferable. 2. Modernization includes humanitarianism and rationalism. 3. Modernization subsumes technology, democratic institutions, ideology and values. 4. Building of nation-state. 5. Development of political culture. 6. There is sanskritization at the level of caste system; there is westernization or modernization at the nation-state level. Modernization is more widespread at the individual level than sanskritization. 7. Traditionalism goes hand-in-hand with modernization. Yogendra Singh on modernity : Initially, Yogendra Singh prepared a volume of his essays originally written for the Indian Council of Social Sciences Research (ICSSR) in 1977.
The book entitled. Social Stratification and Change in India deals with modernization at two levels: structural and teen essays, cultural. Cultural modernization is concerned with ideas, sentiments and values, whereas structural modernization relates to forms of relationships such as family, kin, clan and caste. Most of the studies of social change fall in essay the field of cultural modernization. In fact, the change studies were basically studies of cultural modernization. In the teen, field of structural modernization, nothing substantial has happened. The joint family made some adaptive changes and there appeared sub-joint family or nuclear family.
In other words, modernization did not bring any structural change in Indian society. This was Yogendra Singh’s position about you quote a sentence from a book in an modernization in his essays contained in this volume. Yogendra Singh’s major work in the field of tradition and modernization appeared in 1972. The work is really a classical one which makes an excellent effort in the understanding of tradition and modernization in India. Yogendra Singh is concerned with the transformation of Indian society. In this context, he raises three important questions: Under what structural or cultural conditions does modernization lead to integrative transformation of teen, Indian society?
What are the structural prerequisites for institutionalization of modernizing changes without breakdown? How does the Indian case warrant the possibility of replace teachers essay, institutionalization of modernity or alternatively of structural breakdown in the process? The questions are substantively related to the way modernization is defined and conceptualized. Yogendra Singh admits that there is no unanimity in the definition of modernization, nor is there any evaluative standards for teen pregnacy essays its measurement. However, an in-depth analysis of change studies indicates that sociologists have adopted two broad approaches in the study of modernization in India. These approaches are structural and evolutionary.
The structural approach analyzes modernization with the essay, help of selected social or normative variables. The normative variables include social mobilization, growth of communication, media exposure, democratic political institutions and values, morals and norms conductive to modernization, technological and economic resources of society. The evolutionary approach is teen based on more systematic theoretical assumptions. It treats modernization as an evolutionary stage in the life of human society. The formation of the process of evolution could be structural-functional or dialectical. The evolutionary approach in its structural-functional form treats modernization as continuity from the sub-human phase to human phase and from a book, beyond. Drawing from teen, both these approaches to the study of modernization, Yogendra Singh defines it as under:
Modernization approximates to such a cultural order. It symbolizes a rational attitude towards issues, and their evaluation from a universalistic and not particularistic viewpoint; when it involves an on alzheimer's disease, emotional response to problems, orientation is emphatic and not constructive; modernization is rooted in the scientific worldview; it has deeper and positive association with levels of diffusion of scientific knowledge technological skill and technological resources in a particular society. But what may be essential to modernization is the commitment to scientific worldview, the internalization of humanistic and philosophical viewpoint of pregnacy, science on contemporary problems and not merely the how do you quote a sentence from, volume of technological achievement. So far, the definition of modernity given by Yogendra Singh fits very well in the paradigm of western ideal type of modernization. It includes the following important elements or features of modernity: 1. It is a cultural phenomenon, which stands for the cult-urology of society.
2. It is rational attitudes towards societal issues and problems. 3. Its norms are universalistic, applicable to pregnacy the totality of all the societies. 4. Bibliographic? Its worldview is scientific. 5. Teen Pregnacy Essays? It contains scientific knowledge and technological skill, which need to be differed in all the societies. 6. It encourages internalization of humanistic and how do you quote in an, philosophical attitudes, which are inherent to scientific knowledge. Scientific values, surely, are universalistic. But, the traditional values are local, rooted in the traditions of the immediate society. Teen Pregnacy Essays? When the ideal type of modernity is applied to the local community, there ensues a conflict. Essays.org? In this encounter, there are two alternatives: first, there are adaptive changes in the local tradition, and second, modernization is rejected or redefined.
The challenge given by local tradition to modernity has been analyzed by Yogendra Singh: The distinction between modern values and traditional values may be maintained on the ground that modern values, like science, being evolutionary universal, might not be typical to any one particular cultural tradition, whereas traditional cultural values may be particularistic and typical. What Yogendra Singh argues is teen that modernity is a universal- cultural phenomenon, whereas tradition is local and is observed by the immediate society only. The challenge of modernity with its universal features and characteristics is the same in all societies but the responses to it are varying. This gives rise to multiple modernities. And, therefore, Yogendra Singh very rightly says that “the substantive adaptation to essays.org modernization should be distinguished from essays, modernization per se since in all likelihood, not for a long time to objects essay come (perhaps never), anywhere in the world shall we have a fully modern society”.
And in support of his conclusion Yogendra Singh refers to the conclusion made by Daniel Lerner and others. Dipankar Gupta: India’s mistaken modernity : Dipankar Gupta’s work on modernity is a recent publication. In his book, Mistaken Modernity: India between Worlds (2000), Dipankar defines the concept of essays, modernity in India’s context and says: “The mode of relations among people in our country is still not modern. Family connections, privileges of caste and status, as well as the willingness to break every law in the book characterize our social relations very deeply. This is replace teachers essay why I argue that true modernity is about how people relate to other people (italics added), and likewise, true ethics is all about a concern with ‘others’ as equal citizens. Modernity is an attitude, which represents universalistic norms, where the dignity of an individual as a citizen is inviolable and where one’s achievements count for more than family background and teen pregnacy, connections. Once modernity is understood in this fashion, it is apparent that Indian still has long distance to go.” Dipankar argues that modernity is not a single large block, a monolith.
The true modernity, in fact, consists of ‘multiple modernities’ and viewed from this perspective, the Indian modernity is a specific variety of multiple modernities. Even in developed countries such as U.S. and Japan, there are several modernities. We have, in India, misunderstood modernity on more than one count. Dipankar has pointed out some major wrong thinking’s about modernity which characterize contemporary India. These are as below: Contemporary is essays.org not necessarily modern : Some people think that whatever is contemporary is modern. Our ideas, fashions, and pregnacy, even, ideology and traditions, which characterize our life today, are all modern. Spending lakhs of rupees on the celebration of festivals and marriages, which was never done earlier, is considered as modern. There is an exorbitant excitement in the celebration of similarities essays, certain religious festivals such as Ganesh Mahotsava, Garba, Diwali and Holi.
This is contemporary and is therefore categorized as modern. Fundamentalism, terrorism, increasing communalism and rapid incidence of graft and corruption are likewise contemporary, and therefore, they are all modern. Such an understanding of modernity is erroneous. Is technology, the only modernity? The layman’s understanding about modernity is that it is technological only. In other words, if there is new technology, or innovation, it is said to be the teen, attainment of modernity. The advancement in communication, agriculture and transport is considered by common people as the only criterion of modernity. In Dipankar’s views, technology is only one part of modernity. Modernity involves certain other features also such as human values and relationships. Only consumerism is not modernity : Admittedly, the modern society is a consumer society.
In U.S. and essay, Europe, consumerism is considered to be a strong indicator of modernity. More there is consumerism, more there is modernity. Capitalism is the bedrock of modernity and it enhances an increasing standard of consumerism. The situation in India is different. In our country, consumerism has given rise to inequality; the teen pregnacy essays, poor have become poorer in the race of uplifting their standard. And, in such a situation, it is mistaken to align modernity with increasing consumerism. It is wrong to essays.org accept violent behaviour as modernity : It is unfortunate that in India modernization, somehow or other, is associated with unlawful, illegal and violent behaviour. Those who are affluent, often commit crime. Dipankar Gupta comments as under on this mistaken aspect of modernity:
In India, we have not paid attention on the mainsprings of modernity, but have been quick to declare certain sectors as modern because of essays, their acquisition of bibliographic, artefacts and technology. This has also led to frequent complaints against modernity, especially when egregious offences are committed in contemporary locales or their perpetrators are those who were mistakenly seen as modern because they possessed expensive material objects. Thus, sexual harassment, violence in public places, dowry deaths and a host of teen essays, other fairly uncivilised forms of conduct get posted as modern. Looked at closely, none of these things is really modern. They are carry-overs of attitudes from the past. Traditionalism is often defined as modernity : In most of the cases, the elites and the middle class define traditionalism as modernization. What has happened in India is that in essay on alzheimer's the wake of modernization, traditionalism is strengthened. Some of our traditions have been redefined as modernity. Caste is essays reorganized to suit to the needs of the politicians.
Feudal mindset works in our modern organizations and subaltern segments of society continue to be looked with contempt. Most of the essays.org, abuses of our translations are interpreted as items and aspects of modernity. Fundamentalism and the ideology of Hindutva could be referred to essays as new forms of modernity. In fact, traditionalism has reappeared in the form of modernization. Such a modernization is fake and erroneous.
Dipankar Gupta argues that what we understand by modernity in India is often “its equation with technology and with other contemporary artifacts”. It is not always that what we call urbanization and industrialization is modernization. It is can computer something else also, something more also. Dipankar says that a modern society is one in which at least the following characteristics must be present: 1. Essays? Dignity of the individual; 2. Adherence to universalistic norms; 3. Elevation of individual achievement over privileges or dis-privileges of birth; and. 4. Accountability in public life. In Dipankar’s definition of modernity first place or priority is given to the above four attributes, and “once these attributes are in research essay disease place, it does not really matter if there is a high level of technology, super fast transit system, or consumerism. Generally speaking, technology and consumerism are consequences of the teen, four characteristics of bibliographic essay, modernization listed above, and do not by themselves constitute modernity”. Dipankar has elaborated the attributes of modernity and says that the core feature of this process is the relations between people.
These relations have to be characterized by essays, equality with, and respect for essays.org others. It is the principle of democracy that all people should be considered equals and should have, therefore, equal opportunities. Thus, the key to modernity is what Dipankar calls, inter-subjectivity. “Inter-subjectivity is about being able to participate in one another’s lives and teen, share in one another’s fate …. A Book? Inter-subjectivity thus arouses the quality of empathy. As empathy encourages a vicarious participation in the lives of other people, it becomes a distinguishing trait of pregnacy essays, modernity. This and other attributes of a modern attitude help in the realization of substantive (not just legal) citizenship.”
Concluding observations on modernity in India : Modernization as a theoretical construct, in a broader way, is pluralization of worldview. In the west, it is argued that it is a multi-dimensional process and begins from the evaluation of new classes, technology and communications resulting from the decay of feudalism and the emergence of capitalism and democratic nation-state. Britain has been the a book, cradle of industrialization, urbanization and secularism, i.e., separation of state from church. Here, tradition is not the referent point. Rather, it is the industrialization. There are a large number of pregnacy essays, sociologists such as Giddens, Habermas, Wallerstein and Stuart Hall who have examined the challenges given by modernity. India’s modernity is essays.org specific to Indian social structure. If there are multiple modernities, India’s modernity is one variant, one specificity. If modernity is multi-dimensional, Indian modernity is determined by Indian traditions. Here, there are modernization traditions.
It is because of the specificity of Indian social structure that our sociologists, Yogendra Singh and teen pregnacy, Dipankar Gupta, are in a way obsessed by the role of tradition in social structure. Neither of them can talk about modernity without reference to its traditions. Yogendra Singh defends himself: Whereas the emphasis on social structure has led us to survey the uneven processes of social changes and modernization with the help of the contemporary sociological studies, the tradition’s framework in our analysis has necessitated that we draw from, the Indian history, or even employ a kind of historiography. The historiographic constructions are necessitated to establish the cognitive-structural attributes of the Indian ‘traditions, which we have characterized as consisting of elements of ‘hierarchy,’ ‘holism,’ ‘continuity,’ and ‘transcendence’. Both Yogendra Singh and bibliographic a book, Dipankar Gupta accept that modernity, in a way or the other, either strengthens traditions or traditions are mistaken as modernity. What is modernity? In the Indian context, the consensus is that it has universalistic norms, there is emphasis on achievement, its roots are in teen secularism, it is democratic in its design and media, communication, values, morals and ethics are its dimensional features. And, then, importantly, what is the direction of essay disease, modernization or social change? How do we define modernity in the light of essays, change studies, which are available to us in Indian sociology?
The questions are uncomfortable, but they help us to define modernity at a substantial plane. Sociologists have studied social change in India right from its emergence. The approaches to social change or modernization have been structural and evolutionary. Out of the essay within, two approaches structural approach is dominant in social sciences. The evolutionary approach is structural-functional or dialectical. Structural-functional analysis looks at modernization in terms of sub-cultural forms of westernization of great traditions. Dialectical approach, on the other hand, employs Marxian concepts of social change. Modernization thus in India is defined with reference to structural-functional analysis and dialectics. The dialectical approach has remained restricted to only a handful of sociologists such as D.P.
Mukerji, Ramakrishna Mukherjee and A.R. Desai. A large number of sociologists have looked at the impact of modernization from structural-functional perspective. They define modernization as social change in the traditional aspects of Indian society. Social change for these sociologists is change in the Hindu traditions and institutions.
For them, joint family has changed; caste has changed; village structure has witnessed transformation but change towards what? At best for most of teen pregnacy essays, these functionalists the change is from essays.org, Hindu social traditions to adaptive changes. For a few, the change is towards family disorganization or caste disorganization. Pregnacy Essays? Generation after generation the university students are taught that social change leads to how do you quote from a book in an disorganization of pregnacy essays, Hindu traditional institutions. The point of reference of essays.org, social change is hardly modernity.
For, both Indian and American sociologists working on India have never explained social change with reference to modernity. And here is the rub. Our sociologists come from the high-caste Hindu background, their professional and intellectual training has been in essays the colonisers’ countries, they are interested in continuity and change and therefore they have created a flood of research material which stands on the pillars of evolutionary structural-functional method. In such a kind of adherence to a conservative methodology, not much has been done to you quote a sentence from a book essay evaluate the impact of modernization on Indian society. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.
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25 Best Resume Secrets Employers Will Never Tell You. Crafting the perfect resume is perhaps the number one thing you need to do when looking for a new job. Most of the time, your resume is the way you’re introduced to the employer. Pregnacy! You need it to essay, stand out and make you look great. If your resume doesn’t present you as the essays impressive professional you really are, there is little chance you’ll get the can computer replace job.
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Teen Pregnancy essays
essay have dream dismiss for 28 days 1 year info. [NOTE: This was the last work that Paine ever gave to the press. Teen Essays! It appeared in New York in 1807 with the following title: An Examination of the objects Passages in the New Testament, quoted from the Old and called Prophecies concerning Jesus Christ. To which is prefixed an essays Essay on Dream, showing by what operation of the mind a Dream is produced in replace essay, sleep, and applying the same to the account of Dreams in the New Testament. With an Appendix containing my private thoughts of essays, a Future State. And Remarks on the Contradictory Doctrine in the Books of Matthew and Mark. By Thomas Paine, New York: Printed for the Author. pp.
68. This work is made up from the unpublished Part III, of the Age of can computer, Reason, and the answer to the Bishop of Landaff. In the essays Introductory chapter, on Dream, he would seem to have partly utilized an earlier essay, and replace teachers essay this is the only part of the work previously printed. Pregnacy Essays! Nearly all of it was printed in Paris, in English, soon after Paine's departure for America. This little pamphlet, of which the only copy I have seen or heard of is in the Bodleian Library, has never been mentioned by any of Paine's editors, and perhaps he himself was not aware of its having been printed. Its title is: Extract from the M.S. Third Part of Thomas Paine's Age of Reason. Bibliographic Essay! Chapter the Second: Article, Dream. Paris: Printed for M. Chateau, 1803. It is teen essays, possible that it was printed for private circulation. I have compared this Paris pamphlet closely with an original copy of Paine's own edition, (New York, 1807) with results indicated in footnotes to the Essay,
Dr. Clair J. Grece, of Redhill, has shown me a copy of the Examination which Paine presented to his (Dr. Grece's) uncle, Daniel Constable, in New York, July 21, 1807, with the prediction, It is too much for the priests, and they will not touch it. It is rudely stitched in brown paper cover, and without the Preface and the Essay on Dream. Essay On Alzheimer's! It would appear from a note, which I quote at teen pregnacy the beginning of the Examination, by an early American editor that Paine detached that part as the only fragment he wished to be circulated. This pamphlet, with some omissions, was published in essays.org, London, 1811, as Part III. of the Age of Reason, by Daniel Isaacs Eaton, for which he was sentenced to eighteen months imprisonment, and to stand in teen, the pillory for one hour in each month. This punishment drew from Shelley his celebrated letter to Lord Ellenborough, who had given a scandalously prejudiced charge to how do you quote essay, the jury. -- Editor.]
IT is the duty of every man, as far as his ability extends, to detect and expose delusion and pregnacy error. But nature has not given to essays, everyone a talent for the purpose; and among those to whom such a talent is given, there is often a want of disposition or of courage to do it. The world, or more properly speaking, that small part of it called christendom, or the christian world, has been amused for more than a thousand years with accounts of Prophecies in the Old- Testament about the coming of the person called Jesus Christ, and thousands of pregnacy, sermons have been preached, and volumes written, to make man believe it. In the following treatise I have examined all the passages in the New-Testament, quoted from the Old, and called prophecies concerning Jesus Christ, and within I find no such thing as a prophecy of any such person, and I deny there are any. The passages all relate to circumstances the Jewish nation was in at teen the time they were written or spoken, and essays.org not to anything that was or was not to happen in the world several hundred years afterwards; and I have shown what the essays circumstances were to research essay on alzheimer's, which the passages apply or refer. I have given chapter and verse for every thing I have said, and essays have not gone out of the a book books of the pregnacy essays Old and New Testament for evidence that the passages are not prophecies of the person called Jesus Christ. The prejudice of unfounded belief, often degenerates into the prejudice of custom, and becomes at last rank hypocrisy. When men, from custom or fashion or any worldly motive, profess or pretend to believe what they do not believe, nor can give any reason for believing, they unship the helm of their morality, and being no longer honest to their own minds they feel no moral difficulty in being unjust to others. Bibliographic Essay Within! It is teen, from the influence of family essays, this vice, hypocrisy, that we see so many church-and-meeting-going professors and pretenders to religion so full of trick and deceit in teen pregnacy essays, their dealings, and so loose in the performance of their engagements that they are not to be trusted further than the laws of the country will bind them. Morality has no hold on their minds, no restraint on their actions.
One set of preachers make salvation to consist in believing. They tell their congregations that if they believe in Christ their sins shall be forgiven. This, in essay within, the first place, is an encouragement to sin, in teen, a similar manner as when a prodigal young fellow is told his father will pay all his debts, he runs into debt the faster, and becomes the more extravagant. Daddy, says he, pays all, and on he goes: just so in the other case, Christ pays all, and on bibliographic goes the sinner. In the teen pregnacy next place, the doctrine these men preach is not true. The New Testament rests itself for credibility and research essay testimony on what are called prophecies in the Old-Testament of the person called Jesus Christ; and if there are no such things as prophecies of any such person in the Old-Testament, the New-Testament is teen pregnacy, a forgery of the Councils of Nice and Laodicea, and the faith founded thereon delusion and falsehood. [NOTE by PAINE: The councils of Nice and Laodicea were held about 350 years after the time Christ is said to have lived; and the books that now compose the New Testament, were then voted for by YEAS and NAYS, as we now vote a law. A great many that were offered had a majority of how do a sentence, nays, and were rejected.
This is the pregnacy essays way the New-Testament came into being. -- Author.] Another set of preachers tell their congregations that God predestinated and selected, from all eternity, a certain number to essay, be saved, and a certain number to be damned eternally. If this were true, the 'day of Judgment' IS PAST: their preaching is in vain, and they had better work at some useful calling for their livelihood. This doctrine, also, like the teen former, hath a direct tendency to demoralize mankind. Can a bad man be reformed by telling him, that if he is one of those who was decreed to be damned before he was born his reformation will do him no good; and you quote a sentence a book in an essay if he was decreed to be saved, he will be saved whether he believes it or not? For this is the result of the doctrine. Such preaching and such preachers do injury to teen pregnacy, the moral world. Objects Of Affection Essay! They had better be at the plough.
As in my political works my motive and object have been to give man an elevated sense of his own character, and free him from the teen pregnacy essays slavish and superstitious absurdity of monarchy and objects essay hereditary government, so in my publications on religious subjects my endeavors have been directed to bring man to a right use of the reason that God has given him, to teen essays, impress on him the great principles of divine morality, justice, mercy, and a benevolent disposition to all men, and to all creatures, and to inspire in him a spirit of trust, confidence, and consolation in his creator, unshackled by the fables of research, books pretending to be 'the word of God.' In order to understand the pregnacy essays nature of Dream, or of that which passes in ideal vision during a state of sleep, it is how do from a book in an essay, first necessary to understand the composition and decomposition of the human mind. The three great faculties of the pregnacy essays mind are IMAGINATION, JUDGMENT, and MEMORY. Replace! Every action of the mind comes under one or the other of these faculties. Teen Essays! [NOTE: This sentence is not in Paris edition. -- Editor.] In a state of wakefulness, as in the day-time, these three faculties are all active; but that is seldom the case in sleep, and never perfectly: and how do you quote in an essay this is the cause that our dreams are not so regular and rational as our waking thoughts. The seat of that collection of pregnacy essays, powers or faculties that constitute what is called the family essays mind, is in the brain. There is not, and cannot be, any visible demonstration of teen pregnacy, this anatomically, but accidents happening to living persons shew it to be so. An injury done to the brain by a fracture of the skull, will sometimes change a wise man into a childish idiot, -- a being without a mind. But so careful has nature been of that Sanctum Sanctorum of man, the brain, that of all the external accidents to which humanity is subject, this occurs the most seldom. But we often see it happening by long and habitual intemperance.
Whether those three faculties occupy distinct apartments of the brain, is known only to that ALMIGHTY POWER that formed and research on alzheimer's organized it. Teen Essays! We can see the external effects of muscular motion in all the members of the body, though its premium mobile, or first moving cause, is unknown to man. Our external motions are sometimes the effect of intention, sometimes not. Essay! If we are sitting and intend to rise, or standing and intend to sit or to walk, the limbs obey that intention as if they heard the order given. But we make a thousand motions every day, and pregnacy essays that as well waking as sleeping, that have no prior intention to direct them. Each member acts as if it had a will or mind of bibliographic within, its own. Man governs the essays whole when he pleases to govern, but in the interim the several parts, like little suburbs, govern themselves without consulting the family similarities sovereign. And all these motions, whatever be the generating cause, are external and visible. But with respect to the brain, no ocular observation can be made upon it. All is mystery; all is darkness in that womb of thought.
Whether the brain is a mass of matter in continual rest whether it has a vibrating pulsative motion, or a heaving and falling motion like matter in pregnacy essays, fermentation; whether different parts of the brain have different motions according to the faculty that is employed, be it the imagination, the judgment, or the memory, man knows nothing of. He knows not the cause of his own wit. His own brain conceals it from him. Comparing invisible by visible things, as metaphysical can sometimes be compared to physical things, the operations of these distinct and can computer essay several faculties have some resemblance to a watch. The main spring which puts all in teen, motion corresponds to the imagination; the pendulum which corrects and regulates that motion, corresponds to the judgment; and the hand and dial, like the memory, record the operation. Now in essay a book, proportion as these several faculties sleep, slumber, or keep awake, during the continuance of essays, a dream, in that proportion the dream will be reasonable or frantic, remembered or forgotten. If there is any faculty in mental man that never sleeps, it is that volatile thing the imagination. The case is different with the judgment and memory. The sedate and sober constitution of the judgment easily disposes it to rest; and can computer replace as to the memory, it records in silence and is active only when it is called upon. That the judgment soon goes to sleep may be perceived by our sometimes beginning to dream before we are fully asleep ourselves. Some random thought runs in the mind, and we start, as it were, into recollection that we are dreaming between sleeping and waking. [If a pendulum of a watch by any accident becomes displaced, that it can no longer control and regulate the elastic force of the spring, the teen essays works are instantly thrown into confusion, and how do from a book in an continue so as long as the essays spring continues to have force.
In like manner] [NOTE: The words within crotchers are only in on alzheimer's disease, the Paris edition. In the New York edition (1807) the teen pregnacy next word If begins a new paragraph. -- Editor.] if the judgment sleeps whilst the imagination keeps awake, the dream will be a riotous assemblage of misshapen images and ranting ideas, and the more active the imagination is the wilder the dream will be. The most inconsistent and the most impossible things will appear right; because that faculty whose province it is to essays.org, keep order is in teen pregnacy essays, a state of absence. The master of the school is gone out and the boys are in an uproar. If the memory sleeps, we shall have no other knowledge of the dream than that we have dreamt, without knowing what it was about. In this case it is sensation rather than recollection that acts. The dream has given us some sense of pain or trouble, and we feel it as a hurt, rather than remember it as vision. If the memory slumbers we shall have a faint remembrance of the dream, and after a few minutes it will some-times happen that the principal passages of the dream will occur to us more fully. The cause of this is that the memory will sometimes continue slumbering or sleeping after we are awake ourselves, and that so fully, that it may and sometimes does happen, that we do not immediately recollect where we are, nor what we have been about, or have to do.
But when the memory starts into wakefulness it brings the knowledge of these things back upon us like a flood of light, and essays.org sometimes the dream with it. But the most curious circumstance of the mind in teen essays, a state of dream, is the power it has to can computer replace teachers, become the teen pregnacy essays agent of every person, character and thing of which it dreams. You Quote From A Book In An Essay! It carries on conversation with several, asks questions, hears answers, gives and receives information, and it acts all these parts itself. Yet however various and eccentric the imagination may be in the creating of images and ideas, it cannot supply the place of memory with respect to things that are forgotten when we are awake. For example, if we have forgotten the name of a person, and dream of seeing him and essays asking him his name, he cannot tell it; for it is ourselves asking ourselves the question. But though the imagination cannot supply the place of real memory, it has the essays.org wild faculty of counterfeiting memory.
It dreams of persons it never knew, and talks to them as if it remembered them as old acquaintance. It relates circumstances that never happened, and tells them as if they had happened. It goes to places that never existed, and knows where all the streets and houses are, as if we had been there before. The scenes it creates are often as scenes remembered. It will sometimes act a dream within a dream, and, in the delusion of dreaming, tell a dream it never dreamed, and tell it as if it was from essays, memory.
It may also be remarked, that the how do you quote a sentence essay imagination in a dream has no idea of time, as tune. It counts only by circumstances; and if a succession of teen, circumstances pass in a dream that would require a great length of time to accomplish them, it will appear to the dreamer that a length of time equal thereto has passed also. As this is the state of the mind in a dream, it may rationally be said that every person is mad once in twenty-four hours, for were he to research on alzheimer's, act in the day as he dreams in the night, he would be confined for a lunatic. In a state of wakefulness, those three faculties being all active, and acting in pregnacy essays, unison, constitute the rational man. In dream it is otherwise, and, therefore, that state which is called insanity appears to be no other than a dismission of those faculties, and a cessation of the judgment during wakefulness, that we so often experience during sleep; and of affection idiocity, into which some persons have fallen, is that cessation of all the faculties of which we can be sensible when we happen to wake before our memory. In this view of the mind, how absurd it is to place reliance upon dreams, and how much more absurd to make them a foundation for pregnacy religion; yet the essay belief that Jesus Christ is the teen pregnacy essays Son of God, begotten by the Holy Ghost, a being never heard of before, stands on the foolish story of an old man's dream. And behold the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a dream, saying, Joseph, thou son of David, fear not thou to take unto thee Mary thy wife, for that which is conceived in her is of the essays.org Holy Ghost. -- Matt. 1. 20. After this we have the childish stories of three or four other dreams: about Joseph going into Egypt; about teen pregnacy, his coming back again; about this, and about that, and this story of dreams has thrown Europe into a dream for more than a thousand years.
All the efforts that nature, reason, and conscience have made to awaken man from it, have been ascribed by priestcraft and superstition to the working of the devil, and had it not been for the American Revolution, which, by establishing the universal right of conscience, [NOTE: The words right of are not in the Paris edition. Can Computer Essay! -- Editor.] first opened the way to free discussion, and for the French Revolution that followed, this Religion of pregnacy, Dreams had continued to be preached, and that after it had ceased to be believed. Essay! Those who preached it and did not believe it, still believed the delusion necessary. They were not bold enough to be honest, nor honest enough to be bold. [NOTE: The remainder of this essay, down to the last two paragraphs, though contained in the Paris pamphlet, was struck out pregnacy, of the essay by Paine when he published it in America; it was restored by an American editor who got hold of the original manuscript, with the exception of bibliographic within a book, two sentences which he supposed caused the author to reserve the nine paragraphs containing them. It is probable, however, that this part was omitted as an interruption of the essay on Dream. The present Editor therefore concludes to insert the passage, without any omission, in this footnote:]
Every new religion, like a new play, requires a new apparatus of dresses and machinery, to fit the new characters it creates. The story of Christ in the New Testament brings a new being upon the stage, which it calls the Holy Ghost; and the story of teen essays, Abraham, the father of the Jews, in the Old Testament, gives existence to a new order of beings it calls Angels. There was no Holy Ghost before the time of Christ, nor Angels before the essays.org time of teen pregnacy essays, Abraham. We hear nothing of essay, these winged gentlemen, till more than two thousand years, according to the Bible chronology, from the time they say the heavens, the earth, and all therein were made. After this, they hop about as thick as birds in teen pregnacy, a grove.
The first we hear of, pays his addresses to Hagar in the wilderness; then three of them visit Sarah; another wrestles a fall with Jacob; and these birds of passage having found their way to earth and back, are continually coming and going. They eat and drink, and up again to heaven. What they do with the food they carry away in their bellies, the Bible does not tell us. Perhaps they do as the birds do, discharge it as they fly; for neither the scripture nor the church hath told us there are necessary houses for them in heaven. One would think that a system loaded with such gross and can computer vulgar absurdities as scripture religion is could never have obtained credit; yet we have seen what priestcraft and fanaticism could do, and credulity believe. From Angels in pregnacy essays, the Old Testament we get to prophets, to witches, to seers of visions, and dreamers of essay, dreams; and sometimes we are told, as in 1 Sam. ix. Teen Pregnacy! 15, that God whispers in the ear. At other times we are not told how the impulse was given, or whether sleeping or waking. In 2 Sam. xxiv. 1, it is said, And again the essay disease anger of the lord was kindled against Israel, and he moved David against them to say, Go number Israel and Judah.
And in 1 Chron. xxi. I, when the same story is again related, it is said, And Satan stood up against teen Israel, and moved David to number Israel. Whether this was done sleeping or waking, we are not told, but it seems that David, whom they call a man after God's own heart, did not know by what spirit he was moved; and as to the men called inspired penmen, they agree so well about the matter, that in one book they say that it was God, and in the other that it was the Devil. Yet this is trash that the church imposes upon the world as the WORD OF GOD; this is the similarities essays collection of lies and pregnacy essays contradictions called the HOLY BIBLE! this is the rubbish called REVEALED RELIGION! The idea that writers of the Old Testament had of a God was boisterous, contemptible, and vulgar. They make him the Mars of the Jews, the bibliographic essay within fighting God of Israel, the conjuring God of their Priests and Prophets.
They tell us as many fables of him as the Greeks told of Hercules. Pregnacy! They pit him against Pharaoh, as it were to research essay, box with him, and Moses carries the challenge. They make their God to say insultingly, I will get me honor upon Pharaoh and upon all his Host, upon his chariots and upon his Horsemen. And that he may keep his word, they make him set a trap in the Red Sea, in the dead of the night, for Pharaoh, his host, and his horses, and drown them as a rat-catcher would do so many rats. Great honor indeed! the story of Jack the giant-killer is better told!
They match him against the Egyptian magicians to conjure with them, and after hard conjuring on both sides (for where there is pregnacy essays, no great contest there is no great honor) they bring him off victorious. The first three essays are a dead match: each party turns his rod into a serpent, the rivers into blood, and creates frogs: but upon the fourth, the God of the similarities Israelites obtains the laurel, he covers them all over pregnacy essays with lice! The Egyptian magicians cannot do the same, and how do from essay this lousy triumph proclaims the victory! They make their God to rain fire and brimstone upon Sodom and Gomorrah and belch fire and smoke upon mount Sinai, as if he was the pregnacy Pluto of the lower regions. They make him salt up Lot's wife like pickled pork; they make him pass like Shakespeare's Queen Mab into the brain of their priests, prophets, and prophetesses, and tickle them into dreams, [NOTE: Tickling a parson's nose as 'a lies asleep, Then dreams he of research essay on alzheimer's, another benefice. (Rom. and Jul.) -- Editor.] and after making him play all kinds of essays, tricks they confound him with Satan, and leave us at a loss to know what God they meant! This is the descriptive God of the essays.org Old Testament; and as to the New, though the authors of it have varied the scene, they have continued the essays vulgarity. Is man ever to essay a book, be the dupe of priestcraft, the slave of superstition?
Is he never to teen essays, have just ideas of how do from, his Creator? It is better not to believe there is a God, than to believe of him falsely. When we behold the mighty universe that surrounds us, and dart our contemplation into the eternity of teen essays, space, filled with innumerable orbs revolving in eternal harmony, how paltry must the tales of the Old and New Testaments, profanely called the word of within, God, appear to thoughtful man! The stupendous wisdom and unerring order that reign and govern throughout this wondrous whole, and call us to teen essays, reflection, 'put to shame the Bible!' The God of eternity and of all that is family similarities, real, is not the God of passing dreams and shadows of man's imagination. The God of truth is pregnacy, not the God of fable; the can computer belief of a God begotten and a God crucified, is a God blasphemed.
It is making a profane use of reason. -- Author.] I shall conclude this Essay on Dream with the first two verses of Ecclesiastics xxxiv. one of the books of the Apocrypha. The hopes of a man void of understanding are vain and teen pregnacy essays false; and dreams lift up fools. Whoso regardeth dreams is like him that catcheth at disease a shadow, and followeth after the pregnacy essays wind. I now proceed to an examination of the essays.org passages in the Bible, called prophecies of the coming of Christ, and to show there are no prophecies of any such person; that the passages clandestinely styled prophecies are not prophecies; and that they refer to circumstances the Jewish nation was in at the time they were written or spoken, and not to any distance of future time or person.