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Essay on gandhi in my view

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Focus and Precision: How to on gandhi Write Essays that Answer the Question. Stephanie Allen read Classics and English at St Hugh’s College, Oxford, and is currently researching a PhD in Early Modern Academic Drama at the University of Fribourg. Scoring Guide For Persuasive Essay. We’ve all been there. On Gandhi In My View. You’ve handed in term paper, an essay and you think it’s pretty great: it shows off all your best ideas, and contains points you’re sure no one else will have thought of. You’re not totally convinced that what you’ve written is relevant to the title you were given but it’s inventive, original and essay on gandhi in my good. Courtroom Experience Essay. In fact, it might be better than anything that would have responded to the question.

But your essay isn’t met with the on gandhi in my view lavish praise you expected. When it’s tossed back onto your desk, there are huge chunks scored through with red pen, crawling with annotations like little red fire ants: ‘IRRELEVANT’; ‘A bit of a tangent!’; ‘. Scoring Guide For Persuasive Essay. ’; and, right next to your best, most impressive killer point: ‘Right… so?’. The grade your teacher has scrawled at the end is nowhere near what your essay deserves. In fact, it’s pretty average. And the comment at the bottom reads something like, ‘Some good ideas, but you didn’t answer the question!’. On Gandhi In My. If asked a question about Keats, you should write about Keats. If this has ever happened to death salesman american you (and it has happened to me, a lot), you’ll know how deeply frustrating it is – and how unfair it can seem.

This might just be me, but the exhausting process of essay in my researching, having ideas, planning, writing and mother essay re-reading makes me steadily more attached to the ideas I have, and the things I’ve managed to put on essay view, the page. Each time I scroll back through what I’ve written, or planned, so far, I become steadily more convinced of its brilliance. What started off as a scribbled note in the margin, something extra to courtroom think about or to pop in if it could be made to fit the argument, sometimes comes to be backbone of a whole essay – so, when a tutor tells me my inspired paragraph about Ted Hughes’s interpretation of mythology isn’t relevant to my essay on Keats, I fail to on gandhi in my view see why. Or even if I can see why, the thought of taking it out is wrenching. Who cares if it’s a bit off-topic? It should make my essay stand out, if anything! And an examiner would probably be happy not to essay salesman dream read yet another answer that makes exactly the essay same points.

If you recognise yourself in the above, there are two crucial things to realise. The first is term that something has to change: because doing well in high school exam or coursework essays is essay on gandhi in my almost totally dependent on being able to pin down and organise lots of ideas so that an examiner can see that they convincingly answer a question. And it’s a real shame to essay for catholic work hard on something, have good ideas, and essay on gandhi not get the marks you deserve. Essay School. Writing a top essay is essay in my view a very particular and actually quite simple challenge. It’s not actually that important how original you are, how compelling your writing is, how many ideas you get down, or how beautifully you can express yourself (though of mother conclusion course, all these things do have their rightful place). Essay View. What you’re doing, essentially, is using a limited amount of time and knowledge to really answer a question. It sounds obvious, but a good essay should have the courtroom experience title or question as its focus the whole way through . It should answer it ten times over – in every single paragraph, with every fact or figure. Treat your reader (whether it’s your class teacher or an external examiner) like a child who can’t do any interpretive work of their own; imagine yourself leading them through your essay by the hand, pointing out that you’ve answered the question here , and here , and here. Now, this is all very well, I imagine you objecting, and much easier said than done. But never fear!

Structuring an essay that knocks a question on the head is something you can learn to do in a couple of easy steps. Essay In My. In the next few hundred words, I’m going to share with you what I’ve learned through endless, mindless crossings-out, rewordings, rewritings and rethinkings. Scoring Guide Essay. I’ve lost count of the essay on gandhi in my number of times I’ve been told to ‘write the to son question at in my view, the top of every new page’- but for some reason, that trick simply doesn’t work for globalization paper outline me. If it doesn’t work for you either, use this three-part process to view allow the question to globalization outline structure your essay: 1) Work out exactly what you’re being asked. It sounds really obvious, but lots of students have trouble answering questions because they don’t take time to figure out exactly what they’re expected to do – instead, they skim-read and then write the essay they want to write. Sussing out a question is a two-part process, and the first part is essay in my view easy. It means looking at the directions the question provides as to what sort of essay you’re going to write. I call these ‘command phrases’ and will go into more detail about what they mean below. The second part involves identifying key words and phrases. Use forceful, persuasive language to show how the points you’ve made do answer the question. Scoring For Persuasive. My main focus so far has been on tangential or irrelevant material – but many students lose marks even though they make great points, because they don’t quite impress how relevant those points are.

Again, I’ll talk about how you can do this below. 3) Be brutally honest with yourself about whether a point is relevant before you write it. It doesn’t matter how impressive, original or interesting it is. It doesn’t matter if you’re panicking, and on gandhi view you can’t think of any points that do answer the question. If a point isn’t relevant, don’t bother with it. It’s a waste of time, and scoring essay might actually work against view you- if you put tangential material in an essay, your reader will struggle to essay high school admission follow the thread of your argument, and lose focus on your really good points. #8216;Macbeth and Banquo meeting the witches on the heath#8217; by Theodore Chasseriau. Let’s imagine you’re writing an English essay about the role and importance of the three witches in Macbeth . You’re thinking about the different ways in which Shakespeare imagines and essay view presents the witches, how they influence the action of the essay tragedy, and perhaps the extent to which we’re supposed to believe in them (stay with me – you don’t have to essay on gandhi in my view know a single thing about Shakespeare or Macbeth to mother conclusion understand this bit!). Now, you’ll probably have a few good ideas on essay on gandhi in my, this topic – and whatever essay you write, you’ll most likely use much of the same material.

However, the detail of the globalization term outline phrasing of the view question will significantly affect the way you write your essay. You would draw on similar material to address the following questions: Discuss Shakespeare’s representation of the three witches in Macbeth . How does Shakespeare figure the for catholic high supernatural in Macbeth ? To what extent are the three witches responsible for Macbeth’s tragic downfall? Evaluate the importance of the three witches in bringing about Macbeth’s ruin. Are we supposed to in my view believe in the three witches in Macbeth ? “Within Macbeth ’s representation of the witches, there is profound ambiguity about the essay actual significance and power of essay on gandhi in my view their malevolent intervention” (Stephen Greenblatt). Discuss.

I’ve organised the examples into three groups, exemplifying the different types of questions you might have to answer in an exam. The first group are pretty open-ended: ‘discuss’- and ‘how’-questions leave you room to experience essay set the on gandhi in my view scope of the guide essay. Essay On Gandhi. You can decide what the mother essay conclusion focus should be. Beware, though – this doesn’t mean you don’t need a sturdy structure, or a clear argument, both of which should always be present in an essay. The second group are asking you to on gandhi evaluate, constructing an argument that decides whether, and how far something is true. Good examples of hypotheses (which your essay would set out to prove) for religion these questions are: The witches are the most important cause of in my view tragic action in Macbeth. The witches are partially, but not entirely responsible for Macbeth’s downfall, alongside Macbeth’s unbridled ambition, and that of his wife. We are not supposed to believe the courtroom experience essay witches: they are a product of Macbeth’s psyche, and his downfall is on gandhi view his own doing. Mother Conclusion. The witches’ role in Macbeth’s downfall is deliberately unclear. Their claim to reality is shaky – finally, their ambiguity is part of an uncertain tragic universe and the great illusion of the theatre. (N.B.

It’s fine to essay on gandhi in my conclude that a question can’t be answered in courtroom, black and essay in my view white, certain terms – as long as you have a firm structure, and keep referring back to courtroom experience essay it throughout the essay). The final question asks you to respond to a quotation. Students tend to find these sorts of questions the most difficult to answer, but once you’ve got the hang of them I think the essay on gandhi view title does most of the work for you – often implicitly providing you with a structure for your essay. The first step is breaking down the quotation into its constituent parts- the different things it says. High School. I use brackets: ( Within Macbeth ’s representation of the witches, ) ( there is in my view profound ambiguity ) about the ( actual significance ) ( and scoring essay power ) of ( their malevolent intervention ) Examiners have a nasty habit of picking the most bewildering and terrifying-sounding quotations: but once you break them down, they’re often asking for something very simple. This quotation, for example, is on gandhi in my view asking exactly the same thing as the other questions. Mother Essay. The trick here is making sure you respond to all the in my different parts. You want to make sure you discuss the following: Do you agree that the status of the witches’ ‘malevolent intervention’ is ambiguous? What is experience essay its significance? How powerful is it? James I, the King of England and Scotland at the time Macbeth was written, famously wrote ‘Daemonologie’, which encourages the practice of essay on gandhi witch-hunting.

Having worked out exactly what the scoring question is asking, write out a plan (which should be very detailed in a coursework essay, but doesn’t have to be more than a few lines long in on gandhi in my, an exam context) of the material you’ll use in each paragraph. Make sure your plan contains a sentence at the end of each point about how that point will answer the question. A point from my plan for one of the topics above might look something like this: To what extent are we supposed to believe in globalization paper outline, the three witches in Macbeth ? Hypothesis: The witches’ role in Macbeth’s downfall is deliberately unclear. Their claim to essay in my reality is uncertain finally, they’re part of an essay, uncertain tragic universe and the great illusion of the theatre. At the time Shakespeare wrote Macbeth , there were many examples of people being burned or drowned as witches There were also people who claimed to be able to exorcise evil demons from people who were ‘possessed’.

Catholic Christianity leaves much room for the supernatural to exist This suggests that Shakespeare’s contemporary audience might, more readily than a modern one, have believed that witches were a real phenomenon and on gandhi in my view did exist. Paper Outline. My final sentence (highlighted in red) shows how the material discussed in the paragraph answers the question. Essay On Gandhi View. Writing this out at the planning stage, in addition to courtroom experience essay clarifying your ideas, is a great test of whether a point is in my relevant: if you struggle to write the sentence, and make the connection to the question and larger argument, you might have gone off-topic. Step Three: Paragraph beginnings and guide essay endings. Essay On Gandhi In My. This 16th century English illustration shows a witch feeding her familiars.

The final step to making sure you pick up all the possible marks for ‘answering the question’ in an essay is ensuring that you make it explicit how your material does so. This bit relies upon getting the essay of a salesman beginnings and essay in my view endings of paragraphs just right. To reiterate what I said above, treat your reader like a child: tell them what you’re going to say; tell them how it answers the question; say it, and then tell them how you’ve answered the question. This need not feel clumsy, awkward or repetitive. Death Of A. The first sentence of view each new paragraph or point should, without giving too much of your conclusion away, establish what you’re going to discuss, and how it answers the question.

The opening sentence from the paragraph I planned above might go something like this: Early modern political and scoring guide essay religious contexts suggest that Shakespeare’s contemporary audience might more readily have believed in witches than his modern readers. The sentence establishes that I’m going to discuss Jacobean religion and witch-burnings, and also what I’m going to use those contexts to show. I’d then slot in all my facts and examples in the middle of the paragraph. The final sentence (or few sentences) should be strong and decisive, making a clear connection to the question you’ve been asked: Contemporary suspicion that witches did exist, testified to by witch-hunts and essay on gandhi exorcisms, is paper crucial to our understanding of the witches in in my view, Macbeth. To the early modern consciousness, witches were a distinctly real and religion essays dangerous possibility – and the witches in the play would have seemed all-the-more potent and terrifying as a result. The best way to get really good at in my view, making sure you always ‘answer the term outline question’ is to write essay plans rather than whole pieces. Set aside a few hours, choose a couple of essay questions from past papers, and for each: Write a hypothesis Write a rough plan of what each paragraph will contain Write out the first and last sentence of each paragraph. You can get your teacher, or a friend, to look through your plans and give you feedback. If you follow this advice, fingers crossed, next time you hand in an essay, it#8217;ll be free from red-inked comments about irrelevance, and essay on gandhi view instead showered with praise for essay the precision with which you handled the on gandhi topic, and how intently you focused on answering the question. It can seem depressing when your perfect question is mother to son essay just a minor tangent from the question you were actually asked, but trust me high praise and essay in my view good marks are all found in answering the essay question in front of you, not the essay in my one you would have liked to see. Teachers do choose the questions they set you with some care, after all; chances are the question you were set is the more illuminating and rewarding one as well.

40 Responses to #8220;Focus and Precision: How to essay for catholic high school admission Write Essays that Answer the Question#8221; August 21, 2014 at 8:22 am, Kristen Webster said: I have been reading your articles on better essay writing and in my view I am wondering whether you can provide an guide for persuasive essay, example of a well written essay please? August 21, 2014 at 11:59 am, ORA Admin said: We haven#8217;t produced any sample essays ourselves. Essay On Gandhi. However, there is a huge amount available online the Student Room#8217;s sample essays might be a good place to start. We hope this helps. January 20, 2015 at 1:54 am, kot said: Thank you this was very helpful! March 18, 2015 at 7:56 am, Kos cahe said: How do you answer a #8220;to what extend#8221; essay question?

March 18, 2015 at death of a dream, 12:34 pm, ORA Admin said: A #8216;to what extent#8217; essay question is effectively a #8216;yes or no#8217; essay question that#8217;s phrased in a more helpful way. For example: To what extent did his desire for a son influence Henry VIII#8217;s decision to break from the Catholic Church? Did his desire for a son influence Henry VIII#8217;s decision to break from the Catholic Church? You can see that both questions will get a very similar answer, only #8220;to what extent#8221; gives you a hint of essay what sort of essay admission answer is expected that it played some role, but that there are other causes that need to be considered. In a #8216;to what extent#8217; essay, you should consider a variety of reasons, but in in my view, each paragraph return to the reason given in courtroom experience essay, the question. In my Henry VIII example, you might write one paragraph on his desire to divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn, but connect this back to his desire for on gandhi in my a son, as he believed Anne Boleyn stood a better chance of giving him a son than Catherine of Aragon.

In the conclusion, you could then assess whether the reason given in for persuasive, the question is in essay on gandhi view, fact the most important, or if there was a more significant reason that you have identified in the essay. We hope this helps, November 22, 2015 at 6:14 pm, Sarah said: How do I write an essay with keywords or key points already given in the question? For eg. If the question says to write an essay on some topic and below are some key points or key words. November 23, 2015 at essay of a, 10:25 am, ORA Admin said: Thank you for essay on gandhi in my view your comment. It is difficult to essay school admission advise you on the specific essay in question, but we do have a large collection of on gandhi in my view essay-writing and study skills articles on the ORA website that may be of use to you. Hopefully you can find something that can help you in guide essay, the following articles: March 29, 2016 at 9:47 am, Fay said: How do you answer a #8220;why#8221; essay question?

May 29, 2016 at 8:16 pm, Aaliyah said: Hi, how do you answer a #8220;what does so and so contribute to physics?#8221; Is this simply a descriptive essay? June 27, 2016 at 3:04 am, Dutta the One said: Thank you for this amazing article. I feel so much more confident now! Just coincidentally, I happen to have an essay on Macbeth this Friday! Wish me luck! June 27, 2016 at 6:38 am, ritchie said: Great article, thanks! When answering a #8216;DO YOU AGREE#8217; question, is on gandhi view it better to give a straight #8216;Yes#8217; or #8216;No#8217; answer, instead of #8216;May be#8217;, #8216;Yes and no#8217;#8230; August 22, 2016 at religion, 5:23 pm, holly said: how would you answer #8216; evaluate the essay on gandhi in my main reasons#8217; I#8217;m confused on to son, how to essay view structure it. August 27, 2016 at 1:35 am, Deyshan said: I was wondering your opinion on religion essays, how to answer a How essay question.

For example: How does To Kill a Mockingbird and 12 Angry Men illustrate the dangers of personal prejudice? September 30, 2016 at 6:20 pm, www.larchesyria.com said: Asking questions are truly pleasant thing if you are not understanding. Essay On Gandhi. anything completely, but this article offers pleasant. November 13, 2016 at 11:02 am, janaki ballav said: this article was very helpful ..i want to develope my writing skill#8230;will be obliged if you could give tips and ways on courtroom experience, practical appreciation of poem. November 13, 2016 at 11:06 am, janaki ballav said: Thank you for this article #8230;.I want to develop my writing skill#8230;will be obliged if you could provide me the tips and ways of practical appreciation of essay in my poem with example#8230; December 23, 2016 at 7:40 pm, Amado said: I visit everyday a few web sites and sites to read articles orr reviews, however this. blog provides featurre basdd content. Scoring Guide For Persuasive. January 11, 2017 at 10:51 pm, MG said: For a #8220;how#8221; essay question e.g How can you achieve a work/life balance as a student; Can there be two different oppinions in one essay written by the same person, like the answer can say #8216;you can#8217;t achieve a work/life balance, but if you want to#8230; etc#8217;? January 26, 2017 at on gandhi view, 6:46 pm, Kajaun said: Hello, my name is Kajaun. I am most grateful for these essay tips. I have now started to scoring guide for persuasive essay gather more marks for on gandhi view #8216;Knowlege#8217; on courtroom experience essay, my essay questions. However, in answering my essay questions I keep receiving a low grade for the #8216;Use of Knowledge#8217;.

How may I better bring across points more coherent in answering an essay I am fully knowlegeable on? April 06, 2017 at 8:37 am, mercola pets said: Hiya! Quick question that#8217;s entirely off topic. Do you know how to make. your site mobile friendly? My website looks weird whsn browsing from my iphone. 4. I#8217;m trying to find a template or plugin that might be able to correct. this problem. If you have any suggestions, please share. Sp?ot on with this write-up, I honestly believe that this website needs far more attntion. I#8217;ll pprobably be back again to read more, thanks for the information! May 11, 2017 at 3:26 am, essential said: I believe what you typed was actually very reasonable.

But, what about this? suppose you typed a catchier title? I mean, I don#8217;t want to tell you how to essay in my view run your website, but suppose you added something that grabbed people#8217;s attention? I mean Focus and Precision: How to globalization paper outline Write Essays that Answer. the Question is a little plain. You should look at Yahoo#8217;s. front page and see how they create post headlines to get viewers to open the links. You might add a video or a related picture or two to. grab readers excited about in my, what you#8217;ve got to say. Just my opinion, it would make. Courtroom Experience. your website a little livelier. May 23, 2017 at 10:07 am, Jared Deans said: Thanks a lot for the great post here, really nice job, I personally enjoyed it a lot as a writer myself. You#8217;ve mentioned some of the tips I#8217;m actually using while writing any new material or post. I#8217;ve also been curious how to answer the on gandhi in my question #8220;how to write an essay the easiest way possible#8221; made my own research on the topic. The variety of essays makes it a little bit harder task to find the ultimate guide, so I decided to globalization paper outline work on each essay type.

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GRE Argument Essay: How to Get a Perfect 6 Score. Of all the various types of questions on the GRE, Analytical Writing questions can seem like the trickiest ones to answer perfectly. On Gandhi. Not only do you have to write hundreds of words to courtroom experience essay, answer the Argument essay GRE question, but there’s also no one set correct answer that you can give and essay on gandhi automatically get it right. So how do you reliably score well on the GRE Argument essay? In this article, we’ll focus in on what goes into a high-scoring response and offer some GRE Argument essay tips to help you consistently write essays that meet those standards. Do You Need a Perfect GRE Argument Essay Score? Practically speaking, no, you don’t need a perfect 6.0 on the Argument essay. GRE Analytical Writing scores are generally not all that important when it comes to salesman american, admissions decisions—as long as you can get a 4.5, you’ll be set for most schools. If you really want to highlight your writing ability (for example, if you’re an international student whose first language isn’t English), then scoring a 5.0 or above can be helpful; however, even then a perfect score isn’t necessary. Some writing intensive programs do have GRE Writing score cutoffs, but none of these cutoffs are going to be above a 4.5 . You can get a better idea of what GRE Writing score cutoffs for different programs are with our article about what makes a good GRE Writing score.

There are a few doctoral programs (e.g. UChicago’s PoliSci Ph.D.) that have higher average GRE scores, but that’s more of a side-effect of the view applicant pool than because that’s something the admissions committees look for. Students applying to top-notch doctoral programs in the humanities and social sciences will need to have strong analytical writing skills, yes, but this is usually presented through writing portfolios or other materials required by scoring for persuasive, grad schools. Quick side note: we've created the world's leading online GRE prep program that adapts to you and in my your strengths and weaknesses. Not sure what to study?

Confused by how to improve your score? PrepScholar guides you, step by step. I want to be clear - you don't NEED a prep program to paper, get a great GRE score. But we believe PrepScholar is the best GRE prep program available right now , especially if you find it hard to organize your study schedule and don't know what to study. What Makes a Perfect-Scoring GRE Argument Essay? To get the view most accurate picture of what goes into essay for catholic admission a perfect GRE Argument essay, we’ll turn to the official scoring rubric. Essay View. This is the chart that the human GRE essay graders use for scoring the Argument essay on the real test, so it’s the best standard against which to hold your own practice essays. Below, I’ve done a side-by-side comparison of the different criteria needed to get a 4.0 vs. Religion And Conflict Essays. a 6.0 on the Argument essay GRE question.

I know there is a lot of information to process in essay on gandhi in my view, that chart, so I’ve summarized it below by extracting the most important points. Scoring For Persuasive. A good GRE Argument essay: Must limit its discussion to identifying and explaining the parts of the argument that are relevant to the essay task Must develop its ideas logically Must be organized and connect ideas smoothly Must include support for the main points of the author’s analysis Must be well-written. To get a perfect score on the Argument essay, you must display mastery with each one of essay on gandhi in my view these items . Official GRE Argument Essay, Analyzed. Now that we’ve gone over globalization term outline, the rubric in essay on gandhi in my, the abstract, it’s time to apply it to a high-scoring essay. By taking the rubric criteria and looking at how they are exemplified by a real essay, you’ll be able to get a better feel for what exactly it takes to get a perfect score . For this analysis, we’ll be looking at this officially-graded GRE Argument essay.

Here’s the prompt the essay was written in response to: In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and essay conclusion fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. On Gandhi View. The Mason River flowing through the city is rarely used for these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of essay of a salesman its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. For years there have been complaints from essay on gandhi in my residents about the quality of the river’s water and the river’s smell. In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Use of the paper river for water sports is essay in my therefore sure to increase. The city government should for that reason devote more money in this year’s budget to term paper, riverside recreational facilities. Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to explain how the on gandhi argument depends on scoring guide essay the assumptions and what the implications are if the essay on gandhi assumptions prove unwarranted. The sample Argument essay we’ll be looking at scoring for persuasive, discusses and disputes three different assumptions made by the argument : That the survey is essay on gandhi in my a reliable measure of preferences and should be used as a source of to son information to essay on gandhi in my view, inform budget planning. That there is a link between the river’s odor and of a salesman pollution and essay on gandhi in my view the lack of residents’ recreational use of the river.

That plans to clean up Mason River will be effective. To analyze this essay, I’ll highlight places where the essay fulfills each of the criteria for the 6.0 GRE Writing score level. The first of these rubric criteria is a description of what a perfect-scoring Argument essay should look like overall: Rubric description : In addressing the specific task directions, a 6 response presents a cogent, well-articulated examination of the argument and conveys meaning skillfully. This description of what a perfect Argument essay should look like is much more general than the rest of the other rubric items and is more meant as a summary of what the courtroom experience essay other four items indicate than as a specific criterion in and of itself. If an essay meets all of the other four rubric requirements for a 6.0 Argument essay score, then it should fit under this broader description as well; if it does not, then that can be an on gandhi in my, indicator to the essay rater that she needs to courtroom essay, reassess her scoring of the essay. Above: portrait of a sad essay grader who, upon re-reading the on gandhi view holistic essay grading criteria, now has to reassess his scoring.

The first non-general Argument essay rubric item relates to whether or not an essay accomplishes the assigned task. Rubric description : A 6 essay clearly identifies aspects of the argument relevant to the assigned task and examines them insightfully. The sample essay succeeds in meeting both parts of globalization term this criterion. In the essay, the on gandhi view author pinpoints three different assumptions of the argument (survey is reliable, water being dirty is why people don’t use it for recreational sports, and cleaning it will work). Each of these claims is a key assumption upon which the argument depends, since if any one of these three claims proved unfounded, then the essay for catholic argument becomes illogical. The author also “examines [the assumptions] insightfully” by discussing the implications of each assumption and what it would mean for view, the argument were the essays assumptions to prove false . If the author had merely identified the essay on gandhi key elements of the argument without this kind of discussion, the essay would have received a lower score.

Below is an excerpt from the essay that illustrates an instance of the author fulfilling this criterion: “If the river’s water quality and death salesman smell result from problems which can be cleaned, [that a river clean up will result in view, increased river usage] may be true… But if the quality and essay high aroma results from the natural mineral deposits in essay on gandhi in my view, the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true.” In this excerpt, the author points out an assumption of the argument (that the quality and smell problems from the river can be dealt with) and presents the implications if the assumption is unwarranted (if the problems are from experience essay mineral deposits, quality and smell change might not be possible). The clear way in which the author gets to the point (if A, then B may be true…but if not A, then B may not be true) and the insight she uses in determining why the assumption might not be true and on gandhi what effect that might have all contribute to this essay achieving a 6-level score. “You don’t have to be a detective to write the essay, but it helps*!” * does not actually help. All you need is adequate preparation. The next specific rubric item delves into the logic of the author’s writing and the organization of the essay.

Rubric description : A 6 essay develops ideas cogently, organizes them logically and connects them with clear transitions. While the previous rubric item is concerned with the author’s ability to pick apart the globalization term outline logic of the argument in the prompt, this item focuses in on the author’s own writing style and her ability to essay on gandhi view, logically develop and connect ideas in the Argument essay. GRE guidelines for both the Issue and Argument essay place a premium on clear logic and essay organization, both in terms of how ideas are linked within a paragraph as well as on a larger scale. For the Argument essay, it makes sense to group your discussion of each assumption into its own separate paragraph. However, if you want to get a perfect essay score, you can’t just throw in information about the assumption and its implications willy-nilly, without a care for essay in my view, its organization. Instead, you must make sure that each of religion and conflict your points about the assumption is directly followed by support for essay on gandhi, that point. This clarity of development allows the reader to follow your logic more easily, which in turn makes your essay that much more persuasive and scoring guide essay effective. In the Argument essay, organization and on gandhi logic are also important when it comes to ordering the paragraphs of scoring your essay and transitioning between ideas. Here’s an example of essay on gandhi a transition that connects the ideas of two consecutive paragraphs: “Building upon the implication that residents do not use the river due to the quality of the river’s water and the smell, the author suggests that a river clean up will result in increased river usage.” This sentence begins the fourth paragraph of the essay and logically transitions to the new assumption about to be discussed (“river clean up will result in increased river usage”) by referencing the idea just discussed in the third paragraph (“residents do not use the river due to the quality of the of a dream river’s water and the smell”).

The sentence structure “building upon the implication that…the author suggests that” connects the two ideas skillfully, strengthening the link between the on gandhi in my view two paragraph by framing it as a logical progression. The clear and logical way in which the term author develops her points within each paragraph and the tight organizational connections between paragraphs are how the essay exemplifies this rubric item. On the other hand, a dirty river means more residents on the river trying to clean it up, so…at least there’s that? Gabriela Avram/Flickr. Want to improve your GRE score by 7 points? We have the industry's leading GRE prep program. Essay On Gandhi View. Built by essay death salesman dream, world-class instructors with 99th percentile GRE scores, the program learns your strengths and weaknesses through machine learning data science, then customizes your prep program to you so you get the most effective prep possible.

Try our 5-day full access trial for free: The third non-general item on the GRE Argument essay rubric is on gandhi focused entirely on how well the mother to son conclusion author supports her points. Rubric description : A 6 essay provides compelling and thorough support for its main points. Essentially, this rubric item is all about determining whether or not an author properly supports her ideas and their development throughout the in my view essay. Correctly identifying assumptions and essay high school admission examining them in a logical and organized way is all very well and good and satisfies the first two rubric criteria, but if you don’t support your analysis with either scenarios from the argument or hypothetical scenarios that could also explain assumptions made in the argument, you’re not going to get a perfect score. Here’s an essay view, excerpt from the essay that demonstrates an instance of scoring guide “compelling and thorough support”: “Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the river for swimming, boating, and fishing, despite their professed interest, because the water is essay in my view polluted and smelly. While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on river sports, a concrete connection between the resident’s lack of river use and the river’s current state is not effectively made. And Conflict Essays. Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from a wide range of people, or perhaps from one or two individuals who made numerous complaints.”

The first sentence of on gandhi this excerpt lays out the assumption made in the argument: the reason people don’t use the water for sport is because it’s dirty and odiferous. Of A American. The next two sentences support the essay on gandhi in my view author’s claim that this assumption is unfounded in to son essay, two important ways: #1: The author singles out on gandhi a particular way in globalization term paper, which the argument is on gandhi in my view flawed , stating that “a concrete connection…is not effectively made” between two specific claims linked in the argument. #2: The author explains why the religion essays argument is essay on gandhi flawed by presenting relevant details, like the fact that the source of the complaints is unknown and could potentially be just a few people. The reasoning and support used by paper, the author in her essay are effective because the author explains clearly the ways in which they support her points. If the author had just said, “There is essay view no clear connection between the lack of river use and the river’s polluted state because it could just be a few people complaining,” the link between the number of people complaining and why this matters for the validity of the complaints would’ve been unclear and the support would be less compelling.

The final rubric area for term paper outline, the Argument essay has to do with how skillfully an on gandhi in my, essay is written and how well it adheres to the standards of written English. Rubric description : A 6 essay conveys ideas fluently and precisely, using effective vocabulary and sentence variety. Demonstrates superior facility with the conventions of standard written English (i.e., grammar, usage and religion mechanics), but may have minor errors. This last group of items on the Argument essay rubric gets into essay on gandhi in my the mechanics of how well the mother essay conclusion author writes. The two ways in essay on gandhi in my, which this is effected are through the for catholic school admission precise use of language and general dearth of errors . Here’s an example of an effective use of essay on gandhi view language in the sample essay: “While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on river sports, a concrete connection between the resident’s lack of river use and the river’s current state is not effectively made.” The precise language in this sentence successfully differentiates between the “likely” correlation that is made in the prompt and the “concrete connection” that is not made. This differentiation bolster’s the author’s point that the assumption made in essay conclusion, the argument is unwarranted. The second part of this set of essay rubric items has to do with the author’s ability to write in standard English without making too many errors. This is demonstrated throughout the mostly error-free sample essay; the errors that do remain, like “afffected” in paragraph four, do not impede the reader’s understanding of scoring essay what the author is view trying to say.

This last point is a good distillation of what all the rubric items for a perfect-scoring essay are trying to capture: a 6.0 GRE Argument essay is one that is clear and precise, whether in ideas, analysis, support, development, organization, or language . The river’s “CURRENT” state, get it? See, it’s funny because it’s also a river, so it has its own current, so…you know what, I’ll just see myself out. Courtroom. Karyn Christner/Flickr. 6 Steps to a 6.0: GRE Argument Essay Tips. To finish up this discussion of the essay rubric, I’ll go over the six GRE Argument essay tips you need to ensure a high score. One of the core skills you must master in order to on gandhi in my, score at religion, all well on the GRE Argument essay is essay on gandhi being able to death salesman american dream, analyze the structure and essay on gandhi in my logic of the arguments , rather than getting caught up in whether you agree or disagree with the courtroom points being made. It may be difficult to essay in my, do this at first, as it can be hard to be objective when the subject being argued about is one you have firm opinions on of a salesman or when the logical flaws of the argument are so obvious it drives you crazy. On Gandhi In My View. Part of practicing and courtroom preparing for the GRE Argument essay task, though, is in my learning how to channel that irritation and outrage into an unflinching analysis and explanation of how the argument works and where it falls apart. Focus on the task at hand.

In this case, the essays task is on gandhi in my a swan, staring at you with its cold, swan-y eyes. Beware. Making sure you analyze the argument (rather than agreeing or disagreeing with its position) is only the first step to writing a successful GRE Argument essay, though. You’ll also need to religion, make sure that in your dissection of the essay on gandhi in my argument, your main focus stays on the major features of the argument that add (or detract from) the essay for catholic high admission argument’s effectiveness. With only 30 minutes to complete the argument task, your job is not to be comprehensive, but to analyze the points that matter. Just because you can identify every single thing wrong with the in my view argument doesn’t mean that you should do this in mother to son essay conclusion, your essay. In fact, if you end up trying to identify every single possible flaw in the argument’s reasoning, you’ll likely end up running out of time to do any analysis whatsoever. And while finding the flaws in the argument is an important part of the GRE Argument essay, an equally important part is explaining in a coherent and unified way why the flaws matter. Let’s consider the essay on gandhi in my view Mason City riverfront prompt again as an example.

In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the city is rarely used for these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. For years there have been complaints from residents about the quality of the river’s water and the river’s smell. In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Use of the river for water sports is therefore sure to increase.

The city government should for essay high, that reason devote more money in view, this year’s budget to riverside recreational facilities. Write a response in which you examine the experience stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to explain how the argument depends on essay the assumptions and what the essays implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted. There’s a lot of information in the prompt to mull over, and it can be tempting to leap into essay in my view analyzing the first problematic assumption you notice, even if isn’t a major issue. Don’t fall prey to this temptation!

It may be true that the prompt assumes that water sports can only be perpetrated on a river (rather than in a pool or the ocean), but the mother essay argument depends on this fact far less than it does on essay on gandhi the assumption that the river’s bad smell and globalization term paper quality is why Mason City residents rarely use the view Mason River for water sports. The importance of keeping your analysis to major points is supported by the ideas and analysis rubric item: a 4-scoring essay “may also discuss some extraneous points”, while a 6-scoring essay only death american covers “aspects of the argument relevant to the assigned task.” Boating in a pool is totally possible. These guys get it. Baltimore RecNParks/Flickr. Because the GRE Argument essay involves critiquing someone else’s argument, rather than building your own, it may be difficult to see at essay on gandhi in my view, first how you can keep your essay organized.

In this case, as with many other types of essay, the five-paragraph essay form is high school admission your friend. To start your essay, you will need to introduce the bare bones of what the argument is arguing. For the essay view sample argument we went through above, those bare bones are that the Mason City government should spend more money this year on riverside recreational facilities. You must also include at least a general description of the thrust of essay for catholic high admission your analysis (whether or not the argument is supported, if there are holes in in my, the argument, or if the argument is more true than not). Ideally, these two points will connect to each other in a lean fashion, like in the introduction of this sample essay: Want to improve your GRE score by outline, 7+ points? Check out essay on gandhi view our best-in-class online GRE prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your GRE score by 7 points or more. PrepScholar GRE is entirely online, and globalization outline it customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses. We also feature thousands of practice questions, 2 official GRE practice tests, and 1-on-1 scoring and feedback on your AWA essays.

Check out our 5-day free trial now: While it may be true that the Mason City government ought to devote more money to riverside recreational facilities, this author’s argument does not make a cogent case for increased resources based on essay on gandhi view river use. Scoring Guide For Persuasive Essay. It is essay in my view easy to understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is rife with holes and assumptions, and thus, not strong enough to lead to increased funding. In each of the three body paragraphs of death dream your essay, you should discuss the three major components of the argument that go to prove your point. Because of the way the GRE Argument prompts are structured, there are usually three main assumptions propping up each argument, which makes your analysis fit quite snugly into the five paragraph form. If you only end up discussing two major questions or assumptions from the argument, it’s perfectly fine to end up with two body paragraphs, but you should keep in mind that if you have time, there might be a third avenue of the argument that’s worth exploring. Finally, conclude your essay with a reference to your introduction and incorporation of on gandhi in my some of the points you made. Death Of A American. This conclusion can be short, depending on how you’re doing for time and brainpower by in my view, the time you get to mother to son conclusion, it, but including at least some sort of conclusion statement is an important part of keeping your essay organized. Planning out your essay into five-paragraph form before you start writing can also help you stay organized.

#4: Do Mock Analyses of essay on gandhi Real GRE Essay Prompts. There are 176 possible topics you’ll be asked to to son essay conclusion, write about on the GRE Argument essay, and all of essay in my view them are available for free online. Because of this wealth of real essay topics, it’s unlikely that you’ll run out of prompts you can write practice essays on (unless you’re planning on spending 88 hours doing practice GRE Argument essays). Therefore, it’s safe to do practice outlines , rather than entire practice essays, for a portion of these prompts. Writing mock Argument essay outlines is good practice if you’re fine with explaining your thoughts but are struggling with speedily analyzing arguments. Even if you have difficulty with both these aspects of the Argument task, creating outlines is still good practice because it will at least help you increase your analytical skills; once you’ve bolstered your ability to analyze an argument under time pressure, you can then proceed to writing full-length practice essays. For each prompt you choose to outline, come up with at least three points of analysis and a few sentences to explain the importance of each point.

These points of essay salesman dream analysis could be assumptions made in the argument, the evidence that’s needed to successfully evaluate the argument, alternative explanations or arguments that could be made based on the facts presented in the task, and so on. Make sure, however, to essay on gandhi, follow step two above and only discuss points that are central to the argument. You don’t have to play through an entire song or write an entire essay every time you practice. Experience Essay. Sometimes, targeted practice is just as valuable. Wolfgang Lonien/Flickr. The rubric is a good way to grade your own essays, but it can sometimes be hard to know how to take the abstract criteria from the scoring guidelines and apply them to a real essay. Fortunately, in addition to the free and publicly available sample argument essay I analyzed earlier, sample Argument essays at several different score levels are included in chapters 8 and 9 of The Official Guide to the GRE revised General Test (2nd Ed.) . Essay On Gandhi View. You can maximize the value of these sample essays by not only reading them over religion and conflict essays, but by also taking the on gandhi in my GRE Argument essay rubric and applying it to them.

Use the major differences I pointed out in the 4-vs.-6 Writing score level comparison and my analysis of the 6-scoring sample GRE Argument essay to help you identify features that make the example essays so high-scoring. Make sure to note both what the authors do well and why what they do is effective . The official GRE reader commentary that goes along with each sample essay is also a valuable resource you should use to experience essay, supplement your analysis and ensure you haven’t missed anything. You should not copy exact words or phrases from the perfect-scoring essays to use in your own work (that’s plagiarism, which is not permitted on the GRE). Instead, observe how other students successfully earned high essay scores and essay on gandhi plan out how you can emulate them. Examine perfect-scoring essays so you know what standards your essays need to term, meet. The word processor you use to write the Issue and Argument essays on the GRE does not have the standard amenities of essay on gandhi in my autocorrect, spell check, or grammar check, which means you’re likely to make typos and not notice it. You’re also going to be typing under time pressure, which may lead you to salesman dream, make more errors than usual. Because of this, it’s imperative you check over essay on gandhi view, your essay before submitting it. Having a few minor errors in your essay is fine, as long as the errors don’t make it impossible to understand what you’re trying to say. Mother Conclusion. However, if there are too many typos and in mistakes in your essays, the essay graders (both human and computer) will have difficulty understanding what you’re trying to say and essay in my view following your analysis, and so will not be able to religion essays, give you a high score.

Example 1: Not revised, major errors (grammar, spelling, and punctuation) One of ht ecornerstones of the argument is that the fewer. In order for this to meaningful, hwoever, reporting methods from hospital to hospital would have to be equivalent, not just now, but also before from before the “recent est” was begun. wihtout having a reliable baseline it, would be imposisble to know if fhte measured reduction in patient infection gy harmful bacteria was all meaningful. Example 2: Revised, some minor errors remaining. One of the in my view cornerstones of the argument is that the globalization hospitals reported fewer pateint infections after using UltraClean. In order for this to matter, however, reporting methods from hospital to hospital would have to be equivalent. Furthermore, the methods of reporting patient infection would have to have been equivalent before the “recent test” was begun. Without having a reliable baseline, it would be imposisble to know if fhte measured reduction in patient infection by harmful bacteria was at all meaningful.

Barnaby Monkey would never have gotten sick from a post-op infection if the essay on gandhi hospital had used UltraClean. Now you have a better understanding of what it takes to get a perfect score on and conflict the Argument essay, but what about on the other half of essay Analytical Writing? Find out with our exploration of what it takes to get a perfect score on the GRE Issue essay and our analyses of perfect scoring GRE essay samples. How well your essay matches up with the courtroom experience essay criteria in in my, this essay rubric is salesman dream just part of the GRE essay story. Learn more about how exactly GRE Writing is essay in my view scored here! I’ve discussed in this article about how a good GRE essay score isn’t necessarily a perfect score, but the same doesn’t necessarily follow for the rest of the dream GRE. Read more about how to decide on what’s a good GRE score for on gandhi, you here. Ready to improve your GRE score by 7 points?

We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Essay Death Salesman American Dream. Download it for free now: Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and essay GRE and loves advising students on essay for catholic high school how to in my, excel and fulfill their college and grad school dreams. View all posts by experience, Laura Staffaroni. Subscribe and get FREE tips to crush the GRE! Join our Facebook GRE Study Group. Our Top 10 Most Viewed GRE Posts Ever. Grad School (28) GRE Analytical Writing (7) GRE General Info (44) GRE Logistics (26) GRE Prep (33) GRE Quantitative (12) GRE Subject Tests (1) GRE Verbal (14) TOEFL (15) © PrepScholar 2013-2017. All rights reserved.

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Gandhi essays

Analyzing Evidence In Self-Reliance Big Idea: Highly scaffolded writing lessons to avoid the wild, wild west of writing. My students struggle with writing arguments. In previous lessons, I have engaged students in a process of outlining their ideas beginning with drafting a thesis statement, followed by drafting topic sentences, followed by selecting textual evidence. Today, I will label this a top-down approach for the purpose of introducing students to a bottom-up approach. The main goal is to help students gain an understanding of the conceptual interworking of an essay. The hope is that understanding how an essay works at on gandhi, a conceptual level will help students gain control of the process. This activity is term paper highly structured and scaffolded. In My View. I find this necessary at this point in the school year.

If I don’t walk them through the process of writing arguments, like I plan to today, I can expect to get unorganized writing that feels like the wild, wild west of writing. Students have already been introduced to and have been expected to know these basic elements of an essay. However, these have not made it to and conflict essays their long-term memory yet so I start class by essay on gandhi view summarizing them and their relationship. Explaining the relationship is the emphasis of this introduction and I point that out to students asking them to make a special place in scoring guide essay, their memory for this information. As shown in this video, I use a diagram on the board to explain this relationship. I identified this for students as a top-down process and let them know there are other ways of approaching an essay on gandhi in my view essay, such as the process we are starting today. I explain that we are following a bottom-up approach for this assignment, which means we are beginning with the essay for catholic admission process of gathering textual evidence we are interested in discussing. I give students 6 small post-it notes. I ask them to select 6 powerful sentences/phrases from essay in my, “Self-Reliance” and essay write each one on one of the post-its. Essay On Gandhi View. They soon ask what claims the evidence they are to collect are supposed to support.

I say, “Excellent question!” and explain my intention with this process. If nobody asks that question, I suggest that there is a question they should be asking and would guide students to ask what claims these quotes are going to essay be supporting. Essay In My. I explain that I am giving them freedom of thought. My intention is to push them into situations where they have to think about their perspective of what they read. Scoring Essay. If they can get to essay in my view that point, they are in and conflict, a good position to essay on gandhi in my make arguments about a text and not just summarize, like they tend to do. I have very good thinkers in my class, but this ability fails to show up in their writing because they have not learned to take control of the religion writing process and use it to essay on gandhi show their thinking. I want to push them in this direction, but we are not ready yet so I do have to give them some direction.

I tell them to consider what Emerson is proposing and the implications on society. I give them some guiding questions to consider: are Emerson’s claims valid? What do you find convincing? These are meant to help students think of their perspective of this essay and courtroom experience essay find an on gandhi angle to approach this writing assignment. The next step is for students to write topic sentences for their evidence.

The instructional focus of death this step is to help students’ development of a skill they struggle with, verbalizing conceptual ideas. When I assign argumentative writing assignments for students, I often get summaries. On Gandhi. To address this, I rely on something I have taught them in a previous lesson, Costa’s Levels of Inquiry. Students know that Costa identified three levels of thinking as follows: level 1 is straight out of the text, level 2 interprets the text, level 3 makes larger connections. We talk about these in my classroom very often because they help us discuss analytical writing and globalization paper help me keep students away from summarizing when the writing task calls for argumentation.

I have different ways of differentiating level 1 from the other two levels. On Gandhi. Today I remind students that level 1 comes straight out the text and it is essay death of a dream information they did not make up. I remind them that level 2 and level 3 comes from their mind and is their way of making sense of the on gandhi in my view level 1information they are pulling from the text. I use the essay conclusion diagram on essay on gandhi view the board to engage students in guide, a discussion about the level of thinking required of essay on gandhi each step. For Persuasive Essay. I guide them to identify evidence as level 1 and topic sentences and thesis as level 2 or 3 and write this information on the board. I communicate to students that they are drafting topic sentences for the evidence they selected and that they will help me develop a model using evidence form a text they are all familiar with, Their Eyes Were Watching God , which we read together last semester.

I have selected these eight quotes from the text in advance and have written them on the stickies program in my computer. The quotes I selected can be grouped in sets of on gandhi in my view two or three based on the idea they help communicate. I project them on the board for them. I explain to students that all these quotes reveal something about one of the characters in the novel, Joe Starks, and mother I read them aloud. I ask students to turn to the classmates they sit with and discuss which quotes point to the same idea about the character.

I give them a couple of minutes for this. I then ask one or two groups to share what they came up with. As they share, I move the stickies on my desk top to group the ones students decided go together. One group lumped stickies number 3, 4, and 1 because they all point to view jealousy. I use these to show students the next step, which is to draft a topic sentence for these. For the scoring topic sentence, I create a larger stickie, which is meant to view show the fact that a topic sentence is the larger idea that will be supported by the evidence selected, which is now in smaller stickies. I ask students to experience suggest a possible topic sentence for these three pieces of evidence. Three different students make suggestions and I write the on gandhi in my view three sentences on the larger stickie. This offers an opportunity to make the point that a topic sentence should be stated as a concept and for persuasive essay I make this point in essay on gandhi in my, this video.

At the religion and conflict essays same time, I am able to show them the difference between a topic sentence that establishes a level 2 idea and one that mainly repeats information from the text. This is a central goal of this lesson. I let students know that they will engage in this process tomorrow, meaning that they will group their stickies based on the idea they point to and draft a topic sentence. We did not have enough time to select the best topic sentence of the three. We will be doing that at the beginning of the essay in my period tomorrow.

That will allow us to have a complete model of what is expected of students in their assignment.

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My personal view of Mahatma Gandhi Essay Sample | Bla Bla…

essay one war world About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict.

Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by essay in my view the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and for catholic high, the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the essay in my war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on mother to son essay conclusion, Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August.

Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of essay on gandhi in my France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. Scoring Guide Essay! France and essay in my, Great Britain declared war on salesman american, Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and essay on gandhi in my view, debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the for persuasive essay fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions.

Of the essay on gandhi in my view powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of globalization term paper their fears and submit to the tyranny of events.

The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and essay view, humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against term outline, the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the view Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples.

Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Experience! Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the essay on gandhi in my view Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the scoring for persuasive essay following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. In My! On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on religion and conflict essays, 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate.

Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to in my, join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive.

Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by guide for persuasive essay two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in in my, turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the paper world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas.

They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and view, resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Mother Essay Conclusion! Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the on gandhi United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of essay war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army.

Here the war became characterized by on gandhi increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in essay death of a, the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an on gandhi enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and for catholic school, northern France was dramatic. On Gandhi In My View! The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of essay for catholic school its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the in my view ruin of his plans and courtroom, order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to essay in my, retreat and to entrench. Essay Conclusion! Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by essay on gandhi in my view French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in to son, November.

By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. Essay On Gandhi In My View! It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on religion and conflict, France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of on gandhi French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918.

It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. For Persuasive Essay! During this period the essay on gandhi view Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to and conflict, disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in in my, the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and and conflict essays, the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained.

No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line.

During the essay on gandhi view battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. High Admission! They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on essay in my view, the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out.

The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in term paper, July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the on gandhi in my rest of the war in the west the Germans were in guide for persuasive essay, retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia.

Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. Essay On Gandhi! This did nothing to and conflict essays, lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war.

The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the essay on gandhi in my view security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. Courtroom Experience Essay! They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of on gandhi Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and mother, Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to in my view, fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in experience, Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany.

Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on essay in my, the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to school, keep faith with the essay on gandhi view Franco-British alliance. Essay! Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is on gandhi in my nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river.

In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in death salesman american, a major Italian defeat at in my Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the essay for catholic school Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. On Gandhi In My! It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and death dream, British eventually broke out of the essay on gandhi in my malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences.

Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out high school of the essay on gandhi in my war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at mother essay conclusion the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to essay on gandhi in my, Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. For Catholic High School! He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of essay view locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of courtroom essay Germany in in my, Europe became known.

On and under the school oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in in my, the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. Death! The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at on gandhi in my view Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of globalization paper total annihilation. On Gandhi In My! Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of religion essays international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat.

The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of on gandhi coalition inhibited strategic independence. Essays! Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in on gandhi in my view, peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of essay of a american dream popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the essay view military means inflated the political ends. Essay Of A American! Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to on gandhi, replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations.

By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of mother to son essay conclusion naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of view a Jewish national home in Palestine. Globalization Term! It was truly a war of on gandhi in my illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for scoring guide their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of on gandhi in my First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. Globalization Term Paper Outline! This was because they also expected it to essay on gandhi in my view, be brutal and essay school, costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it.

This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and view, compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. Term Paper! In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the on gandhi view success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west.

Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in mother to son conclusion, his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and on gandhi in my, those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in scoring guide essay, 1916 did little to on gandhi in my view, recommend the globalization paper outline strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to in my view, Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government.

A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the guide essay best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the essay on gandhi German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an globalization term army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days.

The second assumption left no margin for essay on gandhi in my error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the courtroom German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy.

Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over on gandhi in my view the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. Religion! The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the essay on gandhi in my view commander-in-chief of the courtroom British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace.

The German army suffered from on gandhi view, two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of religion strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the view Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and high school admission, indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence.

This gave him the appearance of essay in my a great man but without the death of a american dream substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and essay on gandhi in my, without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to religion and conflict essays, ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of essay in my view strategic control applied equally to courtroom experience, the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. On Gandhi View! Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Globalization Term Outline! Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war.

British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. View! The British could, if necessary, hold out courtroom experience even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. On Gandhi! They had in courtroom, the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to on gandhi, defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the to son essay conclusion economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per on gandhi view, cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of of a it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market.

British access to essay on gandhi in my, world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Essay Salesman! Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of essay in my abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris.

A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. American Dream! During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to essay on gandhi view, evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. Globalization! French fears of view military inferiority were confirmed. Globalization Term! If France was to essay on gandhi in my view, prevail its allies would have to mother to son essay conclusion, contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance.

The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the view war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French.

Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the term paper outline Corps of on gandhi in my Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. Term Paper Outline! There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat.

They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the on gandhi in my Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the scoring for persuasive German. But the obligations of the essay view French alliance were inescapable. Courtroom Experience Essay! The British could not afford to in my, acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war.

The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. Scoring Essay! The ill-trained and on gandhi in my, ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to religion essays, take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. View! Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to to son essay, the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war.

This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly.

At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Essay On Gandhi View! Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and essay for catholic school admission, understanding between French and in my, British commanders-in-chief on paper, the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies.

Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of in my performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in essay salesman american dream, fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. On Gandhi In My View! The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from term outline, their civilian populations.

Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and on gandhi in my view, larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by admission the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to on gandhi view, make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies.

The consequences of religion and conflict it were not. The experience of the essay in my view Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the courtroom experience technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the on gandhi view best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the courtroom experience offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the essay opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to scoring essay, those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense.

The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open.

The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of essay in my perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to essay death of a dream, hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by on gandhi shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and scoring guide essay, often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate.

The infantry usually found itself with too much to essay, do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. Death American Dream! It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by essay view aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and scoring guide essay, sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. In My! The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield.

Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for for catholic high individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. In My View! Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers.

High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against courtroom essay, the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for essay on gandhi much of 1917 artillery was used principally to essay salesman, kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt.

From the autumn of 1917 and in my, during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of essay death dream poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. In My! The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to religion and conflict, war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and in my, preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of courtroom experience war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems.

Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to essay in my, make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air.

Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of to son essay its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of essay on gandhi view more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on to son, their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology.

The material solution to view, the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of religion soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. View! This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and globalization term outline, the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states.

The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the essay on gandhi in my war. Very large numbers of scoring guide Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and essay on gandhi in my, West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of and conflict 150,000 a month in 1918. Essay On Gandhi In My! Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of religion and conflict demarcation were blurred.

Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of essay view Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in scoring essay, many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in essay in my, German hands. Not only to son conclusion did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes.

The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and on gandhi view, provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the essay death of a war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. On Gandhi In My! One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. Courtroom! In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to on gandhi in my view, maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and essay school admission, financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in on gandhi in my, most countries.

But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to globalization outline, produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and essay on gandhi view, arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on essay salesman dream, the battlefield for social advances at home. And in essay in my view, the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and experience, the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for on gandhi in my view a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of essay death defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of essay view Allied reparations and by inflation.

France recovered the guide provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of on gandhi view Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the term paper security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. Essay! In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to essay high admission, abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire.

They were also forced to accept naval parity with the on gandhi in my view Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in experience essay, 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. Essay On Gandhi In My! The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded.

From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.