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Classification essay about movies
Best Sample Essays, Free Research Papers, Dissertation Samples. Baby dumping can take many forms, sometimes regulated, as is the case for anonymous delivery or safe-haven laws in some states in the United States, which allows the mother to classification mothers give birth to a child in good essay a hospital and legally, thereby reducing infant deaths. In this case, baby dumping out of this procedure is often penalized. Some North African countries, including Morocco and Algeria, tolerate the practice of baby dumping, and established forms of classification essay anonymous accouchement, without them being formalized, in Morocco, such procedures implies the criminalization of the mother, similar to that of a prostitute. We can write a custom essay on Baby Dumping for you! Historically, many ancient cultures have practiced the abandonment of newborns, the Greco-Roman mythology and the Hebrew Scriptures often refer to a form of this exhibition called infant exposure. Pater famillias Roman right of the father to life and death of his children was abolished in 374, the imperial law Lex Pompeia de parricidis prohibited infant exposure.
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Classification essay about movies
I'm Married to a Man With Two Kids…And Deeply, Madly in Love With a Woman. Lauren Slater considered herself thoroughly heterosexual until she found herself in classification essay mothers a swoon over classification essay prompts, a woman. The only essay mothers thing left? Figuring out the sex part. I am in love with a woman. It makes no sense; I am straight—straight as a stick, as steel, as flint. Is Greed Essay. My woman has gleaming black hair, a perfect nose, a shapely mouth bracketed by two deep dimples. Her name is classification essay about Anna, not Aaaana , rhyming with banana, but Ahhhna , the a 's all soft and sleepy—a name with wind in it, a name that brings to mind treetops and critique outline oceans. Mothers. I love that her name is the same spelled forward or backward; this palindrome suggests that despite the softness of her sound, Anna is thematic essay indestructible, a solid pillar of a person.
Last year I drove to Pennsylvania with a friend. We spent the entire seven-hour ride complaining about our marriages. Essay. Our husbands were not sleeping with us; their salaries were paltry; they left sinks full of dishes and dishes full of scrap. Somehow, the subject turned to is greed, homosexuality. You couldn't pay me to sleep with a woman, my friend said, and I nodded in agreement. Classification About. I've always understood myself to is greed essay, be irrevocably hetero, in love with muscles and sweat, with stubble and silence, with the flat-packed chest and the visible bicep. I love nipples on men, the sudden surprise of them, those two points of vulnerability hidden in a furze of wiry curls. For almost all of my existence, I've spent some portion of my time daydreaming about sex, and women have never been part of it.
A gay female friend once took me to a lesbian bar, where I saw dykes with spiked hair and chains, and also wispy women who looked like you could push them over with one finger. Essay About Mothers. The butch women fascinated me—the ones with Navy tattoos mapping their beefy arms, their leather vests soaked in is greed good neat's-foot oil, as soft as they were hard. The bar had a dance floor, and lights swirled—pink and violet rays bending and mothers flashing over dyads of women moving in the middle. I clutched the 1993 ap us dbq thesis stem of my oh-so-tame wineglass and watched a couple kissing in the corner—I felt totally out of place. Essay About Mothers. I felt practically Republican. On my right hand, my engagement ring, a white moonstone set in silver, seemed to throb, and so I slid my hand into my pocket. Someone tapped me on the back, and is greed good when I turned around I saw an attractive woman with a short cap of hair and willowy limbs.
Dance? she asked. About. I gulped and backed away. I backed all the way to the door and is greed good essay then opened it, fleeing into the street, into the cold and essay about clean winter air. Given my hetero history, how is it that I am now—married and with two children—in love with a woman? Let me tell you what I mean when I use the phrase in love. I want to live with this woman. I want to fall asleep next to regents essay religion, her. I want to build a house of beams and wide windows, surrounded by fenced fields in which our horses will graze away their days. I want to kiss this woman, and classification about I have, placing my lips squarely on is greed essay hers and giving not one kiss but a series of about, kisses that involved taking her luscious lip between my two teeth and carol biting down just to the point of pain.
I have let my hands wander over the tendons in her neck, feeling how hard they are, how splayed. I have cupped the essay back of prompts, her head and felt her heat. I have whispered her name. I don't really think I enjoy sex with Anna because she lacks a penis. I enjoy it because it's a full-bodied, sensual experience of nuance and complexity. Sex with her is unlike anything I've ever experienced. Given my age, given that my hormones don't soar as high as they did in classification essay about mothers my twenties and thirties, I'm a little surprised I can have sex at all.
I have not had sex with my husband in some time; our children keep us bound. Regents Thematic Religion. He knows about essay, my relationship and seems not to much care. As long as you're not with a man, he said, it's fine with me. Wounding words that sent me straight back to my love, to my Ahhhna. As I was saying, sex with her is entirely different than sex I've had with a man. How to history dbq thesis, explain? Where to begin? For starters, I like that with a woman you don't have intercourse. Perhaps that's because I sometimes found it slightly painful, but I don't really think I enjoy sex with Anna because she lacks a penis.
I enjoy it because it's a full-bodied, sensual experience of nuance and complexity. Here we are—on a Sunday, let's say—at a bed-and-breakfast in Vermont. We are on a soft, slipcovered couch, lying side by side. There is a wineglass but no wine. The water is sparkling, full of fizz, tangy on the tongue, delicious.
The cheese is wrapped in red wax, its flesh a creamy white; there are rounds of French bread scattered on a tray. Classification About. We have come here to be alone. We've known each other five months, maybe six. We lie together on the couch and speak effortlessly of total trivia. With intellectual proclivities both, we wonder exactly what a neurotransmitter is. We talk about Moonshine, her horse, and Napollo, mine.
I tell her I don't like snakes, and she asks me if I like geckos. We go on carol essay plan this way for hours. Then she takes my hand or I take hers, no matter. She nuzzles in the niche of classification, my neck. I untangle my hand from hers and, one by one, bend each finger at thesis lost colony its perfect waist. About. I study her nails, which gleam like the interior of an oyster shell. I slide my thumb up and down slowly between her fingers. I circle her knuckles, turning her hand over regents thematic, and over essay about, and always going back to the long, slow stroke, which is, of course, physical and thesis statement colony metaphorical, alluding to something more. Then it is my turn, if we are even taking turns, which we're not. But she has my hand and is stroking me into submission, into, well, acceptance: that I am here; that I, a married, heterosexual mother of an 11-year-old boy and a 16-year-old girl…that I am aroused by the feeling and the metaphor, by this languid seduction in which no part of the body is neutral.
Sex with a man is about not like this. I shouldn't say that, I suppose, given that there are billions of men on good essay this planet, and I've only had sex with four or five of them. Classification. So let me rephrase. In my limited experience, sex with men has never involved metaphor, and the suggestion has been limited to only first flirtations. No man has ever made love to dbq thesis, my hand. Anna wants to essay, make a dress of glass. Essay Prompts. She has an engineering degree from the mothers Massachusetts Institute of Technology and is starting a company to create an thesis statement colony, app that allows users to simultaneously search for directions, cost, and time for essay mothers all types of good essay, transportation—from public transit to car-sharing to classification about, cycling—with the aim of reducing traffic. She has read almost all the classics and does extremely high-level math. At MIT, Anna worked with a team that constructed cars—in particular, a solar-powered car that they raced across Australia.
She knows how to shoot a gun. She is an statement on the colony of roanoke, expert fencer. She is in training for classification essay about mothers an international pentathlon and is a nationally recognized dressage champion. Is Greed. Anna also owns three sewing machines and classification about mothers can whip up a pleated skirt, a silk vest, a velvet shawl of royal blue fringed with tassels of black. Essay Religion. Her spools of thread are lined up along her windows: magenta, purple, gold. A glass dress, she says, her eyes alight. Can you imagine it?
I nod, because I can. In her art studio in her house, she holds the essay about mothers glass cutter in her hand and leans over a transparent sheet, cutting out two small squares and then placing copper foil between them before putting them in the kiln to fuse. Anna has, so far, made about 15 three-by-three-inch copper-and-glass squares, which she links together by drilling two tiny holes in each square and and division essay prompts attaching them together with miniature gold hoops. The glass scales drape over my arm, cool and clanking, soon to be the bodice; this dress, slipped over the head and waterfalling over the body. Anna lives just 15 minutes from my house, in an antique abode with pegged-pine floors and soaring ceilings, her bedroom filled with the fragrance of jasmine from an actual jasmine plant, which is, the classification about first time I see it, in essay extravagant bloom. Classification. Her huge garden is in the back of the is greed good house, and we wander through it just as summer starts, filling our baskets; and classification essay mothers then, back inside, she slices a starfruit, a melon, a vibrant red pepper, placing them on a white plate in carol plan a circular arrangement. Classification Mothers. She is not a professional cook or a professional gardener or a professional glassmaker, but everything Anna does, she does with ardor and competence, the combination producing an amazing bounty. I know as the relationship ages, she'll hurt me and I'll hurt her, but I also believe we contain the is greed good salves with which to tend to the broken bits, the injured parts. The pan heated now, Anna lays a pale fillet of fish in the skillet and essay about mothers sears it, a sudden flame jumping up, while I sit at the counter and watch her work, her hands shredding rumpled leaves of ap us history dbq thesis, spinach, dicing an heirloom tomato.
We eat the food she has cooked me—and I realize with each forkful that it has been a long, long time since anyone has cooked for me, and no one has ever cooked for me with such panache, such freshness, the garden coming into the kitchen. At home with my husband, he sometimes cooks, but the meals are from the classification essay freezer, the fish breaded and processed, the beans swimming in butter. Of course, my husband and I have been married for close to global regents thematic essay, 27 years, and time puts a tarnish on everything; even on Anna it will, I know. Essay. We are in the first blush, the beautiful beginning, and even at classification prompts this early stage I catch glimmers of her sharp shards: a harsh word, a fleck of frustration. Can I just do this by essay mothers myself? she once said to me, leaning over essay, a leek, irritated, irritable. I stepped back, wincing: Go right ahead. I know as the relationship ages, she'll hurt me and I'll hurt her, but I also believe we contain the classification about mothers salves with which to classification and division essay prompts, tend to the broken bits, the injured parts. But I'm getting ahead of myself. The truth is, before Anna I'd gone for four or five years without the touch of an adult, and my skin responded by seeming to sheet off in flakes.
Standing under the pounding shower, I'd rub the tops of essay about, my knees, my elbows, and skin would flake from my fingers, clog the drain. I dreamt one day that I unzipped my skin the way one unzips a fancy dress, carefully, stepping out of it as it slumped around my ankles, my body held together only by filaments of nerves that served as string. When I awoke, I drank a cup of coffee and then went to the computer. I went on religion a dating site called OkCupid. I hadn't yet met Anna, so naturally I checked out the men. I saw one or two who appeared interesting but, well, I was married. I shut my laptop. My husband hired Anna to tutor our daughter in science, which she does to pay the essay mothers bills while she tries to get her start-up started. Anna and I discovered right away that we both loved horses, so soon enough we were riding together. She told me early on that she was gay, but I didn't think much of it, having had many gay friends.
Then I saw her garden and her glass dress in the making and her extravagant jasmine. Then she told me about the essay company she was building and the house she wanted to one day construct, a house with a stream running through it, a house that had fruit trees growing in its center, and I began to imagine my way into her imaginings, thinking, I can see myself there. And once I could see myself in Anna's dreams, it was like we'd turned a corner. No longer able to envision a future with my husband, I'd been living for classification about mothers some time with mist in the distance, but with Anna, the distance seemed to glitter. Her dreams were huge. She dreamt of growing gardens all over the world. Christmas Essay Plan. She has twice traveled to India, once to manufacture cars and once for curiosity, bringing back with her exotic textiles that were somehow comforting to me. I sat on her bed one evening, and she brought them out, textiles folded and then unfolded, a rich red silk bordered with gold, bolts of it. Essay About. Curtains, I said.
I can see these as curtains. My heart, for some reason, began to beat faster, my breath rose in my throat. I can, too, Anna said. Wouldn't it be something, to global regents thematic essay religion, make a house with you? I said. Something, she replied. It would be something.
Nothing happened that night, but I was aroused. I don't mean sexually. My whole body was beating like the North Star that we could see outside the window. Like a beacon the star beamed, and when I went home and got out of my car, moths flew to me the way they're drawn to light, which I was. I went inside. My husband was sleeping in his study. Upstairs in the master bedroom, which I'd come to occupy by myself, I slowly took off my clothes.
I pictured taking off my clothes for Anna. Because I'm fat, and because I have had a bilateral mastectomy, I knew I would never actually do that, but I thought about it nevertheless. I imagined us in her dream house, by an interior stream, kissing. A woman! A woman?
A woman. I wrote woman on classification essay a piece of paper and then crossed out the w and the o so the word became man . Just two little letters separated the summary essay outline sexes; surely I could bridge that gap. Every embryo begins its life as basically female, and it's not until at least the seventh week of pregnancy that the classification fetus asserts its sex, setting into motion the development of a penis or a clitoris. I don't like the word penis , and I'm not so sure about clitoris or vagina either, but the actual penis I like well enough, whereas the actual vagina frightens me, the mound hiding an incredibly complex body part. These are not the feelings of a lesbian, or even a flexible bisexual. Given them, how could I have sex with Anna? And yet as I discovered more and more about her, as day after day, week after week, I met this amazing woman who wanted to cook for summary essay outline me and care for me and for whom I, in turn, could cook and care for, I found myself falling in love, and not just in friendship love but in sexual love, Anna's presence filling my body with spark.
For weeks I went back and forth in my mind. I had a nightmare—I forgot its contents, but it involved sleeping with a woman—and I realized, upon mothers, awakening, that no, I could not sleep with Anna. But then a day would go by in which we did not speak, and I'd find myself pining for christmas carol her and, when I saw her again, wanting nothing more than that. And then one night I had a fight with my husband. The fight was nothing new. He said something snarky to about, me, and I responded in summary critique essay kind.
I switched on the outside lights and stormed out of the classification about house and down to our barn, where I hung out christmas plan with my horses past midnight. I nuzzled Halo in her neck and about mothers felt Flame's hot breath on my face. I took Flame from classification and division essay prompts, her stall and mothers curried her coat until it gleamed like a wet chestnut. I put her back in her stall, said good night to my horses, and left the barn. Ahead of classification and division essay prompts, me the essay about mothers house was sunk in darkness. My husband had shut off all the summary critique essay outline lights, even though I was outside. I made my way slowly through the thick blackness, slid open the essay about mothers door, and regents essay flicked on the kitchen light so the classification room leapt to life: a half-eaten orange on a plate on the counter, the rough rind of the skin in scraps around it. The orange, its lantern color, its vitality, the way it was open like that—it all reminded me of Anna. Standing in my house, I realized that I wished I were standing in summary critique essay hers.
I turned on my computer and wrote her an e-mail, and at the end I said, Good night, loved one. Classification Essay About Mothers. And then we were together. She's certainly smart enough for you, my friend Jen said when I confided my affair. Smarter than me, by far. The first time we had sex, we lay for good hours on that couch in Vermont playing with each other's hands, and then slowly, so slowly, that gave way to kissing, and I kissed her first. I refused to take off my clothes because of my weight, but she pulled off hers with abandon, yanking her shirt over her head, her bra black, unsnapped, revealing two mounds tipped with pale pink, which I touched gingerly. Anna slid off her shorts, and a night went by, the window in our room wide open, the classification about cool spring air pouring in, the summary comforter stuffed with feathers, the muscles in her thigh defined, my fingers finding them, and more. I let her touch me, too, beneath the sheath of my clothes, but what I really remember is touching her—her body a brand-new continent, even though it shouldn't have been because it was in some sense identical to classification essay about, my own. But how strange, how odd, how confusing, trying to navigate the huge open space of the thesis statement on the lost female form, of classification essay about, this female form with its history and 1993 history dbq thesis pains and likes and dislikes, and not knowing any of it, really, and trying to find my way. In the midst of it all, I suddenly remembered my nightmare, its ugly contents: I'd been with a woman and felt disgusted by the prospect of oral sex with her, of any kind of sex; it had seemed revolting.
And now here I was, just weeks later, with a woman in an enormous bed, and nothing was disgusting, which surprised me. After all, are not dreams the royal road to the unconscious? And is not the unconscious the truest, most authentic expression of mothers, self? Apparently no and no, in essay my case. I like sex with a woman, but I also remain ambivalent about classification mothers, it, although that has nothing to do with Anna, whom I love without reservation. Evolution is thesis on the of roanoke godlike to me, and I can't help but think that my body is classification designed for a man: the interior pathway built for the sperm to race up toward the thesis statement on the lost of roanoke egg. If so, then am I somehow using my body in mothers a way that goes against nature—as retrograde and bigoted as that sounds? Seeking to reassure myself, I type homosexuality in the animal kingdom into Google, and I find articles in Nature and Science about same-sex relationships that occur between all kinds of animals, from bonobos to giraffes to fighter fish to birds. In fact, currently in a German zoo there exist a pair of homosexual male penguins. In an attempt to convert them, the zoo warden separated the couple and placed a Swedish female bird with each. But neither boy was interested in the girl, and carol plan the protest from the German gay community grew so loud that eventually the warden reunited the lovers, who frolicked once more.
• Prairie voles do it. • Primates of all variety do it. Therefore, I should have no doubt, no hesitation. I thought I was a freethinker, open to anything, and mothers I am, I am, but I am also not. I'm willing to go outside my heterosexual box, but I do so on tiptoes, glancing backward. Classification Prompts. I take my children to the Public Garden in Boston to celebrate spring, and about mothers everywhere there are heterosexual couples holding hands, not to mention the swans on the pond, regal and ivory with flaming orange beaks. One especially large swan waddles across the grass with seven babies following her, and in the green rushes by the river we find a nest—a nest!—and inside it a clutch of 1993 history, eggs I tell my children not to mothers, touch.
The eggs and the ivory swans and even the statement lost colony of roanoke smell of spring itself all seem to suggest to me that heterosexual sex is what makes the world go round, gay penguins or not. Mothers. There is now a heaviness in my limbs. Is Greed Good. I want to go home and classification about mothers slip between my sheets, to be alone with my body and its wayward wants. Regents. I know for a fact that were I to call Anna, she would come over and comfort me, whereas my husband would not. She would not judge.
She would put her hand on my head. Classification. She would make me soup from chives and coconut milk. 1993 Ap Us. Surely this sort of kindness cannot be bad—her ability to nurture so natural itself. I take my children home, but the image of the eggs stays with me. Dusk comes with a chill. I sit in a rocker with a blue shawl over my shoulders. The house is deeply quiet, the silence amplifying the classification sound of the kitchen clock as it ticktocks through time. I could spend my life in a dead marriage to global regents thematic essay religion, a man I still somehow love, a man in whom, buried beneath dreck and classification essay mothers dross, I can still discern the qualities that drew me to him: the humor, for statement on the lost colony instance, his elfin ways, his capacity for classification about kindness, none of and division essay prompts, it accessible to me but nonetheless visible like a ghost moving in essay about a world out of my reach. I read somewhere that most marriages survive until the offspring reach age seven, at which point the children no longer necessarily need the attention of is greed good essay, two parents. About Mothers. Evolution, always seeking to protect the progeny, has apparently wired us to remain wed for almost a decade. Were Anna an Aaron I would be just as attracted.
What counts for me, apparently, isn't the gender of my partner but the ineffable essence. As I rock, a deer leaps out of the woods and across the thematic essay religion lawn, and then it's gone. The clock talks. I've been alive one half of a century, and about my lifetime is dwindling down. I don't want my days to essay, be dry. I am seeking companionship, love, and essay about the object of my affections just happens to be female. I am not attracted to Anna because she is regents essay religion female. I am attracted to Anna because she is Anna. Were Anna an Aaron I would be just as attracted. What counts for me, apparently, isn't the gender of about, my partner but the ineffable essence. As for the evolutionary imperatives, if I'm cared for myself, does that not give me more strength to care for my children?
I've noticed that since my affair with Anna began, my husband and I are fighting less, and essay thus a certain toxic tension has been lifted from the household. I've heard that this is common, that affairs can improve primary relationships. Because the straying party tries harder out of classification mothers, guilt? Because she just doesn't care anymore? For me, maybe it's that I'm better able to withstand what I have now because I know that change is just around the corner. Summary. I'm fairly certain that I will leave my husband, and I hope, eventually, that he and I will remain friends who together parent our best beloveds. In the meantime, I rediscover a playfulness.
The day after we visit the garden, I take my daughter shopping and insist she try on sundresses with skinny straps, patterned with bursting flowers—clothes of color and classification essay about character that she ultimately rejects, but still. We have fun in essay prompts that store. I hug my son hard, riffle my fingers through his sandy blond hair. Evolutionary biologists admit that homosexuality has them stumped. Gay sex doesn't yield children, so why hasn't it been selected out of the population? That homosexuality has endured and is found in a wide range of species across the globe suggests that same-sex pairings must play a role in the roll of classification, generations. There is one study suggesting that people who are relatively open to lost colony, same-sex erotic behavior—and who are thus assumed to essay, be more likely to classification and division essay, engage in about mothers it—have higher levels of progesterone, a hormone related to outline, bonding and caretaking. Classification About. Could it be that gay people are particularly good at nurturing children, and that trait has helped them survive the good essay Darwinian elimination game? Another study, involving Samoan islanders, seemed to back up this so-called kin-selection theory: Researchers found that gay Samoan men were more involved with their nieces and nephews than were their heterosexual counterparts of both sexes. Much of this is speculation, of course, and that I need to investigate the evolutionary advantages of about mothers, homosexuality unnerves me. When my husband and I wed, we had my close lesbian friend lead the ceremony.
We acknowledged out loud that our marriage was privileged and that there were millions of same-sex couples who could not enjoy the benefits of a heterosexual union. Classification Prompts. Which is to say I've always seen myself as utterly accepting of homosexuality, but my relationship with Anna has revealed a corner of homophobia inside me. And while sex with Anna has shown me a whole new world of pleasurable possibilities, I still can't bring myself to try oral sex, though I will say that my objections to it were initially knee-jerk, whereas now I'm just cowardly. What began as an aversion has softened to a crisis of confidence, a severe shyness. Last weekend Anna and I went to Martha's Vineyard. We stayed in classification about mothers the house of one of her friends, who loaned it to us for a weekend getaway. Carol. If you stood in the heart of the house and listened hard, you could hear the murmur of the sea over the hill and classification essay down a steep slope of wild grasses. Everywhere in this house were ocean-worn rocks—smooth, silky stones that the summary critique outline owner, an exquisite artist and sculptor, had drawn on with colored wax pencils, transforming a plain and plebeian object into something of artistic beauty.
There were stones of angels and stones of the sun; there were stones of waterfalls and of tigers pacing through thick fields. Classification Essay. There were tiny stones with tiny drawings on them and stones too big to christmas carol plan, hold in about your hand. Next to the painted stones was a wire basket holding newly found ones, and carol essay plan I took one in my hand. It was large and classification about almost hard to hold. It felt like it had been tongued by thesis statement lost colony the sea for a million years, worn with the palest pattern on it: scales, maybe, or the fossilized imprint of a crawling crab. Everyone who visits here has to draw on a stone, Anna told me. I've never been able to draw, and I balked at my assignment. You have to about mothers, do it, Anna said. Is Greed Essay. She loaned us her house. We owe her the present.
I pressed my cheek to the smooth side of the classification essay about rock I was holding, a solid pillow. Christmas Carol Essay Plan. I tentatively picked up a pencil, and, without any more thought, plunged into the task—surprised by classification mothers the lush lines of color, by the feeling of drawing on a three-dimensional surface, which is not at all like drawing on good paper. Classification About. There are curves you must navigate, rounded spots and edges that give way to other sides. Suddenly the stone seemed infinite, and I wondered how old it really was and if maybe it had once been part of a meteorite: a stone from space above space, from ap us, a black hole, from dark matter, from an essay about, astral galaxy we had yet to detect with even the largest of lenses. A feeling of sacredness came over me, of being sucked back into the tunnel of time. I was young again, a tiny child without reservation or consternation; I was free. Everywhere around me was grass and wind. I had no doubts and was all impulse, the spark from one neuron to summary essay, another.
I picked up a pencil with a deep-rose tip and made my circle, shapes suddenly easy to create, the neck and shoulders, the bare breasts, the classification essay about mothers torso twisted just a little, and global thematic essay religion the legs, one lifted up high and one set solidly on the green ground. I made an image of classification mothers, a naked woman that actually looked to me something like a naked woman (although later, when I showed my stone to Anna, she thought I'd drawn a giraffe); my woman was stepping on stone, stepping through stone, doing the carol essay plan impossible, coming through solid sediment with what seemed to me to be enormous power and pulse. Essay About Mothers. My own pulse quickened; I could feel its rhythm in my temple and my wrists. I gave my woman veins and a ruby heart. I gave her hands and on the lost hair.
And when I was done, I had a drawing that, even in classification its resemblance to a giraffe, was still well beyond my abilities, that came from some place inside me I could not name. I wondered how many rooms there were inside me that I'd yet to explore, how many doors still clicked closed, how many palindromes, how many people, how many worlds, and whether they would all be as beautiful as the stone in the sky we call earth: this planet holding oceans and fields and so many human hearts, each with two billion beats in a lifetime. Regents Thematic Essay. That's what we get, two billion beats, not much more and sometimes much less. All humans, our hearts hammering on classification essay until one day they stop, and the body gets buried, and we go back to being atoms with their spinning centers, microscopic flecks of enormous energy and classification essay prompts light, as though packed with all of classification essay mothers, our lifetime love—its curves and caresses, its sudden surprises, its real revelations, its long-gone losses, its mourning melodies, its coconut-soup comfort—all of it happening in classification essay two billion beats of the human heart turning on our stone in the sky. This article originally appears in the November 2015 issue of ELLE.
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Essay on Mother for Children and Students
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constructive essay Center on English Learning Achievement. Writing and Reading Relationships: Constructive Tasks. Judith A. Langer and Sheila Flihan. * This excerpt is a chapter in classification essay about mothers, Writing: Research/Theory/Practice, Roselmina Indrisano and James R. Squire, Eds., Newark, DE: International Reading Association, 2000.
Writing and reading theory and research have very different, although sometimes overlapping, histories. As such, throughout most of the twentieth century, the relationship between them was not regarded as a topic of either theoretical or pragmatic concern. 1993 Ap Us Dbq Thesis. However, during a relatively brief period of time, primarily in the 1980's, reading and writing became a distinct body of inquiry. It grew from separate bodies of scholarship and focused on separate aspects of education as well as on different grade levels. This small but intense body of scholarship and research into essay about mothers, the interrelationships between writing and reading also focused on ways in which those relationships might affect learning, and is greed inform instruction. It was initially motivated and shaped by extensive research on cognitive processes in classification essay about mothers, the separate fields of writing and reading, primarily from a constructivist perspective. Here, both writing and reading were linked to language and communication as well as reasoning. A concomitant wave of research into the social dimensions of writing and reading, with an summary critique essay outline, eye to their actual functions and uses, moved the target of theory and classification mothers research toward contextualized practice within real life and real school situations. As a result, one route of thematic religion scholarship began to examine literacy or, rather, literate acts as they serve social and communicative uses, with a concomitant shift in the focus of inquiry away from writing and reading relationships, and toward the classification essay, ways in which they function in dbq thesis, the contexts of life, both in and outside the classroom. As the essay mothers, object of inquiry became more contextualized, similarities and differences in the writing and summary critique reading processes and the ways in essay about, which reading and writing develop, affect each other, and relate to learning and thematic schooling became less focal.
They did not, however, become less important. Classification Essay About Mothers. We will review these changes and 1993 history close the chapter with a call for a renewed although somewhat changed research focus on the uses of reading and writing and classification essay mothers the ways in which reading and writing interact in relation to the contexts and social relations in which they are embedded. Informed by summary critique outline past as well as current knowledge from the perspectives of sociocognitive, sociohistorical, and essay mothers critical theory as well as psychology, linguistics, anthropology and English, this renewed focus will examine ways in which reading and writing function in the development and communication of ideas and understandings in the social, private, and internal worlds of people and groups. A Brief History of Writing and Reading Research. Until the christmas carol plan, 1970's writing and reading were not conceptualized as being integrated.
At most, they were regarded as separate, perhaps related, language processes. In part, this is because notions of writing and reading grew from different traditions. Taking an historical look back, one sees a conceptual and essay mothers disciplinary schism between scholarship in writing and reading. They have been shaped by different scholars having different backgrounds and training. Writing, as an academic subject, is deeply rooted in essay prompts, classic Aristotelian rhetoric. Focusing on invention, arrangement, style, memory and delivery, Aristotelian rhetoric was intended for the very well educated (usually male) individual.
It dominated course work in American colleges during the 18th century and was modeled after the curriculum already taught in English universities (Langer Allington, 1992, p. 688). By the 1800#146;s the about, work of 1993 Campbell (1963 ) and Blair's (1965 ) belles-lettres view of rhetoric became widespread in the United States, bringing appreciation of the essay about mothers, art of writing into the commonplace tradition (Langer Allington, 1992, p. 688). While rhetoric continued to emphasize grammar, diction, word choice, etc., there was a new focus on the functions of discourse and the study of literary models. Toward the end of the 19th century these traditional notions of writing were challenged by practical, functional views of writing and by the progressive movement. The work of Carpenter, Baker Scott (1903) and Dewey (1915), calling for experiential student-centered education became influential, but it did not replace traditional notions of and approaches to writing.
Writing remained rooted in rhetoric through the essay, 1940s, 50s and 60s, but the emphasis shifted among classic Aristotelian views, expressionist views, and the new rhetoric. Interest in writing processes grew in the 1970's and classification essay mothers 80's. Work in the fields of language and cognition (Anderson Bower, 1973; Chafe, 1970; Chomsky, 1965; Fillmore, 1968; 1, 1970; Rumelhart, 1975; Schank Ableson, 1977; Searle, 1969; Tulving, 1972; Winograd, 1972) led to a research emphasis on the relationships among writing processes, the learner and christmas carol essay plan the text (Bereiter Scardamalia, 1982; Emig, 1971; Flower Hayes, 1980; Hillocks, 1972). The perspectives of sociolinguistic and anthropological approaches to research (Cazden, John, Hymes, 1972; Cicourel et al., 1974; Cook-Gumperz, Gumperz, Simon, 1982; Erickson Shultz, 1977; Frake, 1983; Halliday, 1976; Heath, 1983; McDermott, 1977; Mischler, 1979; Shuy, 1967; Sinclair Coulthard, 1975) led to a continued emphasis on these relationships, but also on the individual learner in a specific context making use of writing and reading for specific purposes that had social and interpersonal meaning. The early history of reading follows a different course. Tradition in reading curriculum relied on British notions of classification essay primary instruction (for method), on summary essay outline, religion (for content), and by the later 1800's on scientific experiments (for theory) (Langer Allington, 1992, p. 694). Progressive views emphasizing the classification essay mothers, individual learner and student centered instruction affected reading, but by the early 1900's reading was already deeply rooted in psychological research. In fact, the combined effects of the expanding scientific research base and good the application of management principles to essay about mothers, the organization of schools seemed to overwhelm the essay, influence of the progressive reading educators (Langer Allington, 1992, p. 695). Reading research, curriculum and instruction continued to be shaped by associationist and behaviorist psychology through the 1940's, 50's and 60's. Classification About Mothers. During this time reading was also influenced by research and theory in language and concept development (e.g., Bloom, 1971; Bruner, 1960, 1966; Inhelder Piaget, 1958), linguistics (e.g., Bloomfield, 1942; Fries, 1963), and psycholinguistics (e.g. Goodman, 1967; Smith 1971).
During the 1970's the fields of sociolinguistics and plan language acquisition became influential. Cognitive psychology and constructivist perspectives began to shape reading research as attention began to shift toward the meaning construction that occurs during reading and toward the interactions between reader and text. Due to their different beginnings, research traditionally approached writing and reading as distinct areas of exploration. The 1980's marked a change in focus. Research began to examine the relationships between writing and reading as cognitive and social processes. Throughout the last decade, research has maintained its interest in writing and reading as separate but interdependent and interrelated acts, while interest in literacy, has grown steadily. Distinctions are now made between literacy as the act of writing and reading and classification essay about literacy as a way of thinking and speaking (Langer 1987). Language is a tool and literacy is culturally based involves the higher intellectual skill appropriate to classification and division, the culture, and is learned by children as they interact with families and communities (Langer, 1987, p. Classification Essay Mothers. 2). Langer’s sociocognitive view of literacy is fully compatible with the distinction Collins (1995) makes between a universalist or autonomous literacy, seen as a general, uniform set of techniques and uses of language, with identifiable stages and clear consequences for is greed good essay culture and cognition, and relativist or situated literacies, seen as diverse, historically and culturally variable practices with texts (Collins, 1995, p. 75-76).
In light of these expanded views, literacy research has a broader scope. While the skills, processes and interplay of reading and writing remain important, they are much less distinct. Therefore, the central focus of research on literacy examines reading and writing as they embedded in social and cultural contexts. Influenced by the field of anthropology and the methods of ethnographic research, literacy studies now explore how, when and essay about mothers where reading and writing are used, by whom and for what purposes. This shift is evident in the titles of literature published between 1984 and 1997. The titles of reports and books published by National Council of Teachers of English, International Reading Association and nine major journals in the fields of education, reading and essay English were searched using descriptors such as reading and writing, writing and reading, and literacy.
This search yielded 164 titles. Essay About Mothers. Seventy-three percent of these titles contain the word literacy. Twenty-seven percent of the titles contain the words reading and writing or writing and reading. Interestingly, eighty-two percent of the publications with the word literacy in the title were published between 1990 and 1997. Only eighteen percent were published between 1984 and 1989. Publications with the words reading and writing or writing and reading in the title seem more evenly distributed, with forty-three percent being published between 1984 and 1989 and fifty-seven percent being published between 1990 and 1993 1997. Writing and Reading Relationships. Writing and reading have long been considered to be related activities. Along with listening and classification about mothers speaking, they have been treated by educators as essential components of the English language arts pie, at thesis on the lost of roanoke least since the National Conference on Research in essay about, English Charter in 1932 (Petty, 1983). The very image of a pie, with its separate slices, illustrates the collected but separate way in which the parts were construed to relate. However, a large and extremely influential body of research from a constructivist perspective (Anderson, Spiro Montague, 1977; Bereiter Scardamalia, 1982; Hayes Flower, 1980; Spiro, Bruce Brewer, 1980) indicates that reading and writing development are characterized by gradually more sophisticated rule-governed representations, and that the learner is an active problem-solver who is influenced by background knowledge, text, and good essay context.
A concomitant and eventually equally influential body of work, primarily from a sociolinguistic, sociocultural, and sociohistorical perspective (Chafe, 1970; Cook-Gumperz Gumperz, 1981; Halliday, 1975; Heath, 1983; Scribner Cole, 1981; Stubbs, 1980; Vygotsky, 1978, 1986) permitted consideration of ways in which life's experiences as well as the uses and functions of writing and reading affect not only the acts of classification essay about mothers writing and reading, but how they relate. As early as the 1960s, during the period of extensive interdisciplinary research into language and thought spearheaded by the Center for essay religion Cognitive Studies at Harvard (e.g., Brown Bellugi, 1964; Bruner, Goodnow Austin, 1956; Weir, 1962), writing and reading were regarded as related language processes. Loban (1963), in his important longitudinal study of students' reading and writing development across 4th, 6th, and 9th grades, indicated strong relationships between reading and writing as measured by test scores. He reported that students who wrote well also read well, and that the converse was true. Further, these relationships become even more pronounced across the school grades. In 1983, Stotsky published a review of correlational and experimental studies that investigated reading and writing relationships. Her much cited synthesis spans approximately fifty years from the beginning of the 1930's to 1981. Correlational studies to that time showed that better writers tend to classification essay mothers, be better readers (of their own writing as well as of summary other reading material), that better writers tend to read more than poorer writers, and that better readers tend to produce more syntactically mature writing than poorer readers (p. Mothers. 636). With regard to instruction she reported, Studies that sought to 1993 history, improve writing by providing reading experiences in place of grammar study or additional writing practice found that these experiences were as beneficial as, or more beneficial than, grammar study or extra writing practice.
Studies that used literary models also found significant gains in writing. Classification Essay. On the summary outline, other hand, almost all studies that sought to essay mothers, improve writing through reading instruction were ineffective (p. 636). However, the cumulative research through the 1993 ap us history, beginning of 1980 was sparse, and mothers did not focus on explaining the nature of the interrelationships between the two processes. A number of scholars contributed toward a growing conception of reading and writing relationships by focusing on students' engagement in essay, the tasks, describing how from the early years, children use signs and classification essay about symbols (both those in their environment and those they invent) to gain and convey meaning, even as they are first acquiring the conventionally accepted codes (Bissex, 1980; Clay, 1975; Read, 1971).
Wittrock (1983) considered the generative nature of both domains; De Ford (1981) noted the supporting and interactive nature of the processes as they occur in primary classrooms; and Goodman and Goodman (1983) described relationships between the two based upon the pragmatic functions of each. Statement Of Roanoke. Through efforts to comminicate through writing and reading, they gradually adopt both symbols and conventions of use. Eckhoff (1983) found that the second grade students she studied tended to imitate the style and structure of the basals used for reading instruction, which affected the organizational structures and linguistic complexity of the essay about, students' writing. Chall Jacobs (1983) conducted a study of good writing and reading development among poor children, based on NAEP-like test scores. Although reading and writing scores in grades 2 and 3 were good, they noted a deceleration in proficiency gains beginning in grades 4 and mothers 5 and continuing through grade 7. Factor analyses indicated that reading and writing were strongly related. Together, this work suggested that the two domains do have an impact upon one another, with implications for enhancing learning. It also suggested a need to better understand the underlying processes of writing and reading and how they relate to one another. Writing and Reading Processes: Similarities and Differences.
Constructivist theory as well as research asserts that writing and reading are both meaning-making activities (Anderson, Spiro Montague, 1977; Gregg Steinberg, 1980). hen people write and read, meaning is continually in a state of becoming. The mind anticipates, looks back, and forms momentary impressions that change and grow as meaning develops (Fillmore, 1981; Langer, 1984). Language, syntax, and ap us history structure are all at play as texts-in-the-head and classification essay texts-on-paper develop. Because writing and reading involve the development of meaning, both were conceptualized as composing activities in the sense that both involve planning, generating and revising meaning -- which occur recursively throughout the meaning-building process as a person's text world or envisionment grows. From this perspective, some scholars speak of the writer as a reader and the reader as a writer (Graves Hansen, 1983; Smith, 1983). According to Smith (1983) reading like a writer allows one to actually become a writer. When reading like a writer, in addition to making meaning of the text, the reader takes in and learns from the author#146;s style, use of is greed good conventions and the like. About Mothers. When reading like a writer, the thematic essay, reader uses the author#146;s text as a model for texts that he or she reader will eventually write. During the development of a piece, the writer always does a certain amount of reading. And, further, writers often try to place themselves in the shoes of their audience, the readers, in order to check the comprehensibility of their presentation from the reader's perspective. In a similar manner, the reader has also been considered a writer in mothers, that the global essay religion, reader's mind races ahead to anticipate (and thus create) not only the mothers, message, but also the structure and presentational style of a piece; words are thought of as well as ideas, in ways in good essay, which they might appear (Bereiter Scardamalia, 1982; Flower Hayes, 1980).
Thus, a reader's text can be compared with an author's text, and revised when needed. This sense of writing as reading provides a sense of personal engagement to the reading experience. Readers also sometimes place themselves in the shoes of the classification about, author in order to gain a personal or cultural perspective that enriches their own responses or interpretation (Purves, 1993) Tierney Pearson (1983) argued that both readers and thesis on the colony of roanoke writers compose meaning. They described as essential characteristics of the effective composing process: planning, drafting, aligning, revising, and monitoring. Further, they saw these acts of composing as involving continuous, recurring, and recursive transactions among readers and writers, their respective inner selves, and their perceptions of each other's goals and desires (p. Essay About. 578). They distinguished their conception from earlier notions of reading and writing relationships in a number of ways including treating the two domains as multi-modal processes and christmas essay considering the inner as well as social selves of the classification essay, writer and reader.
Tierney (1985), in essay, a later description of this model, suggests that purpose also plays a role, Both reading and writing are tools in accordance with the classification, purposes they serve; they cannot be extracted from christmas carol plan context (p. 115). Both domains were also considered similar composing activities in that writers and readers use similar kinds of knowledge (Aulls, 1985; Flood Lapp,1987; Kucer, 1987) in the act of making their meanings: knowledge about language, knowledge about content, knowledge about genre conventions, knowledge about organization and structure, knowledge of pragmatics (in this case about the appropriate use of other kinds of classification about knowledge in relation to the activity -- the author's purpose for having written the piece, or their own purposes for having taken up that act of writing or reading), and knowledge about interaction (especially between reader and author). Rubin Hansen (1986) suggested that different types of knowledge that can be tapped through reading instruction might transfer to writing instruction: informational knowledge, structural knowledge, transactional knowledge, aesthetic knowledge, and process knowledge. Flower (1988) adds knowledge of purpose.
She asks how writers come by their sense of purpose; how (or whether) readers are affected by the rhetorical structure woven by prompts writers; and how individual purposes interact with context and convention in about mothers, the creation and interpretation of a text. She calls for more studies on the active strategies of writers and readers and their relationships. Researchers have also pointed to specific differences between writing and classification reading. About Mothers. In her study of children reading and writing, Langer (1986a) found that while reading and writing are cognitively related efforts with regard to meaning making, they are markedly different with regard to activity, strategy and purpose. Colony Of Roanoke. They also differ across ages with regard to the variety of classification essay mothers approaches that they use and global regents religion the behaviors they exhibit while reading or writing. Langer (1986a), developed a procedure for analyzing the knowledge sources, reasoning operations, monitoring behaviors and specific strategies used during the course of mothers meaning construction before, during and after reading and writing, for and division essay prompts a study of 3rd, 6th and 9th graders' reading and writing of stories and reports. She found that although the same reasoning behaviors are called upon when reading and writing for meaning, the patterns of each category showed differences between writing and reading.
Specifically, the study identified differences in about, behaviors and their frequency of use in response to the nature of the task. When reading and writing, students' dominant concern was found to be with the thematic essay, meanings they were developing. There are stable and consistent approaches to envisionment building that emerged, as evidenced in the students' focus on classification mothers, ideas, content, product, and refinement of meaning. These structures and strategies changed in similar ways as the language user matured. However, underlying this overall focus were such differences as a slightly higher concern with bottom-up issues such as mechanics, syntax, text, and statement on the colony lexical choices when writing as compared to reading (p.94). Also, when students wrote they were more aware of and concerned with the strategies they used to get at meaning. While writing they were more concerned with setting goals and sub-goals. When reading, on the other hand, they focused more on content and validation of the text-worlds they were developing.
Shanahan's (1987) study was quite different from Langer's, yet some findings are similar. He used four reading measures and eight writing measures to study the magnitude and nature of the reading and writing relationship, and to estimate the amount of overlap that exists between the about mothers, components of writing and reading used in his study of statement on the of roanoke 2nd and 5th grade students' writing and reading. His findings suggest that the idea that reading and writing are identical in terms of underlying knowledge, does not appear to be true (p. 98). Although the correlations he found between the reading and writing variables he examined were significant, they were much lower than would have been expected if the two domains were identical. Shanahan concludes that, In fact, the correlations are low enough that it would be unwise to expect automatic improvements to derive from the combination of classification essay reading and writing or from the thesis lost colony, replacement of one with the other (p. 98). Webster Ammon (1994) used a Piagetian framework to explore the essay about, relationship between cognitive scores (specific classification and seriation tasks) and specific reading and writing tasks at the elementary level. In interpreting the generally low correlations, they concluded that facility with the relevant cognitive skill is necessary but not sufficient (p.
101) for a high level of performance in writing and reading. Also, like Langer (1986a ) their findings indicated that reading and writing differences are more powerful predictors of children's approaches towards meaning development than is genre (p. 104). Together, the work on reading and writing processes indicates that writing and reading are deeply related activities of language and thesis colony of roanoke thought that are shaped through use. The structures and strategies that writers and readers use to organize, remember, and present their ideas are generally the same in writing and reading. Classification Mothers. However, the structure of the regents thematic essay religion, message and the strategies used to classification essay about mothers, formulate and organize it are driven by statement on the lost colony of roanoke purpose and essay therefore different. Writing and Reading Relationships With Regard to Instruction. Researchers and scholars interested in writing and classification reading connections have also considered ways in which the classification about, two, conceptualized as related composing processes, might implicate various uses of language and thought, and affect students' learning. Specifically, research began to christmas plan, examine how the processes of reading and writing are related in actual practice. Classification About. Researchers also looked at the ways in essay outline, which students' knowledge of writing and reading processes can influence and support reading and classification about writing respectively in the classroom. They also studied the kinds of classroom contexts and instructional activities that might foster reading and writing as mutually beneficial activities.
When approached as similar, related composing processes rather than as isolated skills and behaviors, writing and reading can influence and support the development of reading, writing, and thinking (Squire, 1983). Writers incorporate what they have learned about language, structure and style from the texts they have encountered as readers. They also reflect on their knowledge of texts they have read and experiences they have had as a way of generating and synthesizing ideas for writing. In becoming familiar with and gaining experience in writing and regents reading texts even first graders can develop a sense of authorship that helps them in either composing process (Graves Hansen, 1983, p. 182). The experience and knowledge that is mothers, shared between reading and writing can strengthen a writer's ability to read and a reader's ability to write (Blatt Rosen, 1987; Butler Turbil, 1984; Rubin Hansen, 1986; Shanahan Lomax, 1986). In a study which compared the interactive model, the reading to write model, and the writing to read model of the writing and reading relationship (Shanahan Lomax, 1986), writing samples from 256 second graders and 251 first graders were examined with regard to specific reading and writing dimensions. Analyses showed that the students' work at both grade levels was best described by the interactive model of the reading and writing relationship that suggests the transfer of knowledge between the two processes. This transfer and sharing of knowledge is also demonstrated in a study of fifth graders sharing their poetry as well as the work of published authors (Comstock, 1992). Over time, students began borrowing literary techniques, like the use of imagery and repetition, from each other. They also began to look to their surroundings for ideas that might prompt them to write. Blatt Rosen's (1987) account of a young child's ability to thesis on the lost of roanoke, call on her experience as a listener and reader of classification mothers fairy tales as she wrote her own also demonstrates this transfer of knowledge between writing and reading.
She was able to create a tale that includes a protagonist, an antagonist, and a conflict and begins with Once upon a time much like all the tales with which she is familiar (p. Is Greed Good. 123). It seems that reading and writing intersect in natural ways when literate persons are actively using reading and classification essay mothers writing to learn (Hanson et. al, 1991, p. 58). This, in light of research, has implications for what might happen in classrooms that encourage thinking and global regents religion learning through purposeful reading and writing. It also has implications for what classrooms that support reading and writing relationships might look like. To begin, research tells us that successful instruction in both reading and writing can begin in the earliest grades (Butler Turbil, 1984; Clay, 1985; Graves Hansen, 1983; Shanahan Lomax, 1986), and are best learned when not taught in isolation from each other (Blatt Rosen, 1987; Butler Turbil, 1984; Sternglass, 1987).
Even though it is possible for instruction in writing to improve students' reading comprehension of informational texts (Raphael, Kirschner Englert, 1988), to classification, affect overall learning, instruction does best to focus on both reading and writing (Ferris Snyder, 1986; Shanahan, 1984). Instruction in one cannot replace instruction in the other if all language curriculum goals are to be met (Ferris Snyder, 1986, p. 755). In the classroom, students do best with frequent and extended opportunities to read and on the of roanoke write (Blatt Rosen, 1987; Butler Turbil, 1984; Hanson, et. al, 1991; Rubin Hansen, 1986) and when exposed to a body of literature that represents a variety of genres, topics, and styles (Blatt Rosen, 1987; Butler Turbil, 1984; Comstock, 1992). Essay Mothers. Providing students with choice in what they read and is greed good write and are encouraged to classification essay, read and essay write, and opportunities to write about topics and ideas that interest them and with which they are familiar positively affects their attitudes toward and opportunities to learn (Hanson, 1991; Rubin Hansen, 1986). Teachers most successfully support their students' reading and writing development when they create a variety of learning contexts, such as cooperative learning groups and peer dyads, where discussion and instructional scaffolding support students' needs (Hiebert, 1991). Essay. Within these contexts teachers help students explore their understandings by providing them with ample opportunities to consider personal responses to the texts they compose and to make links between their prior experiences and what they are reading and writing. Students share their ideas and insights and feel that they will be accepted by members of the classroom community (Blatt Rosen, 1987; Butler Turbil, 1984; Comstock, 1992; Graves Hansen, 1983; Hanson et. al, 1991; Rubin Hansen, 1986; Sternglass, 1987).
From this perspective, classrooms serve as contexts where readers can develop their understandings through their knowledge and expertise as writers and vice versa. Instruction that encourages meaning making through reading and writing is based on statement, an understanding of reading and writing as related composing processes. In the classroom, a failure to essay mothers, recognize that composing and comprehending are process-oriented thinking skills which are basically interrelated. impedes our efforts not only to teach children to read and dbq thesis write, but our efforts to teach them how to think (Squire, 1983, p. 581). Writing and classification essay Reading as Related to Thinking, Conceptualizing and Communicating Knowledge. Moving beyond an examination of the ways in which writing and reading are related is research that examines how reading and writing, as processes, are used to statement lost, conceptualize and communicate thoughts and ideas. This research looks at classification essay the synergism (Tierney, 1992, p. 250) between the interrelated meaning making activities of reading and writing.
During these activities it is the interplay of mind and classification and division essay prompts text that brings about new interpretations, reformulations of ideas, and new learnings (Langer, 1986a, p. 2-3). A number of these studies have examined how reading and writing interact and are informed by one's facility with writing and reading respectively. In addition to demonstrating that children's writing is heavily influenced by their reading experiences, De Ford's (1981) observations of first graders indicate that there is a supportive, interactive relationship between the essay mothers, reading and writing processes. Children learn about how to become writers from reading as well as how to become readers. By understanding authorship, they sort out what reading is all about through writing (De Ford, 1981, p. 657).
A sense of authorship can lead to on the colony, the development of critical literacy in which the reader/writer moves past simply understanding the content of the text or using it as a model to be imitated and mothers begins to question, test, shape and reshape it (Flower, 1990). Greene (1992) expands on this notion of learning to become a writer through reading by introducing the metaphor of mining as a means of exploring how writers read when they have an eye toward authoring their own texts. By comparing the think aloud protocols of several students who are reading argumentative essays with the intention of eventually writing one, Greene looks at how mining a text and critically reading a text differ. Mining is fueled by three key strategies that can inform reading: reconstructing context, inferring or imposing structure, and seeing choices in language. [Using these strategies], a reader can begin to make informed guesses about how to use the ideas or discourse features of a given text in light of his or her goals as a writer (Greene, 1992, p. 155). Global Regents Thematic Religion. When mining, a sense of authorship guides the classification about mothers, reader. Christmas Plan. By using the three strategies the miner of a text engages in an ongoing process of reading, analyzing, and authoring that recognizes the mothers, social nature of discourse.
Each piece of writing that a student reads or writes is a contribution to an ongoing written conversation (p. 158). Conversely, the critical reader engages in a search for meaning by breaking down isolated texts. Little attention is given to the kind of knowledge that would enable them to apply their critical reading skills to other tasks (p. 1993 Ap Us Dbq Thesis. 159). Questions about how a sense of authorship can guide reading are also taken up by studies examining how writers create new texts of their own from multiple sources which may include the texts they are reading presently as well as their own prior knowledge. Readers/writers transform texts (Spivey, 1990) through the constructive tasks of selecting, connecting and organizing information from source texts and prior knowledge. Classification Essay About. This incorporation of prior knowledge is what Stein (1990) refers to as elaboration.
This cognitive process is the principle means by which information from memory is combined with source text material in the reading process (p. 146). Summary. Elaborations during reading create a pool of ideas from which to draw during the writing process (p. 147). Whether referred to as reading to write (Flower, 1990; Stein, 1990) or composing from sources (McGinley, 1992; Spivey, 1990; Spivey King, 1989), the readers/writers are involved in processes of reading and writing that are so integrated. that boundaries between the essay mothers, two processes tend to blur.
When writers compose. from sources, reading and writing processes blend, making it difficult, if not. impossible, to distinguish what is being done for purposes of reading and from. what is being done for purposes of writing. we often cannot say whether a writer. performs a certain operation to make meaning of the text that is read or to make. meaning for the text that is being written (Spivey, 1990 p. 258). Creating new texts in this way is a complex and recursive process (McGinley, 1992) in which context (e.g., task, setting, prior experience of reader/writer), one#146;s expertise as a reader, and his or her ability to use strategies play important roles (Flower, 1990; McGinley, 1992; Stein, 1990; Spivey, 1990; Spivey King, 1989). Research has also considered the effects of regents thematic essay religion reading and writing on thinking and how different types of writing tasks shape thinking and learning. It suggests that reading and writing in combination are more likely to prompt critical thinking than when reading is separated from about mothers writing or when reading is carol plan, combined with knowledge activation or answering questions (Tierney et al., 1989, p. 134). Research also looks more specifically at the types of writing that shape thinking (Greene 1993; Langer, 1986b; Langer Applebee, 1987; Marshall, 1987; Newell, 1984; Newell Winograd, 1989).
In the content areas, essay writing was found to be more beneficial than answering questions or taking notes regardless of students#146; prior knowledge (Newell, 1984). Students involved in note-taking and classification responding to study questions seem to concentrate on remembering and classification essay prompts regurgitating specific information from the text. Essay writing, on the other hand, provides students with opportunities to make connections and think broadly about a topic. Mothers. These studies indicate that the greatest variety of reasoning operations occur during essay writing, suggesting that this type of activity provides time for 1993 ap us dbq thesis students to think most flexibly as they develop their ideas (Langer Applebee 1987, p. About. 100). These findings are supported by thesis statement lost of roanoke Marshall's (1987) examination of the relationship between writing and the understanding of literature. By looking at the effects of restricted writing, personal analytic writing, and formal analytic writing, he found that restricted writing like responding to short answer questions may actually hinder students' understanding of literary texts because such tasks fail to provide students with an opportunity to essay about mothers, explore and essay prompts elaborate on possible interpretations. Similarly, Greene (1993) studied the ways in which problem-based essays and report writing assignments shaped history students#146; thinking as they attempted to essay, compose from multiple sources. He found that both tasks allowed students to develop their understanding of history. There was no significant effect for the type of task with regard to learning.
However, [d]ifferent tasks of writing encouraged students not only to think about historical issues differently but also to supply different patterns of on the lost of roanoke organization in writing about these issues. Differences in text structure concretely reflected students' differential interpretations of how to go about writing reports and solving problems (p. 72). Clearly, the focus of research has shifted. Emphasis on reading and classification essay about writing as parallel processes with similar cognitive strategies has yielded to understanding the integration of reading and writing and essay the interaction between the mind and text. Within this body of classification essay mothers research, process and purpose remain focal. Also, the effects of grade and ability level on reading and writing persist as areas of concern. Finally, the contexts in which reading and writing are embedded gain increasing attention. Writing and Reading as Literacy Events. As sociolinguistic, sociocultural and statement on the colony anthropological perspectives became more influential, new ways of thinking, talking, and classification essay about mothers learning about critique essay, literacy took hold.
There was growing interest in the interactions surrounding text and the ways in which interactions between and among individuals, who they are, and why they are writing and classification essay reading influence meaning making. Summary Critique. Research that continues to grow from this orientation asks that we reconsider previous ways of looking at writing and reading relationships; reading and writing are considered as intertwined and inseparable language tools. From this vantage point, the attention of research turns to literate behaviors and literate ways of thinking. Here, literacy means the classification essay about mothers, ability to manipulate the language and thought involved when people make sense in a variety of situations; it involves ways of thinking that are learned in the many contexts of is greed life (Langer, 1987; 1995). The functions and uses of oral, written, and spoken language as well as the classification mothers, images and other semiotic meaning-bearing devices encountered and used in the variety of everyday life experiences (John-Steiner, 1995; New London Group, 1996) are the essay, focus.
Research from this perspective has focused on the ways in which adolescents, adults, and even the very young use language to construct meaning within particular social and cultural communities (Dyson, 1989, 1992; Heath, 1983; Scribner Cole, 1981; Teale Sulzby, 1986). Within this body of research the literacy event is classification about mothers, a conceptual tool useful in classification and division, examining within particular communities of modern society the actual forms and functions of oral and literate traditions and classification essay co-existing relationships between spoken and written language (Heath, 1988, p. 350). Research observes the carol essay plan, ongoing activities that make up literacy events occurring in essay about mothers, the classroom and in the community at large (e.g., home, workplace). Reading and writing are integrated within and classification essay prompts essential to these ongoing activities. Langer (1997) describes eight years of research which investigated how individuals in classification, school and in school-like settings think and summary critique essay outline reason when they are engaged with literature and how classroom interactions may foster literacy development. Classification Essay About. She found that envisionment-building literature classes invite students to be members of a social community where they can share their ideas and differences with others and expect those differences to move their own thinking toward more individually rich, but never singular interpretations (p. 10) Her research also showed that a collaborative, broad-based literature activity such as story writing/telling provided individuals of diverse ages, linguistic and cultural backgrounds with opportunities to become aware of and summary critique essay outline discuss language and about mothers discourse differences as well as to learn English literacy. Despite their ages, be they 2 or 42 years old, they were members of a language and literacy- rich environment where they learned to and division essay prompts, talk about and control features of about mothers language and 1993 ap us form--where the literature that was sought and valued was their own (p.
9). Students in the envisionment-building classroom and those involved in the broad based activity are constantly and simultaneously involved in listening, discussing, reading and writing but reading and writing are not viewed as separate in classification mothers, time or in classification essay, purpose. Furthermore, they are never regarded as skills, activities, or ends in themselves, but as tools of language (Langer, 1995, p. 140). Research shows clearly that even very young children engage in literacy (Dyson, 1989, 1992) when they use print to classification mothers, represent their ideas and to interact with other people (Dyson, 1992, p. 4). Literacy emerges when children scribble, draw and label pictures, and create, act out or retell stories. During these times they are engaged in literate behaviors that are essential parts of the language development process (Teale Sulzby, 1986).
Dyson (1989, 1992) found that children's literacy development was directly linked to the social practices that surrounded them, that is, to their discovery of literacy's rich relevance to their present interactions with friends and to their reflections on their experiences (1989, p. 276). Through the support of the peer and adult members of children's literate communities, children learned that language can be used for social and practical purposes. This body of research requires that we reconsider how we understand the relationship between writing and reading. From this perspective, writing and reading are intertwined and embedded in the larger picture of literacy. It also moves us to reflect on carol essay, what counts as literacy. Finally, it asks that we take a closer look at the ways in which literacy is essay mothers, developed and demonstrated at home, work, and school. In thinking about literacy as universalist, autonomous (Collins, 1995; Street, 1993) or as schooled literacy(Cook-Gumperz, 1986), what counts are those behaviors, practices, skills, or tasks that are traditionally associated with reading and writing. According to this description, one becomes literate through independent or teacher-led interaction with written texts. One's level of literacy, and the resultant label of global thematic essay religion literate or illiterate, is determined through the testing and measuring of these skills. Literacy then is assumed to be a standardized, institutional notion which exists and is identified independently of a social or cultural context. Classification Mothers. Moreover, this notion of critique essay literacy is often the basis by which schools and society determine one's intellect, educability and potential contribution to and earning power in the work force.
Heath (1983) found that some children, as members of particular communities, are accustomed to and participate in literate ways of thinking and behaving that may not be incorporated into classification essay about, or reflected in the children's classrooms. As such, children in these communities often have great difficulty succeeding in school. Global Thematic. In her study, teachers help children from classification mothers three communities narrow the gaps between their home and community literacy experiences and those of school. Teachers believed that [t]heir central role was to pass on to all groups certain traditional tools and ways of using language. Children had to reformulate to different degrees their home habits of christmas handling knowledge and their ways of talking about classification essay about mothers, knowledge (p. 354-355). In this body of 1993 ap us history work, literacy was not seen as solely cognitive interplay of essay about mothers separate reading and writing behaviors or practices, but rather as involving: . manipulation of the language and thought we engage in when we make sense and convey ideas in a variety of situations; it involves ways of thinking, which we learn in the many contexts of essay plan our lives. It enables the personal empowerment that results when people use their literacy skills to think and rethink their understandings of texts, themselves, and the world. It gives importance to individuals and the oral and written texts they create and encounter, and calls upon classification about as well as fosters the thesis colony of roanoke, kinds of language and thought that mark good and sharp thinking (Langer, 1995, p. 1). The studies focused on ways in classification about mothers, which reading and writing can be used as tools to make sense of the world and to express thoughts that demonstrate and convey literate knowledge and understanding. Where from here?
A new set of issues have been brought to the table by a variety of writers who take, for regents essay example, a feminist perspective (Belenky et al, 1986; Brodkey, 1989; Gilligan, 1982; Fetterly, 1978; Minnich, 1990; Solsken, 1993) or a cultural perspective (Ferdman, 1990; Hakuta, 1986; Street, 1984; Valencia, 1991; Weber, 1991; Wong-Fillmore, 1992). These writers foreground issues of power (Apple, 1982; Bordieu Passeron, 1977; Cope Kalantzis, 1993; Freire, 1972; Halliday Martin, 1993), self (Giroux, 1983; Rockhill, 1993, Rose, 1989), and more recently authorship (Rabinowitz Smith, 1997) which further complicate our notions of writing and reading relationships in important ways. They cause us to consider the connections between literacy and the ways in essay, which we place ourselves vis-a-vis the literacy experience. They propel us to consider essential issues such as whose text and whose agency are being considered, along with what assumptions are being made about reader's knowledge and experiences. The next logical step is for researchers to look at how readers and writers, as both individuals and essay prompts members of a variety of groups, approach reading and writing as constructive tasks that are embedded in life's situations. Essay About Mothers. More precisely, research needs to refocus on the ways in which reading and writing develop and influence each other while constantly being affected by the social, cultural, and political contexts in which they are enacted. This will require consideration of genres.
For example, if genres are the 1993 dbq thesis, products of socially developed conventions that foster communicability within groups of people, as the variety of groups considered to fall within the purview of the educational sphere changes to include the variety of students who populate both our schools and about mothers the world, so too will our understandings of the constructions of these genres need to change so that we might recognize, value, and teach them. So too, will we need to study the thesis statement on the lost, inevitable genre changes as the groups themselves change over classification essay about mothers time. A number of school and classroom-based research agendas are called for. First, careful teaching and learning studies are needed of situated (Brown, Collins, Draguid, 1989; Greeno, 1997) and activity-based , 1981) learning events from the perspectives of the diverse students and teachers who comprise the classes, the nature of the discourse groups they form, communicate within, and summary critique essay outline learn from, and the ways in which the students learn, as well as the literacy skills and mothers knowledge they develop in essay plan, these settings. Of course student learning will need to be considered in relation to about, the ways in which particular tasks and group dynamics affect various aspects of literacy learning, including the degree to which these are learned and how available they are for use in new situations. So too, will a careful look need to be taken at regents essay religion the particular skills and knowledge students learn in these situations, the additional kinds of support that might be needed based on students' knowledge and needs, and how these can be coherently linked in ways that are most supportive of students' growing literacy abilities. Mothers. Teaching and learning studies will also need to focus on classification and division prompts, particular ways in which diversity can be used to advantage in diverse classrooms, as a way to help all students gain from the experiences of others and use what they already know in new literacy learning. Another set of studies will need to focus on the curriculum. First, the curriculum will need to be studied in terms of classification essay about what it includes and excludes in skills as well as content, and ways in which they are linked.
The tools of learning and uses of literacy have been rapidly changing in thematic religion, our present-day society, calling us to revisit the guidelines meant to structure and essay about mothers provide coherence to student coursework. Here, studies will need to focus on the literacy knowledge students bring to school with them but are not recognized as such (i.e., computers as well as graphic imagery; the ability to manipulate language in prompts, culturally or socially sanctioned ways such as rap) as well as the varieties of literate knowledge they will need to successfully live their lives as participants in our changing society. Research also needs to focus on what gets read, when, and how. While issues of the canon tend to become politicized, an orchestrated body of research needs to focus not only on classification mothers, what works are to be included and good essay what others will be optional, but also the ways in classification mothers, which particular combinations of carol essay texts can be used to stimulate more complex thinking as well as higher literacy (Applebee, 1996). Finally, studies of the curriculum will need to investigate the role curriculum can play in helping all students maintain a sense of mothers self-worth and learning, yet meet their differential needs as learners, with the essay, end goal of maximum proficiency for mothers all. Further, as classrooms change and students learn to become literate participants in particular social, political, and cultural contexts within their school environments, it will be necessary to explore the ways in which the variety of texts they are exposed to and create through writing and reading relate to their developing literate selves and the strategies they use to explore and classification prompts achieve life's possibilities. Anderson, J., Bower, G. (1973). Human Associative Memory.
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