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Writing Alexander Pope Essay On Man Analysis

Alexander pope from an essay on man analysis

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Cabinet Maker Resume Writing Tips and Example. On Man Analysis. Looking for a new cabinet maker job? Learning how to write a great resume for the position can increase your chances of online writer needed, getting the job. Cabinet Maker Resume Writing Tips and Example. Alexander Pope An Essay On Man Analysis. The employment market for cabinet makers is competitive; therefore, you will need a great resume to stand a good chance of for history research, getting an invitation to an interview from employers. To write a resume, you first need to determine the format you want to adopt. There is really no big deal about choosing a format for writing your cabinet maker resume because the format alone does not guarantee it will make any impact with the employer. Therefore, you shouldn’t take much time deciding on what format to choose from several formats that are available. What is pope on man analysis really important is ensuring the resume is strong enough to profile make the employer or hiring manager do one thing, which is to consider you for an interview where you will be able to let them know how valuable you will be to their business as a cabinet maker. The format we will be using here as we show you how to write a great resume for the job of cabinet maker that employers will not fail to pope from an essay on man analysis give attention to is one with the Objective, Core Competence, Professional Experience, and the Educational Qualification sections. Ideas. We will see how each of the sections is created, and then use the knowledge in making a sample resume for the job of cabinet maker.

We will kick it off right away with the objective section, which is the first to complete: The Cabinet Maker Resume Objective Section. The objective section of the cabinet maker resume is where you have the introductory statement, and pope from on man analysis a good first impression is important if you intend to grab the ideas paper attention of your prospective employer. The volume of resumes an average employer seeking to alexander pope from employ a cabinet maker receives on daily basis is quite enormous. Profile. Most of them decide on which resume holds promise, right from the objective section. So technically, if you get this section wrong, there is from likelihood that your resume will end in resume profile tips, the trash can. The objection section is your first contact point with the employer; use it wisely by communicating your passion and capacity to deliver as a cabinet maker. Convey the exceptional value you will bring on board if hired. From On Man Analysis. Let your objective for applying for the job of a cabinet maker be clearly expressed. Any sensible employer would favor an applicant whose objective statement shows their ability to solve their major need.

To make this section work, go beyond assuming the employers’ major needs; make the extra move to know their specific need for a cabinet maker in their furniture company. And this shouldn’t be hard, considering how employers nowadays state the specific requirement and job description in the content of their advertisement. So leverage on it and tailor your objective statement to meet that need. For instance, in the furniture industry, companies who employ the 6th grade research papers services of cabinet makers look out for those who have understanding of timber qualities, ability to use computer-aided designs, as well as computer numerical control machines, and are creative, industrious, and intelligent enough to from on man do proper job cost estimation. If you have these qualities, make it reflect in your objective statement, and you’ll stand a better chance. Cabinet Maker Objective Examples for good ideas for history research paper Resume: Here are some examples to make it clearer and also serve as a guide in writing an effective objective section in your resume as a cabinet maker: Seeking the position of cabinet maker in XYZ Furniture company where my in-depth understanding of alexander pope from on man, timber qualities, ability to essay sylvia use computer-aided design and computer numerical control machines, creativity, high energy level and intelligence to do proper job cost estimation as remarked by my past employers will be employed. Seeking the job of cabinet maker in growing Furniture Company where my many years of experience in building awe-inspiring cabinets, working in a furniture company will be invaluable in achieving customer satisfaction and increase in demand. Please take note; the alexander pope an essay on man analysis second example is generic for the furniture industry while the first is more specific and is suitable when targeting a specifically known company where vacancy for a cabinet maker exists. We will now treat the next section after the objective statement, which is the section to resume profile tips show how competent you are for the job: The core competence section is where you are required to highlight the pope an essay key talents, skills, knowledge, abilities, and experience that make you an outstanding cabinet maker. In the business of furniture making, employers know the unique advantage of 6th grade papers, specialization, so they hire skilled cabinet makers to handle that department. Therefore, for your resume to shine, you need to state your abilities that show your capacity to deliver, such as; understanding of timber quality, fabrication of customized cabinets, and use of basic and modern equipment, accurate cost estimation, measuring, and drawing of layout for from manufactured furniture and so on.

Use this section to strongly suggest your competency in cabinet making. Employers are seeking solutions, not liabilities. The next section to follow the best buy paper mario sale competence section is the one that offers the opportunity to alexander pope from an essay emphasize your previous and current professional experience working as a cabinet worker for employers to be assured you will be able to done the essay job well: The work experience section, which some refer to as professional experience or work history, is the proof section where employers verify the promise you have shown so far. Here, you are expected to highlight the from on man analysis duties and responsibilities that through past or current performance have made you the cabinet maker they should hire. Tested hands are usually more trusted! To do a thorough job on science research papers, this section, you are advised to use a copy of the cabinet maker job description when writing this section provided the pope from duties and responsibilities highlighted in essay plath, it match your actual experience working in alexander from an essay, the cabinet making industry.

And please make sure that all verbs used in writing your current work description are in present tense. The posts held in resume tips, the past should be expressed in alexander from analysis, past tense. Little things matter. And now, we are on to the ideas final section where you have to pope from let the employer know of all relevant academic and continuing educational trainings you have had in cabinet making: In this section, state the educational qualifications and all completed training programs you have completed that qualify you to work as a cabinet maker. Online Needed. Cabinet Maker Resume Example/Sample/Template. Alexander Pope From. From our discussion above where we learnt how to make the various sections of the cabinet maker resume, we will now put the knowledge together to create a sample resume for the role.

Here is an example of a cabinet maker resume. It can serve as a template in writing your own resume. 13 Moore Street. Rexton, New Jersey. Home: (111) 555-9999, cell: (222)999-9999. johncarson@this-is-a-cabinet-maker-resume-sample.com. OBJECTIVE: Seeking to be a cabinet maker in XYZ Furniture company where my in-depth understanding of timber qualities, ability to use computer-aided design and computer numerical control machines, creativity, high energy level and intelligence to do proper job cost estimation as remarked by my past employers will be employed. Understanding of profile tips, timber qualities Ability to apply computer-aided designs, and pope on man also to work with computer numerical control machines High energy level Exceptional creativity Intelligence in job costing estimation Ability to work safely Great pace and accuracy in cabinet making. Hand Made Furniture Company, NJ. Take customer’s specification for cabinet Do job cost estimation Give detailed material requirements such as type of timber, to the procurement officer Use procured materials to resume tips meet client’s furniture style need Use computer aided design (CAD) and computer numerical control (CNC) to achieve complex furniture style Measure and draw site layout for manufactured cabinet Install the alexander pope an essay on man analysis constructed cabinet Ensure customer total satisfaction with finished product Report to best buy paper mario sale my supervisor Train fresher in from an essay analysis, cabinet making. EDUCATION AND CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL TRAINING. Alexton High School, Chrystalsville, New Jersey, 2003.

You will also like: Discover what makes a good resume so you can make one that employers cannot resist. You may need to essay plath sylvia pass a job test to be hired for a position, improve your chances of making high scores today! Job Assessment Tests: How to Top Your Competition. From On Man Analysis. As part of the hiring process, most applicants that passed the initial Resume/CV screening phase are required to pass an plath assessment test for the job or apprenticeship position they are applying for.

The goal of this phase is to pope an essay analysis determine if the candidate has the appropriate set of skills and writer needed qualities to alexander pope from analysis excel on research paper, the job. Find out the tests you will be needing to take for pope an essay the position you are applying for; get lots of success proven Practice materials to prepare with now: Sure way to make high scores in job tests.

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HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) Essay. HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) causes AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) that disables the immune system. It was discovered in 1983 .HIV enters the body through the bloodstream and duplicates itself rapidly. The victim is susceptible to infectious diseases that eventually are fatal (1). Statistically, HIV/AIDS is the pope an essay on man, number one killer of African-American women ages 25 to tips 34, according to the Centers for from an essay on man, Disease Control and Prevention. Between 2000 and 2003, they were nineteen times more likely than White females and five times more likely than Hispanic females to contract the disease. African-American men were seven times more likely than White men and three times the rate of Hispanic men to contract HIV/AIDS (2). In 2008, there is good ideas research still not a cure for AIDS. Instead, scientists have discovered drugs that can slow down the progression of the disease.

Protease inhibitors (PIs) are antiviral drugs that slow down the spread of HIV (1). The virus produces a protein called protease so that it can replicate itself. “Protease cuts long chains of alexander from an essay proteins and enzymes into shorter chains, the first step in the process by which HIV infects a cell” (1). Buy Paper Mario! If this doesn’t happen, replication does not continue. In 1987, AZT was the first anti-HIV medication that was created. It showed hope and kept people healthier longer. However, the alexander pope an essay analysis, side effects were very high for men. Since that time, more HIV medications have evolved.

Antiretroviral therapy usually consists of combinations of nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, or fusion inhibitors, which are prescribed in the later stages of HIV (19). Dual protease inhibitor therapy is also being used clinically (3). They are also associated with improving morbidity and online content mortality of alexander pope an essay analysis HIV-positive persons (5). Although these drugs are expensive, they have proven to be the most successful therapy in managing HIV. However, some patients don’t comply 100% with their treatments. This is largely due to the side effects. Sometimes they make a patient feel worse than the actual disease. The most commonly reported ones are abdominal pain, abnormal bowel movements, diarrhea, fatigue, headache, and nausea. Children usually develop a skin rash.

The more serious side effects are liver problems and pancreatitis. Some patients have also seen large increase in triglyceride ad cholesterol levels. Diabetics saw an increase in their blood sugar levels. Other patients developed diabetes while taking protease inhibitors (16). Presently, nine PIs have been approved for use in the United States and Europe: amprenavir, atazanavir, fosamprenavir, lopinavir, indinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, tipranavir, and nelfinavir. Three non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are used for treatment of HIV: nevirapine, delavirdine, and efavirenz (7).

Drug treatment selection depends on factors such as drug resistance, tolerability, drug interactions, and effectiveness. 6th Grade Papers! Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) “has been proposed so that practitioners may better maintain appropriate plasma concentrations of drugs in their patients by identifying interactions with other medications and assessing medication adherence (7). Pope An Essay Analysis! Figure 1 shows the structures of these compounds. Fig. Content Writer Needed! 1. Chemical structures of protease inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. About 50% of “treatment-naive patients” don’t have continued antiviral response after one year of therapy (18).

In some cases, there is alexander pope from analysis a development of writer needed drug resistance and metabolic complications. Also, “there is increasing evidence that virological treatment failure is correlated with variations in an essay on man analysis, the pharmacokinetic parameters of drugs (20). This can be due to 6th grade research papers drug interactions, low bioavailability, and variations in pope from, metabolic enzyme activity. Atazanavir (ATV) has good oral bioavailability and a favorable pharmacokinetics profile (18). With this in good for history, mind, patients can mostly take a once-daily dose. A separate analytical method has been recently published for quantifying ATV in human plasma using solid phase extraction and HPLC with PDA (photodiode array) detection at 201 nm (18). This method provides excellent separation of ATV from its internal standard, clozapine (CLZ) and the other PIs, thus, obtaining an accurate measurement of the drug (see figure 2). CLZ elutes at 8.9 minutes, and ATV elutes a 24.4 minutes.

A 40-ml injection resulted in a recovery yield of 100%. Fig. 2. Chromatogram of ATV with PIs/NNRTIs (8000 ng/ml) spiked with CLZ. Nelfinavir mesylate has been shown in phase III controlled clinical trials to significantly reduce viral load and increase CD4 + cell counts when used with reverse transcriptase inhibitors. It’s prescribed as part of triple drug combination therapy (9). CD4 + are helper T cells. Pope! They are important for essay, immune reconstitution in patients that are receiving antiretroviral therapy (10). After a large number of these cells are destroyed, AIDS develops (7). Six clinical trials was conducted in the past ten years using 2, 148 HIV-infected children enrolled in the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group treatment trials (10).

Patient ages varied from 2 to 7 years of age. The focus was to observe short-term variability of alexander pope an essay on man CD4 percentages. The study found that 49% of patients had CD4 percentages above 25%. 32% of patients had CD4 counts between 15% and mario 24%; 19% were less than 15%. Finally, 5.4% had a CD4% of less than 5% (10). In June 2006, Darunavir (DRV) was licensed in alexander pope on man analysis, the United States. It is a promising PI that is science active against HIV strains that are resistant to the other PIs that currently on the market (17). Alexander Pope From An Essay Analysis! It is prescribed in 600-mg doses that are taken twice daily with 100 mg of ritonavir that acts as a booster. Protease inhibitors are associated with unfavorable pharmacokinetics and many side effects such as gastrointestinal disturbances and lipid abnormalities (5).

Four of the most common PIs used are indinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, and nelfinavir (3 ). “Monitoring blood concentration of PIs, which can indicate both therapeutic and toxic levels of the drugs as well as patient noncompliance with the medication, may improve the care of both HIV-infected adults and children” (3). When ritonavir was first introduced, it was given in doses of 600 mg every 12 hours. 6th Grade Science! “However, patient intolerance of full doses led to alexander pope from analysis its primary use as a pharmacologic enhancer to increase the concentrations in essay defining who you are, plasma of a second protease inhibitor to improve the an essay on man analysis, convenience of antiretroviral regimens by extending the dosing interval, reducing pill burden, and /or eliminating food-induced reductions in pharmacokinetic exposure” (8). Researchers used High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to writer needed determine concentrations of PIs in blood. Pope! Various methods have been used to study the pharmacokinetics and drug interactions. Interpreting plasma levels can be used to “individualize drug dosage of antiretrovirals (4). Quality control (QC) procedures must be done to ensure that these methods are accurate and precise. “Such procedures usually include intralaboratory (internal) method validation, intralaboratory QC procedures, and participation in an interlaboratory QC program for for history, antiretroviral drugs” (4).

Since the latter hadn’t been done before, it was established so that laboratories can obtain better measurement results of antiretroviral drugs. Nine laboratories participated in the first part of the program. The first part of the experiment involved the measurement of the protease inhibitors: indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, and saquinavir. All had a specified purity of 99% or higher. QC samples were prepared by spiking blank plasma from alexander an essay on man HIV-negative volunteers with PI standard. The low concentrated standards ranged from good ideas research 0.087 to 0.15 mg/L while the intermediate concentrated standards contained ranged from 2 to 3 mg/L of all four PIs. Finally, the high-concentrated standards contained approximately 5 to alexander pope 11 mg/L of drug. All drugs were dissolved in methanol following accurate weighings and diluted with blank plasma (4).

High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze twelve samples. All laboratories measuring more than one protease inhibitor used as assay for “simultaneous determination” (4). Science! Six laboratories used HPLC/UV and three labs used HPLC-MS/MS. Mass spectrometry detection is alexander from often recommended for best mario sale, measurement of low concentration levels. Pope On Man! Also, this type of ideas for history research paper analysis is from an essay on man usually faster and “does not require complete resolution of drugs for essay plath, detection and quantification” (5).

Only five laboratories were able to measure all four PIs. Three laboratories were not able to determine nelfinavir. One laboratory only measured indinavir (4). Acceptable accuracy results are between 80% and pope from an essay 120%. Only indinavir resulted in an acceptable accuracy of 80%. The remaining PIs had between 36% and 74% accuracy. These results should encourage laboratories to improve their analytical methods and QC procedures. Other PIs, such as amprenavir and lopinavir, can be analyzed as well (4). HIV-positive plasma samples are heat inactivated before analysis, approximately 58°C for 40 minutes, to decrease the risk of infection to the operator.

They may also go through a freeze/thaw cycle. As with the QC study, blank plasma was spiked with seven PIs (indinavir, amprenavir, atazanavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, lopinavir, and nelfnavir) at profile low, intermediate, and high concentrations measured in ng/ml. Certain assays only require 100 µl of plasma for analysis. “This is pope on man analysis advantageous when measuring PI concentrations as part of clinical studies as they often necessitate hourly sampling to generate complete PK profiles; therefore less blood can be drawn from the patient” (5). In addition, seven PIs can be quantified in one assay, but impossible to assay all seven in a single preparation. “The use of liquid chromatography coupled to resume profile tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) has emerged as the developmental method of choice supporting clinical and pre-clinical pharmacokinetic studies” (13). Recovery for the HPLC-MS/MS methods was above 87% for all seven drugs at all three concentration levels (5). It was successful in quantifying seven PI concentrations in plasma of HIV positive persons that participated in a run time of nine minutes. Therefore, the assay may be used for determining PI concentrations in semen, lymphocytes, and cerebrospinal fluid (5). A fast and from an essay analysis highly-sensitive LC-MS-MS method was developed that could analyze five protease inhibitors (amprenavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, and saquinavir) in one run using an internal standard. Sample sizes were small (ng/ml) and run times were approximately 5 minutes.

Recoveries for all five PIs were between 87% and 92%(11). Tipranavir is defining who you part of from analysis a class of non-peptidic PIs that works against both “wild-type virus and variants resistant to online writer needed current PIs”(6). It also has a high genetic barrier. Tipranavir is prescribed in a 500-mg dose taken in combination with 200 mg of ritonavir twice daily as part of alexander pope an essay analysis antiretroviral therapy for patients with HIV-1 strains that are resistant to multiple PIs (6). Fig.

3. Tipranavir chemical structure. An HPLC-UV method has been validated and is currently applied when monitoring tipranavir (TPV) plasma levels in HIV patients. Samples were prepared for solid phase extraction (SPE) by conditioning the cartridges with 0.1% phosphoric acid, pH 7. TPV stock solutions with a concentration of 5 mg/ml were diluted from with 50% methanol. Samples were spiked with TPV at 1.875, 7.5, 18.75, 37.5, 60, and 75 µg/ml in plath, triplicate. QC samples were diluted with blank plasma and phosphate buffer to 5.625, 22.5, and 67.5 µg/ml. Clozapine was used as the internal standard (6).

5-ml aliquots of blood samples were obtained from HIV infected patients. The plasma obtained from centrifugation was heated at 60° C for one hour in a water bath. TPV in plasma was measured at a UV absorbance of alexander from an essay on man 201 nm with a retention time of 32.2 minutes. Its internal standard, clozapine (CLZ) has a retention time of science research papers 8.3 minutes (6). Figure 4 below shows the chromatogram of TPV, its internal standard, and alexander pope from on man all other PIs and NNRTIs present. For History Research! Figure 5 shows TPV and alexander pope an essay analysis its internal standard CLZ only. Fig. 4. Paper! Chromatogram of plasma control sample of TVP (22.5 mg/ml) spiked with internal standard and from an essay analysis all PIs and NNRTIs. Fig. 6th Grade Papers! 5. Chromatogram of alexander pope calibration sample of TVP (37.5 mg/ml) spiked with internal standard CLZ. Isocratic HPLC methods combined with the use of UV and fluorescence detection produces more sensitivity.

Amprenavir is a fluorescent compound. Its internal standard PR25 can also be seen under fluorescence (see figure 6). Fig. 6. Blank plasma with 100 ng/ml amprenavir and science research 1000 ng/ml of alexander from an essay on man analysis PR25 seen under fluorescence. In conclusion, much progress has been made in the development of protease inhibitors and profile other antiretroviral therapy. Pope From On Man Analysis! HPLC with UV detection has been the most commonly used method of analysis.

It is rapid, simple, and highly sensitive. LC-MS-MS has been noted at the developmental method of defining choice for pope from, clinical and pre-clinical pharmacokinetic studies (13). More compounds can be analyzed in less time. Also, they can be used for methods using other human biological matrices. For the majority of protease inhibitors, all side effects are not known. In 2007, darunavir was the plath sylvia, new HIV protease inhibitor with eleven other antiretroviral agents on the market. They can affect patients that have diabetes, liver problems, and hemophilia; their conditions can worsen as a result of taking PIs.

Only a patient’s health care provider can determine the pope from on man, best treatment option. Nagel, Rob. Sylvia! 2007. From On Man! Protease Inhibitors. UXL Encyclopedia of Science; [cited 2008 May 8], Available from http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/SciRC?ste=1docnum=cv2644301082.

Health Hotline: HIV and Genital Herpes [cited 2008 May8]; Available from best buy paper http://www.ebony.com. “HPLC Assay for Common Protease Inhibitors Developed.”Antiviral Weekly; [cited 2008 May 07; Available from http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/SciRC?ste=1docNum=A60069570. Aarnoutse, Rob E., Verweij-van Wissen, Corrien P.W.G.M., van Ewijk-Beneken Kolmer, Eleonora, W.J., Wuis, Eveline, W., Koopmans, Peter P., Hekster, Yechiel A., and Burger, David, M. 2001. International Interlaboratory Quality Control Program for Measurement of Antiretroviral Drugs in Plasma; Antimicrobial Agents and alexander pope an essay analysis Chemo 46(3): 884-886. Dickinson, Laura, Robinson, Lesley, Tjia, John, Khoo, and Saye, Back, David. 6th Grade Science Research! 2005. Simultaneous determination of HIV protease inhibitors amprenavir, atazanavir, indinavir, lopinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir and saquinavir in pope from an essay, human plasma by ideas for history research high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; J of from an essay analysis Chrom. B 829:82-90. Colombo, S., Beguin, A., Marzolini, C., Telenti, A., Biollaz, J., and Decosterd, L.A.

2006. Determination of the novel non-peptidic HIV-protease inhibitor tipranavir by research papers HPLC-UV after solid-phase extraction; J of Chrom. B 832:138-143. Rezk, Naser L., Tidwell, Richard R., and Kashuba, Angela D.M. 2004. High-performance liquid chromatography assay for the quantification of HIV protease inhibitors and alexander pope non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in human plasma; J of Chrom. B 805:241-247.

Shelton, Mark J.,Hewitt, Ross G., Adams, John, Dela-Coletta, Andrew, Cox, Steven, and Morse, Gene D. 2003. Plath Sylvia! Pharmacokinetics of Ritonavir and alexander pope on man Delavirdine in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients; Antimicrobial Agents and Chemo 47(5): 1694-1699. Zhang, Kanyin E., Wu, Ellen, Patick, Amy K., Kerr, Bradley, Zorbas, Mark, Lankford, Angela, Kobayashi, Takuo, Maeda, Yuki, Shetty, Bhasker, and Webber, Stephanie. Good Research Paper! 2001.Circulating Metabolites of the pope from an essay, Human Immunodeficiency Virus protease Inhibitor Nelfinavir in Humans: Structural Identification, Levels in Plasma, and Antiviral Activities; Antimicrobial Agents and Chemo 45(4): 1086-1093. Carey, Vincent J., Pahwa, Savita, and Weinberg, Adriana. 2005. Reliability of CD4 Quantitation in resume tips, Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Children: Implications for an essay on man analysis, Definition of Immunologic Response to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy; Clinical and Diagnostic Lab Immunology 12(5): 640-643. Chi, Jingduan, Jayewardene, Anura L., Stone, Judith A., Motoya, Toshiro, and Aweeka, Francesca.

2002. Simultaneous determination of five HIV protease inhibitors nelfinavir, indinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir and amprenavir in human plasma by best sale LC/MS/MS; J of Pharm and Biomedical Analysis 30:675-684. Verbesselt, R., Van Wijngaerden, E., and pope de Hoon, J. Good Ideas For History Research! 2007. Simultaneous determination of 8 HIV protease inhibitors in human plasma by isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography with combined use of UV and fluorescence detection: Amprenavir, indinavir, atazanavir, ritonavir, lopinavir, saquinavir, nelfinavir and M8-nelfinavir metabolite; J of Chrom. B 845:51-60. Frerichs, Valerie A., DiFrancesco, Robin, and Morse, Gene D. 2003. Determination of pope from analysis protease inhibitors using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; J of Chrom, B 787:393-403. Gangl, Eric, Utkin, Ilya, Gerber, Nicholas, and Vouros, Paul. 2002. Structural elucidation of metabolites of ritonavir and indinavir by sylvia liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; J. of Chrom. A 974:91-101.

Turner, Michele L., Reed-Walker, Kedria, King, Jennifer R., and Acosta, Edward P. 2003. Alexander From On Man! Simultaneous determination of nine antiretroviral compounds in human plasma using liquid chromatography; J. of Chrom. B 784:331-341. D’Avolio, Antonio, Siccardi, Marco, Sciandra, Mauro, Lorena, Baietto, Bonora, Stefano, Trentini, Laura, and buy paper mario Di Perri, Giovanni.2007. HPLC-MS method for the simultaneous quantification of the new HIV protease inhibitor darunavir, and an essay analysis 11 other antiretroviral agents in essay, plasma of pope an essay HIV-infected patients; J. of content Chrom. Alexander Pope From An Essay Analysis! B 859:234-240. Colombo, S., Guignard, N., Marzolini, C., Telenti, A., Biollaz, J., and Decosterd, L.A. 2004. Determination of the good ideas for history research paper, new HIV-protease inhibitor atazanavir by liquid chromatography after solid-phase extraction; J. of Chrom.

B 810:25-34. Weller, Dennis R., Brundage, Richard C., Balfour, Jr., Henry H., and Vezina, Heather E. An isocratic liquid chromatography method for determining HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and alexander pope from an essay on man protease inhibitor concentrations in human plasma; J. of Chrom. B 848:369-373. Sarasa-Nacenta, Maria, Lopez-Pua, Yolanda, Mallolas, Josep, Blanco, Jose’ Luis, Gatell, Jose’ M., and Carne’, Xavier. Good Ideas For History! Simultaneous determination of the HIV-protease inhibitors indinavir, amprenavir, ritonavir, saquinavir and nelfinavir in human plasma by reversed-phase high- performance liquid chromatography; J, of alexander pope an essay Chrom. B 757:325-332. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.

Date: 4 April 2017. Let us write you a custom essay sample on profile tips, HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the pope from an essay on man, Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample. For Only $13.90/page.

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Advantages and Disadvantages of alexander pope from an essay on man, Only Children Essay. Research from the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 2006 suggests the fastest growing nuclear family unit has become the single-child household (Emma Sykes, 2011). According to figures released by the Office for National. Statistics, the UK has about 7.7million families with dependent children, of which 3.7 million have just one child, compared to three million with two and essay, 1.1 million with three children or more (Simon Edge, 2013). Additionally, in alexander from an essay on man analysis the United States, the percentage of women who have one child has more than doubled in essay sylvia the past 20 years up from 10% to 13% (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2011). The issue of single-child households is a contemporary issue relevant to both children and parents in today’s modern society as the number of single-child households are rapidly growing throughout the 21st century. Alexander An Essay. There are increasing rates in who you single-child households. Single child households are rapidly growing in popularity making them a contemporary issue of the alexander analysis, 21st century. Buy Paper Mario Sale. There are many factors which influence parents to raise a single child.

Additionally, there are many factors which effect the child due to them being raised without the influence of siblings. Alexander Pope From On Man. These aspects are going to be explored and focused on for the purposes of this investigation. The aim is to determine: “Are there more advantages or disadvantages when having an only child?” The following guide the discussion: Why do parents choose to have an content writer needed, only child? What are the advantages of having an only child? What are the disadvantages of alexander an essay on man analysis, having an only child? Both primary and secondary sources were used to gain information for essay who you are the purposes of this investigation. Examples of secondary sources include the internet, books and other printed medias. Alexander Pope Analysis. The internet provided an assortment of sources.

For example, reliable websites with statistics and informative information which related to the topic. Additionally, videos were sourced online. Content Needed. They were used to provide factual information and statistics relating to the topic. Due to the fact internet sites, books and printed media are secondary sources, it was noticed that they incorporated biased views as they were second hand opinions. In order to from on man analysis, gain information which would assist with writing a reliable investigation and conclusion, interviews and essay plath sylvia, surveys were conducted.

Interviewees included: E Barbaro – Mother of four and grandmother to an only pope on man, child. V Haynes – A former kindergarten teacher and essay defining who you, mother of an only child. J Stefano – An only child. The individuals interviewed all had the ability to provide strong opinions relating to the topic of only pope from on man, children as they were either an only child themselves, have raised an only child and/or gave opinions towards their thoughts on having siblings. Why do parents choose to defining who you, have an alexander analysis, only child? Each individual to their own has their own beliefs relating to whether or not is beneficial to essay, raise an alexander pope analysis, only child, and that includes parents. Each parent to their own also has their own beliefs towards why they wish to raise a small family. The number of families today with just one dependent child is now 47 per essay defining are cent and an essay analysis, expected to rise to more than 50 in writer needed a decade. As the ONS confirms: #8220;It appears that families are getting smaller#8221; (Simon Edge, 2013). Firstly, it is believed that most parents make the decision to have an only child because it makes them happier.

Professor Hans-Peter Kohler of the alexander an essay on man, University of Pennsylvania is one of the many to agree with this statement. He states that the only thing that a majority of parents take into consideration is their ‘wellbeing’. According to Kohler, a parents happiness peaks at one child, and “having more makes you poorer, more tired and resume tips, less content” (2013). Further evidence regarding parents raising a singular child comes from Havard psychologist; Daniel Gilbert. Gilbert supports Kohler’s views regarding the parents of alexander from an essay, singular children, and agrees that they choose to have one child as part of their personal wellbeing. Gilbert claims that “mothers are at their happiest during those moments when they are not looking after their kids. Good Ideas For History Research. They prefer shopping, watching TV, exercising and eating” (2013). Gilbert’s studies have concluded that mothers consider interacting with their child is on alexander, a par with mopping the floor (Paul Meril, 2013).

Another to agree with these statements is author; Lauren Sandler who explores the topic of writer needed, parents raising only children in alexander pope analysis her book: The One and Only: The Freedom of Having an Only Child and the Joy of Being One (2013). Sandler writes “they don’t like being parents (because they are selfish), or they care more about status – work, money, materialism than their kid (because they are selfish), or the parents waited too long (because they are selfish)”. Unlike psycologists, Sandler has her own perception of the issue as she is an only child herself, and the mother of an only child. She explains that she wanted to have an only child for the same reasons as her mother did and that is; “to have a happy kid, my mother figured she needed to be a happy mother, and to be a happy mother, she needed to be a happy person. To do that, she had to best sale, preserve her authentic self, which she could not imagine doing with a second child”. Pope From An Essay On Man Analysis. In order to test whether or not parents decide on raising a single child to benefit themselves, a survey was conducted by best sale a group of alexander on man, mothers at a day care center who have chosen to resume profile tips, raise an only child. Similar to what psychologists have suggested, 44% of the participants have agreed that they choose to have an only child as it beneficial to their personal wellbeing. Despite the alexander pope an essay on man analysis, overwhelming amount of parents that claim that having an buy paper sale, only child is beneficial to them, there were some who had contradicting views by adding: “When we got married we always wanted to pope from an essay on man analysis, have a big family.

This choice was taken out of our hands and ideas research paper, we had to depend on IVF to conceive and carry our only 4 year old child” (2013). Social psychologist, Susan Newman states: “women are getting married later, which raises infertility issues. Many women continue their careers even after they have a child, which makes having more than one child more difficult. Add with the financial stress of raising a child, it#8217;s no wonder some couples stop at one” (Kristy MacKaben, 2013). It costs a significant amount of money to alexander from an essay analysis, raise a child; clothing, medical care, schooling and some parents may decide that they can#8217;t afford to have lots of for history research, children (Emma Sykes, 2011).

Parents feel that they can give that one child more in comparison to giving more children less. Alexander From On Man Analysis. “It improves their quality of 6th grade research papers, life” says Newman. What are the advantages of having an only child? After conducting a survey and alexander from analysis, asking a group of online writer, people who had siblings whether or not they would prefer being an only child, 83% of the participants replied with yes. When partipants were asked as to why they would prefer this, they claimed that only children have more advantages. Some being mothers themselves claimed that that the biggest advantage of having one child is the money. With each child, these expenses are more. By not having to spend more money on additional children, your only child can have more costly items (Holly Doorman, 2010).

The financial implications of being an alexander pope from an essay on man, only child are numerous. Parents only have one child’s education to essay plath, pay for, to clothe, to feed, to enroll in lessons or to alexander pope on man analysis, invest in their financial security. Multiple children require parents to work harder to achieve larger salaries to support their children (Joys of Parenting, 2013). Social psychologist, Susan Newman states: #8220;if you have a middle income, you#8217;re going to spend roughly $286,000 to get them from birth to buy paper mario, 18. That#8217;s kind of staggering#8221;. Another major advantage of being an only child is the educational advantages. Only children are both the first born and the last born child. These children must assume both roles. These children tend to be more academically oriented, ambitious, conscientious, conforming, conservative and respectful of their parents (Holly Doorman, 2013). Alexander Pope From. It turns out essay plath sylvia there is a significant difference when it comes to from, intelligence in only children and children from larger families.

A landmark 20-year study showed that increased one-on-one parenting produces higher education levels, higher test scores and higher levels of achievement (Kristy Kackaben, 2013). Parents will have the for history paper, money to spend on tutoring, tools, and alexander on man, the best schools. Parents also have the time to sylvia, help with homework because you are not running after other children. With one child to give your attention to, it is much easier to find out if they are having problems in school (Holly Doorman, 2013). Newman agrees by stating: “they have all their parents financial resources to get them extra lessons, to get them SAT training but more critical is the one-on-one time at the dinner table.” This results in more reading time, more homework time and pope analysis, eventually better test scores.

One mother stated that: “I think we felt as a family that we were able to give our son more attention and spend more time together and really focus on him” (2013). By having only essay, one child, the child#8217;s and parent’s privacy becomes easier. One of the main advantages of being the only child ”that your parents pay attention only to you. You are the most important person in their lives. Parents do everything for you” (J Stefano, 2013). For example, if the child wishes for a new toy or some clothes, parents will simply buy it to fufill the child’s wants. For mother of only child, V Haynes, she states that: ”I generally purchase toys for my child in order to alexander pope on man analysis, fufill their wants as they are lonely and do not have a sibling to best mario sale, bond with” (2013). Moreover, only alexander from on man, children have everything to themselves.

They will not have to share a room, the computer and any other things. What are the disadvantages of having an only child? In a 2013 study, data from from before and after the institution of mario sale, China’s one-child policy has shown a causal link between being an alexander from on man, only child and acquiring certain negative character traits. The study found that ‘onlies’ are “significantly less trusting, less trustworthy, more risk-averse, less competitive, more pessimistic, and less conscientious individuals” (Sandler, 2013). “The hardest part of ideas for history research paper, being an only child is the stereotyping others create. Stereotypes make people assume that you are somebody that you are not” (J Stefano, 2013).

The biggest disadvantage for only children is that they are generally percieved as ‘spoiled’ and/or ‘selfish’. Although disputed by scholars past and present (Polit Falbo, 1987; 1988, Newman, 2011), the popular belief is alexander pope on man that only children are self-centered, spoiled, in constant need of the spotlight, and socially inept (Stephen J Betchen, 2011). The most common statement made by survey participants when asked for their thoughts on only children was that: “they are used to thinking that they are the most important people so they must have everything only for science themselves” (2013). These stereotypes have all been derived from the work of pope on man, a 19th century psychologist who famously concluded that, “being an only child is a disease in itself” (Lauren Smelcher Sams, 2013). The old stereotype of online needed, spoilt and selfish does no one justice (Carmel Egan, 2009). Due to alexander from an essay analysis, stereotyping, when someone becomes knowledgable that someone they meet is an only child, it is for history paper most likely that they will behave differently towards them. They are often perceived as loners and their actions may be misinterpreted.This makes it more difficult for only children to establish friendships. Single children do not learn social skills with other children in pope an essay analysis the household. Therefore, all of their social interactions must be gained in the world with other children (Joys of Parenting, 2013).

When an online writer, only child is compared to a child that belongs to pope from on man, a large family, it is said that children from larger families are better off later in life since their parents take care of their needs but not their wants. Children from larger families learn the difference between wants and needs. They learn to wait for what they want, or to work and earn it themselves. Thus they are spared the corruptive influence of instant gratification. They internalize the online writer needed, virtues of patience and honorable ambition.

They grow to become self-reliant self-starters (Lots of Kids, 2010). According to Professor Ralph, whilst children from larger families learn these things, only children rely and become more dependent on alexander from an essay on man, the parent (Emma Sykes, 2011) A major topic regarding only essay plath, children is loneliness. Many parents of only children deny their child freedom to explore the pope from on man analysis, world in case something ‘bad’ were to happen to best sale, them (E Barbaro, 2013). Pope On Man Analysis. There are “other children can go out when they please. For example , shopping with friends or going to good ideas, a party. But being the alexander pope on man, only child means that parents put pressure on you. You have to essay, still prove that you are the best. Instead you must focus on studies and pope from on man analysis, have to maintain getting an a A for sylvia every test otherwise your parents will be disappointed with you” (J Stefano, 2013). Lastly, having an only child can be of a disadvantage to the family in later years. Bryan Caplan, author of Selfish Reasons To Have More Kids argues that it’s better to have more kids. From An Essay Analysis. He says “have the number of resume profile tips, children that maximises average utility over your whole lifespan.

When you’re 30, you might feel like two children is plenty, but once you’re 60, you are more likely to prefer 10 sons and daughters to keep you company and alexander pope an essay on man analysis, keep the grandkids coming” (2011). Conclusion. The rate of single child families is rapidly increasing in today’s current society. As the world is constantly evolving, so is the way parents choose have a family. The 21st century is different from the past as mothers are not required to ultimately spend all of their time being a housewife looking after children and completing household chores. Women now have careers and are more concerned about status work and materilism. With this factor in mind, it is no surprise that single child households are becoming a contemporary issue of the 21st century. Only children are becoming more accepted by society as it is becoming more common. It is now less likely for only children to be placed into stereotypical categories, and being percieved as ‘selfish’ and ‘spoiled’.

Despite this, only children are still identified for having these traits. A reason for ideas for history research paper this is from an essay on man analysis that majority of parents raising single children do spend their money on them, as they have no other priorities. Other disadvantages are loneliness and the lack of freedom, leading to possible issues when interacting with other children. Altough there are quite a few negatives, they still do not outweigh the essay, positive aspects of being an only child. Only children do get great advantages. For example, parents can spend all of pope an essay analysis, their time on the child. That child is the number one priority. Buy Paper. They can have a close relationship with parents and they do not have to share with others.

Despite this, it can lead to negative aspects where the child learns the ‘selfish’ traits and falls under stereotyping. The question: “Are there more advantages or disadvantages when having an only child?” cannot be fully supported. Who is to say whether or not there is a great advantage when having an only child, or whether it is a disadvantage. There is not enough information to fully support whether it is a good or bad thing. Every individual is different and the overall, the decision to raise an only child is ultimately up to the parents and whether their lifestyle fits one of a large or a small family.

Less or more children for alexander from an essay whatever personal reasons should just be accepted, as long as the children involved are happy. There is not one right or wrong answer. Defining. Surveys with mothers and employees of a daycare center, 2013, ‘Are there more advantages or disadvantages when having an only child?’, August 22 E Barbaro, Interview, 2013. V Haynes, Interview, 2013. J Stefano, Interview, 2013. Bellybelly.com.au. 1986. Alexander Pope An Essay On Man Analysis. One Child Families: Advantages and Disadvantages of Having an Only Child. [online] Available at: http://www.bellybelly.com.au/child/one-child-families-advantages-disadvantages-of-having-one-child [Accessed: 27th Aug 2013].

Caplan, B. 2011. Selfish Reasons To Have More Kids. Essay. The Perseus Books Group, p. Pope On Man Analysis. Paperback, 288 pages. Emma Sykes. Abc.net.au. 2011. Triple P Podcast: Single Children ABC. Buy Paper Sale. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Alexander An Essay On Man. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 28 March 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Advantages and Disadvantages of Only Children. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.

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What is Critique? An Essay on Foucault’s Virtue. What is it to offer a critique? [1]This is something that, I would wager, most of us understand in some ordinary sense. But matters become more vexing if we attempt to distinguish between a critique of this or that position and critique as a more generalized practice, one that might be described without reference to its specific objects. Can we even ask such a question about the generalized character of critique without gesturing toward an essence of critique?

And if we achieved the generalized picture, offering something which approaches a philosophy of alexander pope on man analysis critique, would we then lose the very distinction between philosophy and critique that operates as part of the definition of online content critique itself? Critique is always a critique of some instituted practice, discourse, episteme, institution, and it loses its character the moment in pope an essay on man analysis, which it is abstracted from its operation and research, made to stand alone as a purely generalizable practice. But if this is true, this does not mean that no generalizations are possible or that, indeed, we are mired in particularisms. On the pope an essay on man analysis contrary, we tread here in best mario, an area of constrained generality, one which broaches the philosophical, but must, if it is to remain critical, remain at a distance from that very achievement. The essay I offer here is about Foucault, but let me begin by suggesting what I take to alexander pope an essay analysis, be an interesting parallel between what Raymond Williams and Theodor Adorno, in profile, different ways, sought to accomplish under the name of “criticism” and what Foucault sought to understand by “critique.” I maintain that something of Foucault’s own contribution to, and alliance with, a progressive political philosophy will be made clear in the course of the comparison.

Raymond Williams worried that the notion of criticism has been unduly restricted to the notion of “fault-finding”[2] and proposed that we find a vocabulary for the kinds of responses we have, specifically to cultural works, “which [do] not assume the habit (or right or duty) of judgment.” And what he called for pope from an essay on man was a more specific kind of response, one that did not generalize too quickly: “what always needs to be understood,” he wrote, “is the specificity of the response, which is not a judgment, but a practice.”(76) I believe this last line also marks the trajectory of Foucault’s thinking on this topic, since “critique” is precisely a practice that not only suspends judgment for him, but offers a new practice of values based on that very suspension. So, for Williams, the practice of critique is not reducible to arriving at judgments (and expressing them). Best Buy Paper Sale! Significantly, Adorno makes a similar claim when he writes of the from an essay on man “danger. of judging intellectual phenomena in profile tips, a subsumptive, uninformed and administrative manner and assimilating them into the prevailing constellations of power which the intellect ought to expose.”[3] So, the alexander from an essay on man task of exposing those “constellations of plath power” is impeded by pope from an essay on man analysis, the rush to “judgment” as the exemplary act of critique. For Adorno, the very operation of judgment serves to science research, separate the critic from the social world at hand, a move which deratifies the results of its own operation, constituting a “withdrawal from praxis.” (23) Adorno writes that the pope an essay on man critic’s “very sovereignty, the claim to a more profound knowledge of the object, the separation of the idea from its object through the independence of the critical judgment threatens to 6th grade, succumb to the thinglike form of the object when cultural criticism appeals to alexander from an essay, a collection of online content writer ideas on display, as it were, and fetishizes isolated categories.”(23) For critique to operate as part of a praxis, for Adorno, is for it to apprehend the ways in which categories are themselves instituted, how the field of knowledge is ordered, and how what it suppresses returns, as it were, as its own constitutive occlusion. Judgments operate for both thinkers as ways to alexander pope on man analysis, subsume a particular under an already constituted category, whereas critique asks after the occlusive constitution of the field of online content needed categories themselves. What becomes especially important for Foucault in this domain, to try to think the problem of alexander on man freedom and, indeed, ethics in good ideas for history research paper, general, beyond judgment: critical thinking constitutes this kind of effort. In 1978, Foucault delivered a lecture entitled, “What is Critique?”,[4] a piece that prepared the way for his more well-known essay, “What is alexander on man analysis, Enlightenment?” (1984).

He not only asks what critique is, but seeks to understand the kind of question that critique institutes, offering some tentative ways of circumscribing its activity. Ideas Paper! What remains perhaps most important about that lecture, and the more developed essay that followed, is the question form in which the alexander from an essay on man analysis matter is put. For the 6th grade research very question, “what is critique?” is an instance of the critical enterprise in question, and from an essay on man analysis, so the question not only poses the problem—what is this critique that we supposedly do or, indeed, aspire to do?—but enacts a certain mode of questioning which will prove central to the activity of critique itself. Indeed, I would suggest that what Foucault seeks to do with this question is something quite different from what we have perhaps come to expect from critique. Habermas made the operation of critique quite problematic when he suggested that a move beyond critical theory was required if we are to seek recourse to norms in plath sylvia, making evaluative judgments about social conditions and social goals. Alexander An Essay On Man! The perspective of critique, in his view, is able to call foundations into question, denaturalize social and political hierarchy, and even establish perspectives by which a certain distance on the naturalized world can be had. But none of these activities can tell us in online content writer, what direction we ought to alexander from on man, move, nor can they tell us whether the activities in which we engage are realizing certain kinds of normatively justified goals. Hence, in essay plath, his view, critical theory had to give way to a stronger normative theory, such as communicative action, in order to supply a foundation for critical theory, enabling strong normative judgments to be made,[5] and for politics not only to have a clear aim and normative aspiration, but for us to be able to alexander pope from an essay on man analysis, evaluate current practices in terms of their abilities to reach those goals. In making this kind of criticism of critique, Habermas became curiously uncritical about the very sense of normativity he deployed. For the question, “what are we to do?” presupposes that the “we” has been formed and essay plath, that it is known, that its action is possible, and the field in which it might act is delimited. But if those very formations and alexander pope an essay on man analysis, delimitations have normative consequences, then it will be necessary to online content, ask after the values that set the stage for action, and this will be an important dimension of pope on man any critical inquiry into normative matters.

And though the Habermasians may have an answer to this problem, my aim today is not to papers, rehearse these debates nor to answer them, but to mark the distance between a notion of critique that is characterized as normatively impoverished in some sense, and another, which I hope to offer here, which is not only more complex than the usual criticism assumes but which has, I would argue, strong normative commitments that appear in forms that would be difficult, if not impossible, to read within the current grammars of normativity. Indeed, in this essay, I hope to show that Foucault not only makes an important contribution to normative theory, but that both his aesthetics and his account of the subject are integrally related to both his ethics and politics. Whereas some have dismissed him as an aesthete or, indeed, as a nihilist, I hope to suggest that the foray he makes into the topic of self-making and, by presupposition, into poiesis itself is pope from analysis, central to the politics of desubjugation that he proposes. Paradoxically, self-making and content needed, desubjugation happen simultaneously when a mode of existence is risked which is unsupported by alexander pope from on man analysis, what he calls the regime the truth. Foucault begins his discussion by affirming that there are various grammars for the term, “critique,” distinguishing between a “high Kantian enterprise” called critique as well as “the little polemical activities that are called critique” (24) Thus, he warns us at the outset that critique will not be one thing, and that we will not be able to define it apart from the various objects by which it itself is defined. “By its function,” he writes “[critique] seems to plath sylvia, be condemned to dispersion, dependency and pure heteronomy.” “It only pope from, exists in relation to something other than itself.” Thus, Foucault seeks to define critique, but finds that only a series of approximations are possible. Critique will be dependent on its objects, but its objects will in are, turn define the very meaning of critique. Alexander An Essay On Man! Further, the online writer primary task of critique will not be to evaluate whether its objects —social conditions, practices, forms of knowledge, power, and discourse—are good or bad, valued highly or demeaned, but to pope an essay, bring into relief the very framework of evaluation itself. What is the resume profile relation of knowledge to power such that our epistemological certainties turn out to support a way of structuring the world that forecloses alternative possibilities of ordering?

Of course, we may think that we need epistemological certainty in order to state for sure that the alexander from analysis world is and ought to be ordered a given way. To what extent, however, is that certainty orchestrated by forms of 6th grade research knowledge precisely in order to foreclose the possibility of thinking otherwise? Now, one might wisely ask, what good is thinking otherwise, if we don’t know in advance that thinking otherwise will produce a better world? If we do not have a moral framework in which to decide with knowingness that certain new possibilities or ways of thinking otherwise will bring forth that world whose betterness we can judge by sure and already established standards? This has become something of a regular rejoinder to Foucault and the Foucaultian-minded.

And shall we assume that the relative silence that has greeted this habit of pope from an essay on man fault-finding in Foucault is a sign that his theory has no reassuring answers to give? I think we can assume that the answers that are being proffered do not have reassurance as their primary aim. This is, of course, not to say what withdraws reassurance is, by definition, not an essay, answer. Indeed, the only rejoinder, it seems to me, is to return to a more fundamental meaning of “critique” in alexander from on man, order to see what may well be wrong with the question as it is profile tips, posed and, indeed, to pose the question anew, so that a more productive approach to the place of ethics within politics might be mapped. One might wonder, indeed, whether what I mean by “productive” will be gauged by standards and from an essay analysis, measures that I am willing to defining are, reveal, or which I grasp in an essay on man analysis, full at the moment in which I make such a claim.

But here I would ask for your patience since it turns out that critique is a practice that requires a certain amount of patience in the same way that reading, according to Nietzsche, required that we act a bit more like cows than humans and learn the art of slow rumination. Foucault’s contribution to what appears as an impasse within critical and post-critical theory of our time is precisely to ask us to rethink critique as a practice in which we pose the buy paper mario sale question of the limits of our most sure ways of knowing, what Williams referred to as our “uncritical habits of mind” and alexander pope on man analysis, what Adorno described as ideology (where the “unideological thought is that which does not permit itself to be reduced to ‘operational terms’ and instead strives solely to help the things themselves to research paper, that articulation from which they are otherwise cut off by the prevailing language.”[29]) One does not drive to the limits for a thrill experience, or because limits are dangerous and sexy, or because it brings us into a titillating proximity with evil. An Essay! One asks about the limits of ways of knowing because one has already run up against a crisis within the epistemological field in essay plath, which one lives. The categories by pope, which social life are ordered produce a certain incoherence or entire realms of unspeakability. And it is from this condition, the defining tear in from, the fabric of our epistemological web, that the practice of critique emerges, with the awareness that no discourse is adequate here or that our reigning discourses have produced an impasse. Indeed, the very debate in which the strong normative view wars with critical theory may produce precisely that form of discursive impasse from which the necessity and urgency of critique emerges. For Foucault, critique is “a means for a future or a truth that it will not know nor happen to be, it oversees a domain it would not want to police and good ideas, is unable to regulate.” So critique will be that perspective on established and ordering ways of knowing which is not immediately assimilated into that ordering function.

Significantly, for an essay Foucault, this exposure of the limit of the epistemological field is research paper, linked with the practice of virtue, as if virtue is on man analysis, counter to regulation and order, as if virtue itself is to be found in buy paper sale, the risking of established order. He is alexander an essay analysis, not shy about the relation here. Research! He writes, “there is something in critique that is akin to virtue.” And then he says something which might be considered even more surprising: “this critical attitude [is] virtue in pope from an essay, general.” (25) There are some preliminary ways we can understand Foucault’s effort to cast critique as virtue. Virtue is essay, most often understood either as an attribute or a practice of a subject, or indeed a quality that conditions and characterizes a certain kind of action or practice.

It belongs to an ethics which is not fulfilled merely by following objectively formulated rules or laws. And virtue is not only a way of complying with or conforming with preestablished norms. It is, more radically, a critical relation to those norms, one which, for alexander on man Foucault, takes shape as a specific stylization of morality. Foucault gives us an indication of what he means by virtue in the introduction to The Use of plath sylvia Pleasure: The History of Sexuality, Volume Two. [6] At this juncture he makes clear that he seeks to move beyond a notion of ethical philosophy that issues a set of pope from on man analysis prescriptions. Just as critique intersects with philosophy without quite coinciding with it, so Foucault in that introduction seeks to make of his own thought an example of a non-prescriptive form of good ideas research moral inquiry.

In the same way, he will later ask about forms of moral experience that are not rigidly defined by a juridical law, a rule or command to which the self is alexander an essay on man, said mechanically or uniformly to submit. The essay that he writes, he tells us, is itself the needed example of such a practice, “to explore what might be changed, in its own thought, through the practice of a knowledge that is foreign to an essay analysis, it.” (9) Moral experience has to do with a self-transformation prompted by best buy paper mario sale, a form of knowledge that is foreign to one’s own. And this form of moral experience will be different from the submission to a command. Indeed, to the extent that Foucault interrogates moral experience here or elsewhere, he understands himself to be making an inquiry into moral experiences that are not primarily or fundamentally structured by prohibition or interdiction. In the first volume of The History of Sexuality ,[7] he sought to show that the primary interdictions assumed by psychoanalysis and the structuralist account of cultural prohibitions cannot be assumed as historical constants. Moreover, historiographically considered, moral experience cannot be understood through recourse to a prevailing set of interdictions within a given historical time. Although there are codes to be studied, these codes must always be studied in alexander from on man, relation to the modes of subjectivation to which they correspond. He makes the claim that the juridification of law achieves a certain hegemony within the thirteenth century, but that if one goes back to Greek and Roman classical cultures, one finds practices, or “arts of essay are existence” (10) which have to do with a cultivated relation of the self to itself. Introducing the notion of “arts of existence,” Foucault also reintroduces and reemphasizes “intentional and voluntary actions,” specifically, “those actions by which men not only pope from analysis, set themselves rules of conduct, but also seek to transform themselves in best buy paper mario, their singular being, and to make their life into an oeuvre.” Such lives do not simply conform to moral precepts or norms in such a way that selves, considered preformed or ready-made, fit themselves into a mold that is alexander pope from an essay, set forth by the precept. On the contrary, the self fashions itself in terms of the research norm, comes to inhabit and incorporate the norm, but the norm is from an essay analysis, not in this sense external to the principle by which the self is formed . What is at issue for him is not behaviors or ideas or societies or “ideologies,” but “the problematizations through which being offers itself to be, necessarily, thought—and the practices on the basis of which these problematizations are formed.”(11) This last claim is hardly transparent, but what it suggests is that certain kinds of practices which are designed to handle certain kinds of problems produce, over time, a settled domain of ontology as their consequence, and this ontological domain, in turn, constrains our understanding of what is possible.

Only with reference to content, this prevailing ontological horizon, itself instituted through a set of practices, will we be able to understand the kinds of relations to moral precepts that have been formed as well as those that are yet to be formed. For instance, he considers at length various practices of austerity, and he ties these to the production of a certain kind of masculine subject. The practices of austerity do not attest to a single and abiding prohibition, but work in the service of alexander on man crafting a certain kind of self. Or put in a more precise way, the self, incorporating the rules of content writer conduct that represent the virtue of austerity, creates itself as a specific kind of subject. This self-production is “the elaboration and stylization of an activity in the exercise of its power and alexander pope an essay on man, the practice of its liberty.” This was not a practice that opposed pleasure pure and simple, but a certain practice of pleasure itself (24), a practice of pleasure in the context of moral experience. Thus, in section 3 of that same introduction, Foucault makes clear that it will not suffice to offer a chronicled history of moral codes, for such a history cannot tell us how these codes were lived and, more specifically, what forms of subject-formation such codes required and facilitated. Here he begins to sound like a phenomenologist. But there is, in addition to the recourse to sale, the experiential means by which moral categories are grasped, a critical move as well, for the subjective relation to those norms will be neither predictable nor mechanical. The relation will be ‘critical’ in the sense that it will not comply with a given category, but rather constitute an interrogatory relation to the field of categorization itself, referring at least implicitly to the limits of the epistemological horizon within which practices are formed. The point will not be to refer practice to a pregiven epistemological context, but to on man analysis, establish critique as the very practice that exposes the limits of essay defining who you that epistemological horizon itself, making the contours of the horizon appear, as it were, for the first time, we might say, in relation to its own limit.

Moreover, the critical practice in question turns out to entail self-transformation in relation to a rule of alexander pope from on man analysis conduct. Buy Paper Sale! How, then, does self-transformation lead to the exposure of this limit? How is self-transformation understood as a “practice of alexander pope from on man analysis liberty,” and how is this practice understood as part of Foucault’s lexicon of virtue? Let us begin first by understanding the notion of self-transformation at stake here, and good for history research paper, then consider how it is related to the problem called “critique” which forms the from an essay focus of our deliberations here. It is, of course, one thing to resume tips, conduct oneself in alexander pope from an essay on man, relation to a code of conduct, and it is another thing to form oneself as an ethical subject in relation to a code of conduct (and it will be yet another thing to form oneself as that which risks the orderliness of the code itself). The rules of chastity provide an important example for Foucault. There is a difference, for instance, in not acting on desires that would violate a precept to which one is online writer needed, morally bound and developing a practice of desire, so to speak, which is informed by a certain ethical project or task.

The model according to which submitting to a rule of law is required would involve one in not acting in certain ways, installing an effective prohibition against the acting out of certain desires. But the model which Foucault seeks to understand and, indeed, to alexander pope from an essay, incorporate and exemplify takes moral prescription to participate in the forming of a kind of action. Foucault’s point here seems to be that renunciation and proscription do not necessarily enjoin a passive or non-active ethical mode, but form instead an ethical mode of conduct and essay, a way of stylizing both action and pleasure. I believe this contrast that Foucault lays out between a command-based ethics and the ethical practice which centrally engages the formation of the self sheds important light on the distinction between obedience and virtue that he offers in his essay, “What is Critique?” Foucault contrasts this yet to be defined understanding of “virtue” with obedience, showing how the possibility of this form of alexander from virtue is established through its difference from an uncritical obedience to authority. The resistance to authority, of online content needed course, constitutes the hallmark of the alexander an essay on man analysis Enlightenment for essay plath sylvia Foucault. And he offers us a reading of the Enlightenment which not only establishes his own continuity with its aims, but reads his own dilemmas back into the history of the Enlightenment itself.

The account he provides is one that no “Enlightenment” thinker would accept, but this resistance would not invalidate the characterization at hand, for what Foucault seeks in the characterization of the Enlightenment is precisely what remains “unthought” within its own terms: hence, his is a critical history. In his view, critique begins with questioning the demand for absolute obedience and subjecting every governmental obligation imposed on subjects to pope, a rational and reflective evaluation. Buy Paper Mario Sale! Although Foucault will not follow this turn to reason, he will nevertheless ask what criteria delimit the pope on man sorts of reasons that can come to bear on the question of obedience. He will be particularly interested in the problem of how that delimited field forms the subject and how, in 6th grade papers, turn, a subject comes to pope from an essay on man analysis, form and reform those reasons. This capacity to form reasons will be importantly linked to the self-transformative relation mentioned above. To be critical of an authority that poses as absolute requires a critical practice that has self-transformation at its core.

But how do we move from understanding the reasons we might have for consenting to plath sylvia, a demand to forming those reasons for ourselves, to transforming ourselves in alexander, the course of producing those reasons (and, finally, putting at risk the field of reason itself)? Are these not distinct kinds of problems, or does one invariably lead to the other? Is the autonomy achieved in forming reasons which serve as the basis for accepting or rejecting a pregiven law the same as the transformation of the self that takes place when a rule becomes incorporated into the very action of the subject? As we shall see, both the transformation of the resume profile self in relation to ethical precepts and the practice of critique are considered forms of “art,” stylizations and alexander from an essay, repetitions, suggesting that there is no possibility of accepting or refusing a rule without a self who is stylized in essay who you, response to the ethical demand upon it. In the context where obedience is required, Foucault locates the desire that informs the question, “how not to be governed?” (28) This desire, and the wonderment that follows from it, forms the central impetus of critique. It is of course unclear how the desire not to from analysis, be governed is linked with virtue. He does make clear, however, that he is not posing the possibility of radical anarchy, and that the question is ideas for history paper, not how to alexander pope from on man, become radically ungovernable. It is a specific question that emerges in relation to a specific form of government: “how not to ideas for history, be governed like that , by that, in the name of alexander pope on man those principles, with such and such an objective in mind and by means of resume such procedures, not like that, not for that, not by them.” This becomes the signature mark of “the critical attitude”(28) and pope from an essay, its particular virtue. For Foucault, the question itself inaugurates both a moral and research paper, political attitude, “the art of not being governed or, better, the art of not being governed like that and at from an essay, that cost.”(29) Whatever virtue Foucault here circumscribes for us will have to do with objecting to that imposition of power, to its costs, to the way in which it is administered, to those who do that administering. Tips! One might be tempted to think that Foucault is simply describing resistance, but here it seems that “virtue” has taken the place of that term, or becomes the pope from an essay on man analysis means by which it is science research papers, redescribed.

We will have to ask why. Moreover, this virtue is described as well as an “art,” the art of not being governed “quite so much,” so what is the relation between aesthetics and ethics at work here? He finds the origins of critique in the relation of resistance to an essay on man, ecclesiastical authority. In relation to church doctrine, “not wanting to be governed was a certain way of refusing, challenging, limiting (say it as you like) ecclesiastical rule. It meant returning to the Scriptures. it meant questioning what kind of truth the Scriptures told.” (30). And this objection was clearly waged in the name of an are, alternative or, minimally, emerging ground of truth and of justice. This leads Foucault to formulate a second definition of “critique”: “Not to want to be governed. not wanting to alexander pope, accept these laws because they are unjust because. they hide a fundamental illegitimacy.”(30) Critique is that which exposes this illegitimacy, but it is research papers, not because critique has recourse to a more fundamental political or moral order. Foucault writes that the an essay analysis critical project is profile, “confronted with government and from, the obedience it stipulates” and that what “critique means” in this context is “putting forth universal and indefeasible rights to which every government, whatever it may be, whether a monarch, a magistrate, an educator or a pater familias, will have to submit.”(30).

The practice of critique, however, does not discover these universal rights, as Enlightenment theorists claim, but it does “put them forth.” However, it does not put them forth not as positive rights. The “putting forth” is an act which limits the power of the law, an research, act which counters and rivals the workings of power, power at the moment of its renewal. Pope! This is the positing of essay plath sylvia limitation itself, one that takes form as a question and which asserts, in its very assertion, a “right” to question. From An Essay On Man Analysis! From the sixteenth century on, the question “how not to be governed” becomes specified as “What are the limits of the right to govern?”(31) “‘To not want to be governed’ is of course not accepting as true. what an authority tells you is true, or at least not accepting it because an authority tells you that it is buy paper sale, true, but rather accepting it only if one considers valid the reasons for doing so.” There is of course a fair amount of ambiguity in this situation, for what will constitute a ground of validity for accepting authority? Does the validity derive from the alexander an essay on man consent to accept authority?

If so, does consent validate the reasons offered, whatever they are? Or is it rather the case that it is only on the basis of essay sylvia a prior and discoverable validity that one offers one’s consent? And do these prior reasons, in on man, their validity, make the consent a valid one? If the first alternative is correct, then consent is the criterion by which validity is judged, and it would appear that Foucault’s position reduces to a form of voluntarism. But perhaps what he is offering us by way of “critique” is an essay defining, act, even a practice of pope from on man freedom, which cannot reduce to voluntarism in any easy way. For the essay sylvia practice by which the limits to absolute authority are set is one that is fundamentally dependent on the horizon of knowledge effects within which it operates. The critical practice does not well up from the innate freedom of the soul, but is alexander pope on man, formed instead in the crucible of a particular exchange between a set of essay rules or precepts (which are already there) and a stylization of acts (which extends and reformulates that prior set of rules and precepts). Alexander Pope An Essay Analysis! This stylization of the self in relation to the rules comes to count as a “practice.”

In Foucault’s view, following Kant in an attenuated sense, the act of consent is resume tips, a reflexive movement by which validity is attributed to or withdrawn from authority. But this reflexivity does not take place internal to a subject. For Foucault, this is an act which poses some risk, for the point will not only be to object to this or that governmental demand, but to ask about the order in which such a demand becomes legible and possible. And if what one objects to pope from on man, are the epistemological orderings that have established the rules of governmental validity, then saying “no” to 6th grade research papers, the demand will require departing from the established grounds of its validity, marking the limit of that validity, which is something different and far more risky than finding a given demand invalid. An Essay On Man Analysis! In this difference, we might say, one begins to enter a critical relation to such orderings and the ethical precepts to which they give rise. The problem with those grounds that Foucault calls “illegitimate” is not that they are partial or self-contradictory or that they lead to hypocritical moral stands. The problem is precisely that they seek to foreclose the critical relation, that is, to extend their own power to order the entire field of moral and political judgment. Online Content Needed! They orchestrate and exhaust the field of certainty itself. How does one call into question the exhaustive hold that such rules of ordering have upon certainty without risking uncertainty, without inhabiting that place of wavering which exposes one to the charge of pope an essay on man immorality, evil, aestheticism.

The critical attitude is not moral according to writer, the rules whose limits that very critical relation seeks to interrogate. But how else can critique do its job without risking the denunciations of those who naturalize and render hegemonic the very moral terms put into question by critique itself? Foucault’s distinction between government and from an essay on man, governmentalization seeks to show that the apparatus denoted by the former enters into the practices of those who are being governed, their very ways of knowing, their very ways of being. Plath Sylvia! To be governed is alexander on man, not only to have a form imposed upon 6th grade, one’s existence, but to be given the terms within which existence will and will not be possible. A subject will emerge in relation to an established order of truth, but it can also take a point of view on that established order that retrospectively suspends its own ontological ground. If governmentalization is. this movement through which individuals are subjugated in the reality of a social practice through mechanisms of alexander from on man power that adhere to a truth, well, then! I will say that critique is the movement by online content, which the subject gives himself the alexander pope an essay right (le sujet se donne le droit) to question truth on its effects of power and question power on paper, its discourses of truth. Alexander Pope On Man Analysis! (my emphasis, English text, 32; French text, 39) Note here that the subject is resume profile, said to “give himself that right,” a mode of self-allocation and selfauthorization that seems to foreground the reflexivity of the claim. Is this, then, a self-generated movement, one which shores up the subject over and against on man analysis a countervailing authority? And what difference does it make, if any, that this self-allocation and self-designation emerges as an “art”? “Critique,” he writes, “will be the art of voluntary insubordination, that of are reflected intractability [ l’indocilite reflechie ].” If it is an pope from an essay analysis, “art” in his sense, then critique will not be a single act, nor will it belong exclusively to good research paper, a subjective domain, for it will be the pope an essay analysis stylized relation to the demand upon it.

And the style will be critical to the extent that, as style, it is not fully determined in advance, it incorporates a contingency over time that marks the limits to the ordering capacity of the field in question. So the essay who you are stylization of alexander an essay on man analysis this “will” will produce a subject who is not readily knowable under the established rubric of truth. More radically, Foucault pronounces: “Critique would essentially insure the desubjugation [ desassujetiisement ] of the subject in the context [ le jeu ] of what we could call, in a word, the politics of truth.” (32, 39) The politics of truth pertains to those relations of power that circumscribe in advance what will and will not count as truth, which order the world in certain regular and regulatable ways, and content writer needed, which we come to accept as the given field of alexander an essay on man knowledge. We can understand the salience of this point when we begin to ask: What counts as a person? What counts as a coherent gender? What qualifies as a citizen? Whose world is legitimated as real?

Subjectively, we ask: Who can I become in such a world where the meanings and limits of the subject are set out in advance for tips me? By what norms am I constrained as I begin to ask what I may become? And what happens when I begin to become that for which there is no place within the pope from analysis given regime of truth? Is this not precisely what is resume tips, meant by “the desubjugation of the subject in the play of. the politics of truth”(my translation)? At stake here is the alexander from an essay relation between the limits of ontology and epistemology, the link between the limits of what I might become and the limits of what I might risk knowing. Deriving a sense of critique from Kant, Foucault poses the question that is the question of critique itself: “Do you know up to what point you can know?” “Our liberty is at stake.” Thus, liberty emerges at the limits of research what one can know, at alexander pope an essay on man analysis, the very moment in which the desubjugation of the subject within the politics of truth takes place, the moment where a certain questioning practice begins that takes the following form: “‘What, therefore, am I’, I who belong to this humanity, perhaps to this piece of it, at this point in tips, time, at this instant of humanity which is subjected to the power of truth in general and truths in alexander from an essay on man, particular?”(46) Another way of putting this is the following: “What, given the contemporary order of essay are being, can I be?” If, in alexander pope from on man, posing this question, liberty is at stake, it may be that staking liberty has something to do with what Foucault calls virtue, with a certain risk that is put into play through thought and, indeed, through language where the contemporary ordering of being is essay plath sylvia, brought to its limit. But how do we understand this contemporary order of being in which I come to stake myself? Foucault chooses here to characterize this historically conditioned order of alexander from an essay on man analysis being in a way that links him with the critical theory of the Frankfurt school, identifying “rationalization” as the governmentalizing effect on ontology. Allying himself with a Left critical tradition post-Kant, Foucault writes, From the Hegelian Left to the Frankfurt School, there has been a complete critique of positivism, rationalization, of techne and technicalization, a whole critique of the relationships between the fundamental project of science and techniques whose objective was to show the connections between science’s naive presumptions, on one hand, and the forms of domination characteristic of best buy paper mario sale contemporary society, on the other. Alexander Pope From An Essay Analysis! (39) In his view, rationalization takes a new form when it comes into the service of bio-power.

And what continues to who you are, be difficult for most social actors and critics within this situation is to discern the relationship between “rationalization and power.”(39) What appears to an essay on man analysis, be a merely epistemic order, a way of ordering the world, does not readily admit of the constraints by sylvia, which that ordering takes place. Nor does it eagerly show the way in which the alexander from an essay analysis intensification and totalization of rationalizing effects leads to good ideas for history paper, an intensification of power. Foucault asks, “How is it that rationalization leads to the furor of power?”(42) Clearly, the capacity for rationalization to pope analysis, reach into the tributaries of life not only characterizes modes of scientific practice, “but also social relationships, state organizations, economic practices and perhaps even individual behaviors?”(43) It reaches its “furor” and its limits as it seizes and pervades the essay sylvia subject it subjectivates. Power sets the limits to what a subject can “be,” beyond which it no longer “is,” or it dwells in a domain of alexander an essay analysis suspended ontology. But power seeks to constrain the essay sylvia subject through the an essay on man force of research papers coercion, and the resistance to coercion consists in the stylization of the self at the limits of established being. One of the alexander pope from an essay on man first tasks of critique is to discern the relation “between mechanisms of coercion and elements of essay knowledge.” (50) Here again we seem confronted with the alexander an essay analysis limits of what is knowable, limits which exercise a certain force without being grounded in any necessity, limits which can only be tread or interrogated by research, risking a certain security within an available ontology: [N]othing can exist as an element of knowledge if, on the one hand, it . does not conform to a set of rules and constraints characteristic, for example, of alexander pope from a given type of scientific discourse in a given period, and if, on the other hand, it does not possess the effects of coercion or simply the content needed incentives peculiar to what is scientifically validated or simply rational or simply generally accepted, etc. (52) He then continues to show that knowledge and power are not finally separable, but work together to from an essay on man, establish a set of subtle and explicit criteria for good ideas for history thinking the world: “It is therefore not a matter of describing what knowledge is and what power is and how one would repress the other or how the other would abuse the one, but rather, a nexus of alexander pope from an essay knowledge-power has to be described so that we can grasp what constitutes the acceptability of papers a system.” (52-53)

The critic thus has a double task, to on man analysis, show how knowledge and power work to online writer needed, constitute a more or less systematic way of alexander pope from an essay ordering the world with its own “conditions of acceptability of needed a system,” but also “to follow the breaking points which indicate its emergence.” So not only is it necessary to isolate and identify the peculiar nexus of power and pope an essay on man, knowledge that gives rise to the field of profile intelligible things, but also to track the way in which that field meets its breaking point, the on man analysis moments of its discontinuities, the sites where it fails to constitute the intelligibility for which it stands. Defining Are! What this means is that one looks both for the conditions by which the object field is constituted, but also for the limits of those conditions, the moments where they point up their contingency and their transformability. In Foucault’s terms, “schematically speaking, we have perpetual mobility, essential fragility or rather the complex interplay between what replicates the same process and what transforms it.” (58) Indeed, another way to talk about this dynamic within critique is to say that rationalization meets its limits in analysis, desubjugation. If the desubjugation of the subject emerges at the moment in which the episteme constituted through rationalization exposes its limit, then desubjugation marks precisely the fragility and transformability of the epistemics of power. Critique begins with the presumption of essay are governmentalization and then with its failure to totalize the subject its seeks to pope from on man, know and to subjugate.

But the means by which this very relation is articulated is described, in a disconcerting way, as fiction. Online Content Writer Needed! Why would it be fiction? And in what sense is it fiction? Foucault refers to “an historical-philosophical practice [in which] one had to make one’s own history, fabricate history, as if through fiction [ de faire comme par fiction ], in terms of how it would be traversed by the question of the pope on man analysis relationships between structures of rationality which articulate true discourse and the mechanisms of profile subjugation which are linked to it.” (45, 44) There is thus a dimension of the methodology itself which partakes of fiction, which draws fictional lines between rationalization and desubjugation, between the knowledge-power nexus and its fragility and limit. We are not told what sort of alexander pope from an essay analysis fiction this will be, but it seems clear that Foucault is drawing on Nietzsche and, in particular, the kind of fiction that genealogy is said to be.

You may remember that although it seems that for Nietzsche the genealogy of morals is the attempt to locate the origins of values, he is actually seeking to find out how the very notion of the origin became instituted. And the means by which he seeks to explain the essay are origin is from an essay analysis, fictional. Research Paper! He tells a fable of the nobles, another about a social contract, another about pope an essay, a slave revolt in morality, and yet another about creditor and debtor relations. Best Buy Paper Mario! None of these fables can be located in pope from an essay, space or time, and any effort to try to find the historical complement to Nietzsche’s genealogies will necessarily fail. Indeed, in the place of an account that finds the origin to values or, indeed, the origin of the origin, we read fictional stories about the way that values are originated. A noble says something is the case and it becomes the case: the speech act inaugurates the value, and becomes something like an who you are, atopical and atemporal occasion for the origination of values. Indeed, Nietzsche’s own fiction-making mirrors the very acts of inauguration that he attributes to those who make values.

So he not only describes that process, but that description becomes an instance of value- production, enacting the very process that it narrates. How would this particular use of fiction relate to Foucault’s notion of pope from on man analysis critique? Consider that Foucault is trying to understand the possibility of desubjugation within rationalization without assuming that there is a source for resistance that is housed in the subject or maintained in some foundational mode. Where does resistance come from? Can it be said to be the upsurge of some human freedom shackled by the powers of rationalization? If he speaks, as he does, of a will not to be governed, how are we to plath, understand the status of an essay on man that will? In response to a query along these lines, he remarks. I do not think that the will not to be governed at all is something that one could consider an originary aspiration ( je ne pense pas en effet que la volonte de n’etre pas gouverne du tout soit quelque chose que l’on puisse considerer comme une aspiration originaire) . Research Papers! I think that, in fact, the will not to be governed is always the will not to be governed thusly, like that, by these people, at this price. (72) He goes on to warn against the absolutizing of from an essay analysis this will that philosophy is always tempted to perform. He seeks to avoid what he calls “the philosophical and theoretical paroxysm of something that would be this will not to be relatively governed.”(72-73) He makes clear that accounting for this will involves him in a problem of the resume profile origin, and he comes quite close to alexander on man, ceding the terrain, but a certain Nietzschean reluctance prevails. He writes,

I was not referring to something that would be a fundamental anarchism, that would be like an originary freedom ( qui serait comme la liberte originaire ), absolutely and wholeheartedly ( absolument et en son fond) resistant to any governmentalization. I did not say it, but this does not mean that I absolutely exclude it ( Je ne l’ai pas dit, mais cela ne veut pas dire que je l’exclus absolument ). I think that my presentation stops at online content, this point, because it was already too long, but also because I am wondering ( mais aussi parce que je me demande ). if one wants to explore this dimension of critique that seems to me to pope an essay analysis, be so important because it is best mario, both part of, and not part of, philosophy. it is supported by something akin ( qui serait ou ) to the historical practice of revolt, the non-acceptance of a real government, on one hand, or, on pope from, the other, the individual refusal of for history paper governmentality.”(72-73, 59) Whatever this is that one draws upon on man analysis, as one resists governmentalization will be “ like an originary freedom” and “something akin to 6th grade science, the historical practice of revolt” (my emphasis). Like them, indeed, but apparently not quite the alexander pope from same. As for Foucault’s mention of “originary freedom,” he offers and withdraws it at once. “I did not say it,” he remarks, after coming quite close to saying it, after showing us how he almost said it, after exercising that very proximity in the open for us in what can be understood as something of a tease. What discourse nearly seduces him here, subjugating him to its terms? And how does he draw from the very terms that he refuses? What art form is this in which a nearly collapsible critical distance is performed for us? And is this the same distance that informs the practice of good ideas research wondering, of alexander from an essay analysis questioning? What limits of knowing does he dare to broach as he wonders out loud for us?

The inaugural scene of critique involves “the art of voluntary insubordination,” and the voluntary or, indeed, “originary freedom” is given here, but in the form of a conjecture, in a form of art that suspends ontology and brings us into the suspension of 6th grade science research papers disbelief. Foucault finds a way to say “originary freedom,” and alexander analysis, I suppose that it gives him great pleasure to utter these words, pleasure and fear. He speaks them, but only through staging the words, relieving himself of an ontological commitment, but releasing the words themselves for a certain use. Does he refer to originary freedom here? Does he seek recourse to it? Has he found the well of originary freedom and drunk from it? Or does he, significantly, posit it, mention it, say it without quite saying it?

Is he invoking it so that we might relive its resonances, and know its power? The staging of the term is not its assertion, but we might say that the assertion is staged, rendered artfully, subjected to an ontological suspension, precisely so it might be spoken. And that it is this speech act, the one which for a time relieves the phrase, “originary freedom,” from the epistemic politics within which it lives which also performs a certain desubjugation of the subject within the politics of truth. For when one speaks in that way, one is gripped and freed by the words one nevertheless says. Of course, politics is not simply a matter of speaking, and I do not mean to good research, rehabilitate Aristotle in an essay on man analysis, the form of Foucault (although, I confess, that such a move intrigues me, and I mention it here to offer it as a possibility without committing myself to it at once). In this verbal gesture toward the ideas for history research end of his lecture, a certain freedom is pope an essay on man analysis, exemplified, not by the reference to the term without any foundational anchor, but by the artful performance of its release from its usual discursive constraints, from the conceit that one might only utter it knowing in advance what its anchor must be. Foucault’s gesture is oddly brave, I would suggest, for it knows that it cannot ground the claim of original freedom. This not knowing permits for the particular use it has within his discourse. He braves it anyway, and 6th grade science research, so his mention, his insistence, become an allegory for a certain risk-taking that happens at the limit of the epistemological field. Pope From An Essay On Man Analysis! And this becomes a practice of virtue, perhaps, and not, as his critics profess, a sign of moral despair, precisely to the extent that the practice of this kind of speaking posits a value which it does not know how to ground or to sylvia, secure for itself, posits it anyway, and thereby shows that a certain intelligibility exceeds the limits on alexander an essay on man, intelligibility that power-knowledge has already set. This is good for history research paper, virtue in the minimal sense precisely because it offers the perspective by which the subject gains a critical distance on from on man analysis, established authority.

But it is also an act of courage, acting without guarantees, risking the subject at the limits of its ordering. Who would Foucault be if he were to utter such words? What desubjugation does he perform for us with this utterance? To gain a critical distance from established authority means for Foucault not only to recognize the ways in which the content needed coercive effects of knowledge are at work in subject-formation itself, but to risk one’s very formation as a subject. Thus, in from, “The Subject and Power,”[8] Foucault will claim “this form of power [that] applies itself to immediate, everyday life which categorizes the individual, marks him by essay are, his own individuality, attaches him to his own identity, imposes a law of truth on him which he must recognize and which others have to alexander from on man analysis, recognize in him.”(212) And when that law falters or is broken, the very possibility of recognition is imperiled. So when we ask how we might say “originary freedom,” and say it in essay who you are, the wondering, we also put into question the subject who is an essay on man, said to be rooted in research papers, that term, releasing it, paradoxically, for a venture which might actually give the term new substance and possibility. In concluding, I would simply return to the introduction to The Use of Pleasure where Foucault defines the practices that concern him, the alexander analysis “arts of existence” (10), as having to do with a cultivated relation of the 6th grade science papers self to itself.

This kind of formulation brings us closer to the strange sort of virtue that Foucault’s antifoundationalism comes to represent. Indeed, as I wrote earlier, when he introduces the alexander pope on man analysis notion of “arts of profile tips existence,” Foucault also refers to pope from an essay analysis, such arts of buy paper existence as producing subjects who “seek to transform themselves in their singular being, and to make their life into an oeuvre.” We might think that this gives support to the charge that Foucault has fully aestheticized existence at from analysis, the expense of ethics, but I would suggest only for history, that he has shown us that there can be no ethics, and no politics, without recourse to analysis, this singular sense of poiesis. Best Sale! The subject who is formed by the principles furnished by the discourse of alexander from an essay on man analysis truth is not yet the writer needed subject who endeavors to form itself. Engaged in “arts of existence,” this subject is both crafted and from an essay, crafting, and the line between how it is formed, and how it becomes a kind of best mario sale forming, is alexander pope from analysis, not easily, if ever drawn. For it is not the case that a subject is online, formed and then turns around and begins suddenly to form itself. On the contrary, the formation of the subject is the institution of the very reflexivity that indistinguishably assumes the burden of formation. The “indistinguishability” of this line is precisely the juncture where social norms intersect with ethical demands, and where both are produced in the context of a self-making which is never fully self-inaugurated.

Although Foucault refers quite straightforwardly to intention and alexander pope from an essay analysis, deliberation in this text, he also lets us know how difficult it will be to understand this self-stylization in essay plath, terms of any received understanding of intention and deliberation. For an understanding of the revision of terms that his usage requires, Foucault introduces the terms, “modes of subjection or subjectivation.” These terms do not simply relate the way a subject is formed, but how it becomes self-forming. This becoming of an ethical subject is not a simple matter of self-knowledge or self-awareness; it denotes a “process in which the alexander from analysis individual delimits that part of himself that will form the object of his moral practice.” The self delimits itself, and decides on papers, the material for its self-making, but the delimitation that the self performs takes place through norms which are, indisputably, already in place. Thus, if we think this aesthetic mode of self-making is contextualized within ethical practice, he reminds us that this ethical labor can only take place within a wider political context, the politics of norms. He makes clear that there is no self-forming outside of a mode of subjectivation, which is to alexander an essay, say, there is good ideas paper, no self-forming outside of the norms that orchestrate the pope an essay on man analysis possible formation of the subject. (28)

We have moved quietly from the discursive notion of the subject to a more psychologically resonant notion of “self,” and it may be that for good ideas for history research Foucault the latter term carries more agency than the former. The self forms itself, but it forms itself within a set of formative practices that are characterized as modes of subjectivations. That the range of its possible forms is delimited in pope from an essay on man, advance by such modes of subjectivation does not mean that the self fails to form itself, that the self is fully formed. On the contrary, it is compelled to form itself, but to form itself within forms that are already more or less in operation and underway. Or, one might say, it is compelled to form itself within practices that are more or less in essay, place. But if that selfforming is done in from, disobedience to the principles by which one is formed, then virtue becomes the practice by content needed, which the alexander from an essay on man self forms itself in desubjugation, which is to say that it risks its deformation as a subject, occupying that ontologically insecure position which poses the question anew: who will be a subject here, and what will count as a life, a moment of ethical questioning which requires that we break the habits of judgment in favor of a riskier practice that seeks to essay plath, yield artistry from constraint. [1] This essay was originally delivered, in shorter form, as the Raymond Williams Lecture at Cambridge University in May of 2000, then published in longer form in David Ingram, ed., The Political: Readings in Continental Philosophy , London: Basil Blackwell, 2002.

I am grateful to William Connolly and Wendy Brown for their very useful comments on earlier drafts. [2] Raymond Williams, Keywords , (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976), 75-76. [3] Theodor W. Adorno, “Cultural Criticism and Society” in Prisms , (Cambridge, MA.: MIT Press, 1984), 30. [4] Michel Foucault, “What is Critique?” in pope from, The Politics of Truth , eds. Sylvere Lotringer and Lysa Hochroth, (New York: Semiotext(e), 1997), transcript by Monique Emery, revised by Suzanne Delorme, et al., translated into online content writer, English by alexander pope from an essay, Lysa Hochroth. This essay was originally a lecture given at the French Society of Philosophy on resume, 27 May 1978, subsequently published in Bulletin de la Societe francaise de la philosophie 84:2 (1990) 35-63; 21. [5] For an interesting account of this transition from critical theory to a theory of communicative action, see Seyla Benhabib, Critique, Norm, and Utopia: A Study of the Foundations of Critical Theory (New York: Columbia University Press, 1986), 1-13. [6] Michel Foucault, The Use of Pleasure: The History of Sexuality, Volume Two (New York: Pantheon Press, 1985). [7] Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality, Volume One (New York: Random House, 1978).

[8] Michel Foucault, “The Subject and Power” in Hubert L. Dreyfus and Paul Rabinow, eds., Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics , (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), 208-228.