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Herman Melville Biography | List of Works, Study Guides &…
A Sample Event Planning Business Plan Template. Are you about starting an event management business? If YES, here is a complete sample event planning business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE . Essay Melville? Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting an event planning business. We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample event planning marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for event planning businesses. So let#8217;s proceed to pos support resume the business planning section.
When it comes to attempting to start a business as against keeping a 9 to 5 paid employment, loads of people may come across as scared to collected melville take that giant step of faith that might land them into their fame and fortune. Reality is sharepoint intranet that, there are several business opportunities which an aspiring entrepreneur who is still caught in the web of a paid employment can test run without leaving their jobs. One of such opportunities is the essay event planning trade. Why Start an Event Planning Business? One good thing about event planning is that most often than not, events are done during weekends and abstracts online and social sciences if you are lucky not to be working during weekends, you can successfully test run an event planning business. The truth is that, most of the basic skills needed to effectively run an event planning business are some of the soft skills you are likely going to acquire in collected essay melville your work place. Pos Support Resume? On the average, it is the practice for most standard event planning companies to handle all aspect of event planning that ranges from melville wedding planning, to annual general meetings (AGM), to corporate events, to end of year parties et al. This is so because there are little or no difference with the chicago planning and execution of collected essay herman melville events. However, you can decide to build your event planning company around an area of specialization in the industry.
What Does It Take to Start an Event Management Business? As a professional event planner, you would have been trained on how to engage your clients in such a way that they should be able to answer any question you may ask them regarding the event or any related topic that will help you deliver a fantastic event. Over and above, the service delivery for an event planner covers budgeting, scheduling, venue selection, acquiring necessary permits, coordinating transportation and parking, arranging for keynote speakers, motivational speakers, master of ceremony (MC) or entertainers, arranging decor, event security, catering and emergency plans. The hallmark of an event is kazantzakis essay when the success benchmarks are meet or even surpassed. So part of what you need to essay melville ask your client as a professional event planner is to know key measurable areas where they would want the event to be assessed. It could be the numbers of participants that attended the event, the feedbacks they got from the case study event and it could be any success indicator as agreed by the organizers of the event. It is pertinent to herman also add that you will be required to write your own business plan in order to dissertation sciences move out herman melville, with a plan. The business plan is an all-inclusive concept for your business, and so if you do not have an chicago thesis statement inkling about how to write one, then you may want to consider using a business plan template.
Here is a sample template you can adopt; A Sample Event Planning Business Plan Template. Event planning is herman all about helping corporate organizations, government, groups and individual plan and execute their events from start to finish. An event planner ensures that they work with the stipulated budget of the organization or individual and resume ensure that they deliver a successful event as agreed. In some cases, it is the responsibility of the event planner to draw – up a budget for the organizer of the event once they get a brief of the nature of the event. Events planning require that you take off the burden of planning an event from the essay herman shoulders of your clients. This is whether it is kazantzakis a corporate or informal event. Therefore, you would need an eye for details in addition to the eye you have got. Confused?
Do not be, that was on a lighter note. Now, the truth is that you would need to collected herman melville be extremely detailed. You do not want to come across your clients as one who leaves some kills important details out. If you do not possess this skill now, you may consider building it up. The key to a successful event is to thesis uwo ensure that all that is listed in your event planning checklists is essay herman ticked. Chicago Style Thesis Statement? As a matter of fact, if you undergo event planning training, you are going to be taught how to draft event planning checklists for various events and collected herman key components that must be listed in your checklists. The event planning is sharepoint such an industry that needs you to be vast and collected herman melville well informed about news about the industry. What does this mean? This means that you have got to be alert about everything as it concerns events planning all around the globe.
You may consider reading up a whole lot- do not be far away from kazantzakis information. Essay Herman? You can successfully pull off being a researcher off by reading books on this business, as using the internet. According to everlasting Inside Business, the herman melville event planning industry is expected to grow to 20% with the median income of an event planning being $42,180 a year. By 2016, this industry is expected to grow to over 60,000 jobs. Statistics has it that the top 5 highest paying location in the United States for pos support resume, event planners and collected their average annual earnings are; Virginia – $54,770, New York – $57,300, New Jersey – $57,730, Massachusetts – $58,860, Washington DC – $67,120. So also the top 5 states in the United States with the highest numbers of employment for event planners are; California with 7,730 event planners are employed, New York – 7, 250, event planners are employed, Texas – 6,320,event planners are employed, Florida – 3,560, event planners are employed, Virginia – 3,500 event planners are employed. No doubt the event planning / management industry cannot be said to be oversaturated despite the fact that the entry bar for pos support resume, starting an event planning business is pretty low. As an essay event planner, if you are creative and hardworking, you can successfully create your own steady market.
It is safe to say the industry is still growing especially with the advent of new social media platforms. For example in recent times, a world class event planning / management company in city in the United States of America can successfully organize an event with active participants from all over the globe participating in the event without living their country. This is possible with the aid of teleconference, and Skype et al. Essay? Some of the factors that encourages entrepreneurs to start their own event planning business could be that the business is easy to set up, the start – capital is indeed affordable and the running cost can be put at the minimum level; you can actually start your own event planning business from the comfort of your home. All you need to do is to create an office somewhere in collected melville your house. Lastly, event planning / management business is abstracts not restricted to just organizing conferences, corporate events or parties, but also organizing big international events such as Olympic and essay melville United Nations Events.
Event Planning Business Plan Executive Summary. Tony Tammy House of Events LLC is an pos support all – round event planning company that will be based in Las Vegas Nevada. The company will handle all aspect of collected essay melville event planning such as wedding planning, children’s party, sports tournaments / competitions, annual general meetings (AGM), to corporate events, trade fairs and exhibitions, end of chicago thesis statement year party, party rental services, event planning trainings and collected event planning consulting and advisory services et al. We are aware that to run an all – round event planning outfit can be demanding which is literary why we are well trained and equipped to perform excellently well. Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC is a client-focused and result driven event planning outfit that provides broad-based experience at an affordable fee that won’t in any way put a hole in the pocket of collected our clients. We will offer a standard and professional event planning services to all to our individual clients, and corporate clients at local, state, national, and international level.
We will ensure that we work hard to meet and chicago style thesis surpass our clients’ expectations whenever they contract their events to our organization. At Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC, our client’s best interest would always come first, and everything we do is guided by our values and professional ethics. Essay Herman Melville? We will ensure that we hire professionals who are well experienced in a wide variety of style statement event planning et al. Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC will at all times demonstrate her commitment to collected melville sustainability, both individually and as a firm, by actively participating in sharepoint case intranet our communities and integrating sustainable business practices wherever possible. We will ensure that we hold ourselves accountable to the highest standards by meeting our client’s needs precisely and completely. We will cultivate a working environment that provides a human, sustainable approach to collected herman melville earning a living, and kazantzakis living in our world, for our partners, employees and for collected essay melville, our clients. Our plan is to position the study business to become the leading brand in the event planning line of business in the whole of Nevada, and also to be amongst the essay melville top 20 event planning outfits in the United States of America within the first 10 years of operations. This might look too tall a dream but we are optimistic that this will surely come to pass because we have done our research and feasibility studies and we are enthusiastic and confident that Las Vegas is the right place to launch our event planning business before spreading to other parts of The United States. Graduate Thesis? Tony Tammy House of melville Events, LLC is founded by Mr. Tony Angelo and his wife Tammy Angelo.
The organization will be managed by both of them since they both have tangible experience working at various capacities within the entertainment and event planning industry in the United States. Dissertation Abstracts? As a matter of fact, Mr. Tony Angelo who is the Chief Executive Officer of the essay organization was part of the team that organized Atlanta 96® Olympics and the wife in time past has worked with the team responsible for organizing Grammy Awards. Mr. Tony Angelo graduated from both University of California – Berkley (First Degree), and University of Harvard (MSc.). Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC is going to offer varieties of services within the scope of the everlasting literary event planning and entertainment industry in the United States of America. Our intention of collected herman melville starting our event planning outfit is to make profits from the industry and thesis uwo we will do all that is permitted by the law in the US to collected herman achieve our aim and ambition. Our business offering is listed below; Wedding Planning Corporate Event Planning Outdoor Party Planning Annual General Meetings Sports Tournaments / Competitions Planning Children’s Party and Birthdays Party Planning Party Rental Services Event Planning Trainings (Training School) Event Planning Consulting and Advisory Services. Our vision is to build an chicago event planning brand that will become the number one choice for both individual clients and collected herman corporate clients in the whole of Las Vegas – Nevada.
Our vision reflects our values: integrity, service, excellence and teamwork. Our mission is to provide professional and trusted event planning services that assist individuals, businesses and non-profit organizations in sharepoint case organizing all of their events. Melville? We are to position the business to become the leading brand in the event planning line of business in the whole of Nevada, and also to be amongst the online top 20 event planning outfits in the United States of America within the first 10 years of operations. Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC will build a solid business structure that can support the collected herman melville growth of our business. Tuck Everlasting? We will ensure that we hire competent hands to help us build the business of our dream. The fact that we want to become one of the leading event planning outfits in collected herman melville the United States makes it highly necessary to deliberately build a well – structured business from the resume onset. Below is the business structure that we will build Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC on; Chief Executive Officer Event Planning Consultant Event Planning Training and Development Consultant Wedding Planning Consultant Admin and HR Manager Business Developer Accountant Front Desk Officer. Roles and Responsibilities. Collected Essay Herman Melville? Responsible for providing direction for the firm Creating, communicating, and implementing the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy.
Responsible for handling high profile clients and deals Responsible for kazantzakis, fixing prices and essay melville signing business deals Responsible for signing checks and documents on behalf of the essay company Evaluates the success of the organization Reports to collected essay herman melville the board. Event Planning Consultant. Responsible for interviewing and hiring vendors, selecting and ordering materials, negotiating rates, coordinating the graduate thesis sequence of events, following up with guests and vendors and producing full-scale events. Plans, designs and produces events while managing all project delivery elements within time limits Liaises with clients to identify their needs and to ensure customer satisfaction Conducts market research, gather information and negotiate contracts prior to closing any deals Provides feedback and periodic reports to stakeholders Proposes ideas to improve provided services and event quality Organizes facilities and manage all event’s details such as decor, catering, entertainment, transportation, location, invitee list, special guests, equipment, promotional material etc Ensures compliance with insurance, legal, health and safety obligations Specifies staff requirements and coordinate their activities Cooperates with marketing and PR to promote and publicize event Proactively handle any arising issues and collected troubleshoot any emerging problems on the event day Conducts pre- and pos support post – event evaluations and report on outcomes Researches market, identify event opportunities and generate interest. Event Planning Training and collected herman Development Consultant. Manages the organization’s event planning training school Coordinates training programs facilitated by Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC Writs winning proposal documents, negotiate fees and rates in line with company policy Identifies training and everlasting literary essay development needs for staff through job analysis, appraisals and consultation Facilitates and essay coordinate strategic sessions. Works directly with clients in a non-advising capacity, such as answering questions, scheduling appointments and making sure all training concerns are properly taken care off Responsible for tuck everlasting essay, handling all trainings both internal and external trainings. Wedding Planner / Consultant. Herman? Assists the bride and sharepoint case study groom with everything from a timeline and budget to the choice of collected essay herman flowers, wedding location, musicians, caterers, and the choice of the groom#8217;s tuxedo. Responsible for making sure that all the details of the big day play out chicago style thesis, smoothly as planned Responsible for interviewing and hiring vendors, selecting and ordering materials, negotiating rates, coordinating the sequence of events, following up with guests and vendors and collected essay producing full-scale events. Proactively handle any arising issues and troubleshoot any emerging problems on the event day.
Responsible for overseeing the case study smooth running of HR and administrative tasks for the organization Design job descriptions with KPI to drive performance management for clients Regularly hold meetings with key stakeholders to review the effectiveness of HR Policies, Procedures and Processes Maintains office supplies by checking stocks; placing and expediting orders; evaluating new products. Ensures operation of equipment by completing preventive maintenance requirements; calling for repairs. Defines job positions for recruitment and managing interviewing process Carries out herman, staff induction for new team members Responsible for training, evaluation and assessment of employees Responsible for chicago statement, arranging travel, meetings and appointments Updates job knowledge by participating in educational opportunities; reading professional publications; maintaining personal networks; participating in professional organizations. Essay? Oversees the smooth running of the daily office activities. Identifies, prioritizes, and reaches out to new partners, and business opportunities et al Identifies development opportunities; follows up on development leads and contacts; participates in the structuring and financing of projects; assures the completion of style statement development projects.
Writes winning proposal documents, negotiate fees and herman rates in line with company policy Responsible for handling business research, marker surveys and feasibility studies for clients Responsible for supervising implementation, advocate for the customer’s needs, and communicate with clients Develops, executes and evaluates new plans for expanding increase sales Documents all customer contact and information Represents the company in graduate thesis strategic meetings Helps increase sales and growth for the company. Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and business conditions. Collected? Responsible for financial forecasting and risks analysis. Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and sharepoint intranet financial reporting for one or more properties. Responsible for developing and managing financial systems and policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensures compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for the company Serves as internal auditor for the company. Client Service Executive.
Welcomes guests and clients by essay greeting them in person or on the telephone; answering or directing inquiries. Sharepoint? Ensures that all contacts with clients (e-mail, walk-In center, SMS or phone) provides the client with a personalized customer service experience of the highest level Through interaction with clients on the phone, uses every opportunity to build client’s interest in the company’s products and services Manages administrative duties assigned by the manager in an effective and collected herman timely manner Consistently stays abreast of any new information on essay the company’s products, promotional campaigns etc. to ensure accurate and helpful information is supplied to clients when they make enquiries. Receives Visitors / clients on behalf of the organization Receives parcels / documents for the company Handles enquiries via e-mail and phone calls for the organization Distributes mails in the organization Handles any other duties as assigned my the line manager. Event Planning Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC engaged the services of a core professional in the area of business consulting and melville structuring to assist the kazantzakis firm in building a well – structured event planning outfit that can favorably compete in the highly competitive event planning and entertainment industry. Herman? Part of what the team of graduate thesis business consultant did was to work with the collected essay management of our organization in conducting a SWOT analysis for Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC.
Here is a summary from the result of the SWOT analysis that was conducted on behalf of sharepoint Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC; Our core strength lies in the power of our team; our workforce. We have a team that can go all the way to give our clients value for collected, their money; a team that are trained and literary essay equipped to pay attention to details. We are well positioned and we know we will attract loads of clients from the first day we open our doors for business. As a new event planning outfit, it might take some time for our organization to break into the market and essay gain acceptance in the already saturated event planning and entertainment industry; that is perhaps our major weakness. The opportunities in dissertation abstracts online sciences the event planning and entertainment industry is massive considering the number of collected melville weddings, parties and other events that takes places on a daily basis in the United States. As an all round event planning outfit, we are ready to take advantage of essay any opportunity that comes our way.
Some of the threats that we are likely going to face as an event planning outfit operating in the United States are unfavorable government policies, the arrival of a competitor within our location of operations and global economic downturn which usually affects purchasing power. There is collected herman hardly anything we can do as regards this threat other than to be optimistic that things will continue to tuck everlasting literary work for our good. Collected? Event Planning Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. The event planning and entertainment industry is in kazantzakis essay a continuous state of collected herman evolution and as such, ground breaking strategies and ideas that are once highly successful are no longer as productive as they were in time past. Close observation of the thesis statement trend in the industry reveals that the past few years have seen the rise and collected essay herman proliferation of social media and new tech tools. The trend also extends to increased attention, paid to engagement and new market segments, adopting eco-friendly measures and sustainability when planning events, and of course increase in demands from event sponsors. As a matter of fact, social media has now become one of the most important tools event planners leverage on style thesis statement to disseminate information about melville their events, interact with attendees, solicit feedback, and create year-round engagement with their target audience. Furthermore, new software apps and emerging technology have made it easier for event and everlasting literary essay wedding planners to essay herman gather all the needed data and information that will help them plan and uwo project for the future. In recent time, mobile event apps are becoming more popular; event planner can now successfully host events via social media platforms / online platforms. Essay Herman? In the United States for example, there several vendors providing mobile apps with more event planners patronizing the intranet apps.
Over and above, with the invention of event apps, it is essay herman now compulsory for event planners and venue owners to offer Wi-Fi throughout the event, in tuck everlasting essay all meeting rooms. The truth is that it will no longer be acceptable to not have Wi-Fi accessible at events; people will hardly rent halls without Wi-Fi facility. Although Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC will initially serve small to medium sized business, from collected melville new ventures to well established businesses and online and social sciences individual clients, but that does not in collected essay herman melville any way stop us from growing to be able to compete with the leading event planning and management companies in graduate the United States. As an essay melville all – round event planning / management outfits, Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC offers a wide range of services hence we are well trained and sharepoint case study intranet equipped to services a wide range of clientele base. Collected Essay Melville? Our target market cuts across people of different class and people from all walks of life, local and international organizations as well. We are coming into the industry with a business concept that will enable us work with the highly placed people and companies in the country and at case study, the same with the lowly placed people and smaller businesses.
Below is a list of the people and organizations that we have specifically design our products and services for; Potential Couples / Young Adults Blue Chips Companies Corporate Organizations Religious Organizations Political Parties / Politicians Households / Families The Government (Public Sector) Schools (High Schools, Colleges and Universities) Sport Organizations Entrepreneurs and Start Ups. Our Competitive Advantage. We are quite aware that to herman be highly competitive in the event planning and entertainment industry means that you should be able to deliver consistent quality service, your clients should be able to experience remarkable difference cum improvement and you should be able to meet the expectations of both participants and organizers of graduate thesis uwo events. Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC might be a new entrant into the event planning and entertainment industry in herman melville the United States of America, but the management staffs and owners of the business are considered gurus. They are people who are core professionals and licensed and highly qualified event planners / managers and literary essay wedding planners in collected essay melville the United States. Uwo? These are part of herman melville what will count as a competitive advantage for us.
Lastly, our employees will be well taken care of, and their welfare package will be among the best within our category (startups event planning and event management companies) in the industry meaning that they will be more than willing to build the business with us and help deliver our set goals and achieve all our aims and objectives. Event Planning Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. We are mindful of the fact that there is stiffer competition amongst event planning companies in the United States of America; hence we have been able to hire some of the best business developer to handle our sales and marketing. Our sales and marketing team will be recruited base on their vast experience in essay the industry and they will be trained on collected a regular basis so as to be well equipped to meet their targets and the overall goal of the organization. We will also ensure that our excellent job deliveries speak for us in sharepoint case the market place; we want to collected essay herman build a standard event planning business that will leverage on word of mouth advertisement from satisfied clients (both individuals and literary corporate organizations).
Our goal is to grow our event planning company to become one of the top 20 event planning companies in essay herman melville the United States of pos support resume America which is why we have mapped out strategy that will help us take advantage of the available market and grow to become a major force to collected essay melville reckon with not only in the Las Vegas but also in other cities in the United States of America. Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC is set to make use of the following marketing and sales strategies to study intranet attract clients; Introduce our business by sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to corporate organizations, schools, households and essay herman melville key stake holders in Las Vegas and other cities in Nevada. Promptness in bidding for event planning / event management contracts from the government and other cooperate organizations Advertise our business in relevant business magazines, newspapers, TV stations, and radio station. Everlasting Literary Essay? List our business on yellow pages ads (local directories) Attend relevant international and collected essay local expos, seminars, and business fairs et al Create different packages for different category of clients in order to work with their budgets and still deliver quality event planning services to thesis uwo them Leverage on the internet to promote our business Engage direct marketing approach Encourage word of mouth marketing from loyal and satisfied clients. Essay Herman Melville? Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC is established with the aim of maximizing profits in the event planning and entertainment industry and we are going to go all the way to ensure that we do all it takes to sharepoint study intranet attract clients on a regular basis and sign retainer – ship with most of our clients. Tony Tammy House of collected essay melville Events, LLC will generate income by offering the following event planning / management services for individuals and for corporate organizations; Wedding Planning Corporate Event Planning Outdoor Party Planning Annual General Meetings Sports Tournaments / Competitions Planning Children’s Party and Birthdays Party Planning Party Rental Services Event Planning Trainings (Training School) Event Planning Consulting and Advisory Services. One thing is certain, there would always be parties and events in the United States of America and as such the services of event planning / event management companies will always be needed.
We are well positioned to take on the available market in the U.S. and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough income / profits from the and social first six month of operations and grow the business and collected essay melville our clientele base beyond Las Vegas to graduate other cities in Nevada and other states in the U.S. Essay Herman Melville? We have been able to critically examine the event planning and entertainment market and we have analyzed our chances in the industry and graduate thesis uwo we have been able to come up with the following sales forecast. Essay Melville? The sales projection is chicago thesis based on information gathered on the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to startups in Las Vegas Nevada. Below is the sales projection for Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC, it is based on the location of our business consulting firm and the wide range of consulting services that we will be offering; N.B: This projection is done based on what is obtainable in the industry and essay herman melville with the assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and natural disasters within the period stated above. There won’t be any major competitor offering same additional services as we do within same location.
Please note that the above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher. Just like in consulting business, hourly billing for event planning / event management services is also a long – time tradition in the industry. However, for some types of event planning / management services, flat fees make more sense because they allow clients to better predict the overall service charges. As a result of kazantzakis essay this, Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC will charge our clients both flat fee and hourly billing as long as it favors both parties. At Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC we will keep our fees below the average market rate for all of our clients by keeping our overhead low and by collecting payment in advance. In addition, we will also offer special discounted rates to start ups, nonprofits, cooperatives, and collected small social enterprises. We are aware that there are some clients that would need regular access to pos support resume event planning consultancy and advisory services and assistance, we will offer flat rate for collected essay melville, such services that will be tailored to take care of such clients’ needs. At Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC, our payment policy will be all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Pos Support Resume? Here are the herman payment options that we will make available to our clients; Payment by via bank transfer Payment via online bank transfer Payment via check Payment via bank draft Payment with cash. In view of the sharepoint case study above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our plans with little or no itches.
Event Planning Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy. We have been able to work with our brand and publicity consultants to help us map out publicity and advertising strategies that will help us walk our way into the heart of our target market. We are set to take the event planning and collected melville entertainment industry by storm which is why we have made provisions for effective publicity and advertisement of our event planning outfit. Below are the platforms we intend to leverage on pos support resume to promote and advertise Tony Tammy House of collected essay melville Events, LLC; Place adverts on both print (community based newspapers and magazines) and electronic media platforms Sponsor relevant community based events / programs Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, YouTube, Google + et al to promote our brand Install our Bill Boards on strategic locations all around Las Vegas Nevada. Engage in road show from time to time Distribute our fliers and handbills in target areas Ensure that all our workers wear our branded shirts and all our vehicles are well branded with our company’s logo et al. Kazantzakis? Financial Projections and Costing. Starting an event planning business can be cost effective; this is so because on the average, you are not expected to acquire expensive machines and equipment. Collected Essay? Basically what you should be concerned about pos support is the amount needed to secure a standard office facility in a good and collected herman melville busy business district, the abstracts online and social amount needed to furniture and equip the collected essay herman melville office, the amount to graduate purchase the required software applications, the amount needed to pay bills, promote the collected essay herman business and obtain the tuck essay appropriate business license and certifications.
How Much Does It Cost to collected essay herman melville Start an Event Planning Business? When it comes to thesis uwo starting a small scale event planning / event management company, the following expenditure should guide you; The Total Fee for incorporating the Business $750. The budget for basic insurance policy covers, permits and business license $2,500 The Amount needed to acquire a suitable Office facility in collected herman melville a business district 6 months (Re Construction of the facility inclusive) $40,000. The Cost for equipping the thesis office (computers, software applications, printers, fax machines, furniture, telephones, filing cabins, safety gadgets and electronics et al) $ 5,000 The Cost of Launching your official Website $600 Budget for paying at least one employees for 3 months plus utility bills $10,000 Additional Expenditure (Business cards, Signage, Adverts and Promotions et al) $2,500 Miscellaneous: $1,000. Going by the report from the market research and feasibility studies conducted, we will need over two hundred and fifty thousand (250,000) U.S. Collected Essay Melville? dollars to successfully set – up a medium scale but standard event planning business firm in the United States of America. Generating Funding / Startup Capital for Tony Tammy House of Events, LLC. Tony Tammy House of everlasting literary Events, LLC is a family business that will be owned by Mr.
Tony Angelo and his wife Tammy Angelo. They are the sole financial of the firm, but may likely welcome partners later which is why they decided to restrict the sourcing of the start – up capital for the business to just three major sources. Collected Essay Melville? These are the areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the start – up capital from personal savings Source for soft loans from family members and friends Apply for loan from my Bank. N.B: We have been able to generate about $50,000 (Personal savings $40,000 and soft loan from family members $10,000) and we are at the final stages of obtaining a loan facility of $200,000 from our bank. All the papers and graduate thesis uwo document has been duly signed and melville submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from now our account will be credited. BUSINESS GROWTH: Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. It is easier for businesses to survive when they have steady flow of business deals / customers patronizing their products and style services. We are aware of this which is why we have decided to collected melville offer a wide range of event planning and other related services to both individual and corporate clients. We know that if we continue to deliver excellent event planning services, there will be steady flow of income for the organization. Thesis Uwo? Our key sustainability and expansion strategy is to ensure that we only hire competent employees, create a conducive working environment and employee benefits for our staff members.
In the nearest future, we will explore the options of either selling out franchise or expanding our scope beyond Las Vegas – Nevada to other major cities in the United States of America. Collected Essay Melville? We know that if we implement our business strategies, we will achieve our business goals and graduate thesis uwo objectives in record time, as well as become a household name. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Incorporation: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts various banks in collected essay melville the United States: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of All form of Insurance for statement, the Business: Completed Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating part of the start – up capital from the founder: Completed Applications for Loan from our Bankers: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of collected essay melville Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of pos support Contract Documents: In Progress Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of collected melville Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: Completed Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the graduate thesis uwo Needed furniture, office equipment, electronic appliances and facility facelift: In progress Creating Official Website for the Company: In Progress Creating Awareness for the business (Business PR): In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors and key players in the industry: In Progress.
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ns essay AFGHANISTAN: THE MAKING OF U.S. POLICY, 1973-1990. by Steve Galster. The year was 1979. The country, of course, was Afghanistan.
And one decade later, some people who had believed in that message were celebrating one of the most sensational U.S. victories in essay herman melville, the history of the Cold War: the withdrawal of 100,000 demoralized Soviet troops from Afghanistan, marking the first time that the Red Army had withdrawn under fire from a nation it had occupied since World War II. The Afghan socialist revolution, it seemed, had failed. At the pos support, headquarters of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Director William Webster and his euphoric Afghan Team toasted ten years of effort and melville, a multi-billion dollar project to support the anti-communist, Muslim Afghan rebels, in what had become the CIA?s largest and most successful covert operation ever. On Capitol Hill, Congressman Charles Wilson (D-Texas), a legislative champion of the anti-Soviet guerrillas, boasted that the United States had learned in Afghanistan that it could reverse Soviet influence anywhere in the world. And at the White House, President George Bush hailed the withdrawal as a watershed in U.S.-Soviet relations. Six thousand miles away from the graduate thesis, celebrations, however, the war in Afghanistan raged on. Washington and Moscow?s clients, using U.S. and Soviet-supplied weapons, continued their internecine struggle for collected essay melville power, adding more civilian casualties to sharepoint study, the 1 million who had already died. Although peace had broken out between the superpowers, the legacy of essay melville their long and style thesis statement, bitter rivalry lived on in the rocket-prone city of Kabul, Pakistan?s crowded refugee camps and the war-ravaged villages in the Hindu Kush mountains. The Relevance of Afghanistan. How is it that this underdeveloped, tribal-based country, tucked deep inside the rugged crossroads of Asia and deemed strategically insignificant by the United States for decades, became a battleground for essay herman melville the bloodiest superpower proxy war of the 1980s? What stimulated the United States to develop a sophisticated insurgency support operation for a rebellion led by pos support, Islamic religious leaders and fought by herman melville, mountain tribesmen?
What was the nature of the debate among U.S. officials and congressmen as to what the rebels, beset with ethnic, tribal and personal rivalries, could accomplish against the armed forces of the Soviet Union? What effect did this war have on Pakistan, the most important U.S. ally in South Asia, which played a crucial role in the war by providing sanctuary for chicago style the rebels and 3 million Afghan refugees? And what lessons have the U.S. Collected Herman? intelligence and defense communities drawn from the Afghan conflict and chicago thesis, applied to the emerging U.S. strategic doctrine of Low-Intensity Warfare? Why did the Soviet Union spend ten years, billions of dollars and 15-20,000 lives trying to collected essay, prop up a government that seemed constantly on the verge of sharepoint study intranet collapse? Was Moscow?s intervention, as some have claimed, originally part of a grand design to seize oil fields and warm water ports in the Persian Gulf region, or merely a move to protect a new socialist government in a country contiguous to its sensitive southern border? Why did Mikhail Gorbachev eventually call the Red Army home, leaving the Afghan government to fend for itself against formidable odds? And how did the essay herman, Afghan government manage to hold onto power without Soviet protection? No student, professor or journalist trying to answer these and the many other questions related to the Afghan war can do justice to their research without reviewing some of the thousands of pages of State Department cables from Kabul, Peshawar, Islamabad and Washington; intelligence reports from the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA); correspondence between Congress and the executive branch; field reports from Agency for resume International Development (AID) officials in Pakistan; and other previously classified materials found in this document set. An overview of U.S. policy during Afghanistan?s last 17 turbulent years both provides some context for approaching these questions and demonstrates the usefulness of these materials to those trying to answer them. The Tenets of U.S. Policy toward Afghanistan.
Although Afghanistan experienced massive changes between 1973 and 1990--four coups, the intervention and withdrawal of the Soviet armed forces, the exile of one-third of its population as a result of the war, and one million deaths?U.S. policy toward Afghanistan throughout this period actually remained the same: to collected, prevent excessive Soviet influence. Specifically, this meant denying the Soviet Union a foothold in Afghanistan from which to launch aggressive actions in the region. Dissertation Online? Afghanistan by itself was of little importance to the United States. But the area around it?the Persian Gulf and collected essay herman, the sea lines and ports of the Indian Ocean?was deemed critical, and U.S. policy toward Afghanistan consistently reflected a regional policy that sought strong and friendly ties with Iran and Pakistan. Abstracts Online And Social Sciences? Hence, the two factors shaping U.S. policy in collected herman melville, Afghanistan also remained consistent: the U.S. perception of Soviet goals in Afghanistan, and the balance of sharepoint intranet power in the region. Until the fall of the Shah of Iran in 1979, the United States was able to project its power into South Asia and protect its interests there with confidence.
In exchange for massive military assistance, the essay herman, Shah provided the United States with access to military bases and intelligence facilities, helping to safeguard the flow of dissertation abstracts sciences oil from the Persian Gulf to collected melville, the free world while preventing potential Soviet advances toward the Gulf or Indian Ocean. At the same time, Soviet relations with Afghanistan did not appear to threaten U.S. interests. Since the USSR shared a long border with Afghanistan and kazantzakis, because the United States enjoyed friendly ties with the other states in the region, U.S. Collected Melville? officials viewed Soviet policy in Afghanistan as part of a defensive strategy. A National Intelligence Estimate written in 1954--one year after the United States helped restore the Shah to study, his throne in Iran?stated that Soviet attention to Afghanistan is part of herman a general effort to counter recent Western (particularly US) gains in the Middle East-South Asia area.(2) Washington decided, in other words, to treat Afghanistan as a buffer state. Throughout the 1960s and the 1970s, relations between Moscow and Kabul grew stronger, as the USSR became one of Afghanistan?s largest sources of foreign aid.
The United States, while working to minimize Soviet influence, raised few objections. In 1962, the State Department reasoned that US fostering of active hostility toward the USSR [could] only serve to weaken Afghanistan?s ability to survive.(3) In 1976, the annual State Department Policy Review stated that Afghanistan was a militarily and politically neutral nation, effectively dependent on the Soviet Union. Still, it concluded that the kazantzakis, United States is not, nor should it become, committed to, or responsible for the ?protection? of Afghanistan in any respect.(4) The balance of power in the region favored the United States, and no significant Soviet threat to collected essay, that balance was seen emanating from Afghanistan. This set of essay circumstances?which in U.S. policy parlance is described as regional stability?changed dramatically in 1979. The Shah of Iran abdicated his throne in January, allowing an anti-American, Islamic government to collected essay, take power. Chicago Thesis Statement? Ten months later, the Soviet Union deployed 100,000 troops to Afghanistan, putting the Red Army within striking distance of both Pakistan and essay, a potentially vulnerable Iran. The balance in style thesis, the region had shifted. Essay? Soviet policy in Afghanistan, which was previously perceived as benign, was suddenly described by the White House as the gravest threat to world peace since World War II.
The Early Years: 1973-1978. To gain a full understanding of these changes, one needs to go back to pos support, the early 1970s when the power of Afghanistan?s monarchy was waning. Afghanistan at this time was one of the most underdeveloped countries in the world. In 1974, the World Bank estimated Afghanistan?s per herman melville, capita GNP to be $70, ranking it 73rd among a list of 83 underdeveloped countries.(5) To make matters worse, Afghanistan suffered a terrible drought in 1971-1972. Foreign aid, from such countries as West Germany, Iran, the United States, and especially from the kazantzakis essay, USSR, helped alleviate the country?s economic woes. Foreign aid alone, however, could not resolve Afghanistan?s emerging political conflicts. Collected Essay Melville? Many Afghans, particularly the progressive urban elite, had grown impatient with the statement, country?s leader, King Zahir Shah. The king had ruled Afghanistan (sometimes as only collected essay melville, a titular head) since the age of graduate thesis 19, when his father was assassinated in 1933. The United States was aware that political discontent was on the rise in the country. In 1971, the U.S. Embassy in Kabul reported that [t]here has been increased leftist activity which can be attributed to increased disillusionment and frustration with the existing social/economic conditions and the apparent inability or unwillingness of the collected melville, leadership to tackle boldly the nation?s problems.(6) Perhaps the most disgruntled and organized of the country?s leftist groups was the People?s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA).
The PDPA had been founded in 1965 by a group of 30 Afghans in Kabul. Its political orientation was Marxist, with many of its members looking to Moscow for guidance and inspiration. Many PDPA members, in literary, fact, had studied or received military training in the USSR. During its early years, the PDPA was torn by collected melville, quarrels and plots between its two leaders, Nur Mohammad Taraki and Babrak Karmal. The two leaders agreed on the basic objectives of the party, including a number of socialist political and economic reforms. They both also complained of Afghanistan?s backward nature, pointing not only to its underdeveloped infrastructure but also to a maldistribution of wealth and land which, they claimed, was perpetuated by traditional tribal and abstracts online, religious customs.
Taraki and Karmal disagreed, however, over how to remedy these problems. Taraki and collected herman melville, his followers argued for radical socialist reforms using whatever means necessary to implement them; Karmal and his supporters advocated the gradual introduction of socialist change, working within the state system, incorporating along the way different elements of Afghan society. Study? Karmal and several colleagues had even served as parliamentary members during the herman melville, king?s rule, earning themselves the nickname royal communists. In 1967, Karmal split with the graduate thesis, party and herman, formed his own faction, also called the uwo, PDPA, but usually identified by the name of its newspaper, Parcham (banner). Collected Essay? Parcham continued to kazantzakis, strive for collected essay the same kinds of socialist reforms pursued by Taraki?s rival PDPA faction, Khalq (masses), also named for its newspaper, but the two competed for power nevertheless. By the early 1970s, Karmal had all but abandoned his non-confrontational, almost cooperative approach toward the government. The Zahir Administration had shut down the Parcham newspaper, quashed Parcham demonstrations, and arrested party members and put them in jail. In response, Karmal increasingly sang the same anti-monarchy tune as the dissertation abstracts online, Khalqis. Parcham and collected herman melville, Khalq were not the only groups opposed to the Zahir Shah Administration. The king?s cousin and former prime minister, Mohammad Daud, had his eyes on everlasting literary essay, the royal palace, as did several other former officials and relatives of the king.
Realizing that a race was on to replace Zahir Shah, Daud, along with members of the collected, military and Parcham, coordinated a takeover attempt. On July 17, 1973, while the pos support, king was vacationing in Italy, Daud, along with key military officers and essay melville, the minister of interior, who was a Parcham sympathizer, launched a successful, nearly bloodless coup, declaring an end to the monarchy and the beginning of a republican government. The exact nature of Daud?s relations with Parcham during this time is still not clear. Did the chicago style thesis statement, two agree on political objectives for Afghanistan, or did they merely create a marriage of convenience? In any event, after ousting the royal family, Daud initiated some of the progressive reforms which his leftist supporters had demanded. His commitment to a reformist program and to his early backers was shortlived, however. Over time, Daud consolidated his personal power by melville, purging the government of leftists, replacing them with members of his own powerful Mohammadzai clan. He also sought more economic independence from the Soviet Union by exploring closer ties with Iran and the United States. He was careful, however, never completely to graduate uwo, shun the Soviet Union. As the CIA noted, Daud was happiest when he could light his American cigarettes with Soviet matches.(7) The U.S.
Embassy in herman melville, Kabul observed that Daud, in his changes, was leaning neither left nor right, but Daudward. Everlasting? In pursuit of melville personal power and a more independent foreign policy, Daud managed to alienate Afghanistan?s socialists, moderates and religious fundamentalists. It was the latter which initially proved to be Daud?s most militant opponents. While some Afghans were being influenced by everlasting literary, Marxism, others were diligently studying the Koran. Essay Herman Melville? Many of these Afghans entered Kabul University?s faculty of kazantzakis essay Islamic law, while others pursued their Islamic studies in collected essay melville, Egypt where they came into contact with and were influenced by the Muslim Brotherhood, an organization which seeks the imposition of strictly Islamic governments in all Muslim countries.
Some of those Afghans who studied in Cairo, such as Burhanuddin Rabbani, Sibghatullah Mojaddedi and case study intranet, Abdul Rabb-ur-Rasul Sayyaf, came back to Kabul determined to galvanize opposition first to Zahir Shah and then Mohammad Daud, both of whose governments they criticized as corrupt and un-Islamic. This group of Afghans wanted to integrate modernization and Islam to collected essay herman, counter the tuck, disruptive influence of both capitalism and collected essay, communism. Rabbani recruited from Afghanistan?s Muslim Youth Organization and helped form the Islamic Society party, Jamiat-i Islami. Jamiat organized anti-government protests and other Islamic dissident activities. When Daud cracked down on Jamiat activists, Rabbani and other Muslim leaders fled for the Afghan countryside and graduate, eventually to Pakistan where they received arms to fight the Daud government. U.S. officials knew very little about these Afghan rebels and doubted they could pose a serious threat to the Daud Administration. Some of the names listed in State Department cables were those of people who, years later, would receive covert aid from the United States in herman melville, their jihad, or holy war, against dissertation sciences the Soviet Union. But it was Pakistan, which had its own reasons to fear Daud, that helped these rebels get their start.
Especially alarming to the Pakistanis was Daud?s pursuit of a popular cause called Pashtunistan. Roughly half of collected Afghanistan?s population are ethnic Pashtuns, including Daud and practically every other leader in Afghanistan?s history. Millions of Pashtuns also lived on the other side of the Afghanistan-Pakistan border, an artificial line drawn by everlasting essay, the British during the height of their colonial rule in India. These Pashtuns, living in Pakistan?s Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP), looked forward to collected essay herman melville, the day when they would join their ethnic brethren in controlling their own homeland, Pashtunistan. Since Pashtuns dominated Afghan politics, they could only gain from pursuing such a goal, and Afghan leaders, in thesis uwo, turn, won favor among Afghan Pashtuns for pursuing it. What was appealing to Daud and other Afghan leaders, however, represented a real threat to Pakistan. Pashtunistan, if ever realized, would cut deeply into the NWFP by annexing a good portion of Pakistan. Essay Melville? Even if the border with Afghanistan remained intact, calls in Kabul for Pashtunistan always had the potential for stirring unrest in Peshawar and other parts of Pakistan?s frontier. Expatriate leaders such as Rabbani, an ethnic Tajik, and Hekmatyar, an Islamist who sought to resume, unite Afghans belonging to all ethnic groups through Islam, provided Pakistan with a minor tool for keeping Daud off balance if he chose to collected essay herman melville, pursue an aggressive Pashtunistan policy. Meanwhile, as Islamic fundamentalists rebelled against graduate Daud?s atheistic reforms, Daud continued to purge more leftists from the government, banned political opposition in 1975, and strengthened ties with Iran and collected melville, the United States. The United States welcomed and essay, encouraged Daud?s new foreign policy moves.
In 1977, the State Department, remarking on Daud?s closer ties to Iran, stated that he had made significant contributions to the improvement of regional stability?thereby helping to fulfill another principal U.S. objective.(8) The Saur Revolution. Despite U.S. approval, Daud?s authoritarian rule had alienated too many at home. In particular, PDPA members, Parchamis and Khalqis alike, had grown impatient with Daud and were anxious to see him removed from collected essay, power. Khalq members criticized their Parcham rivals for having deluded themselves into resume thinking that the PDPA could have worked with Daud after supporting his takeover. By 1977, Khalq and Parcham formally agreed to bury their differences and united to collected herman, form one People?s Democratic Party of Afghanistan; Soviet pressure reportedly played a role in the unification. Further PDPA infiltration of the military, especially by Khalqis, put the party in pos support, a good position to influence events if and when Daud lost his grip on power. That day came on herman, April 17, 1978, when Mir Akbar Khaibar, a member of the PDPA and a vocal critic of Daud, was assassinated, possibly by Daud?s minister of interior.
Thousands of everlasting literary mourners turned Khaibar?s funeral into an anti-government rally which prompted Daud to clamp down further on the PDPA, arresting numerous party members. His response provoked PDPA supporters in the military to collected, take action. On April 27, the military in collaboration with the PDPA overthrew Daud, executed him, and replaced his republican government with a socialist one, which proclaimed the coup as the beginning of the Saur [April] Revolution. Prelude to Intervention. The socialist and graduate thesis, pro-Soviet bent of the new government caused U.S. officials some concern as they wondered whether Moscow had played a secret role in the PDPA takeover. U.S. Embassy officials in Kabul, however, detected no Soviet hand in the coup and suggested a cautious approach to the new government. These officials recalled that while Daud had been busy consolidating his personal power and pursuing new foreign ties, he had neglected the domestic reforms that many Afghans, particularly the progressive intellectuals, had demanded.
Also, religious leaders and intellectual, or Islamists, including those who had already taken up arms against Daud, had been neglected or repressed. The PDPA was in a better position than the Islamicists to seize power because of its stronger influence over the military and within the capital city, Kabul. The Khalq-Parcham unity was apparently not very solid. The new government, the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA), was dominated by Khalqis, due mostly to Khalq control of the military. Soon after the April takeover, Khalq?s two main leaders, Nur Mohammad Taraki and collected essay herman, Hafizullah Amin, quickly consolidated Khalq rule by imprisoning a number of their Parcham rivals while sending others off to foreign diplomatic posts.
Meanwhile, they moved quickly to implement radical secular reforms, ranging from marriage decrees to land reform laws. A treaty of friendship between Afghanistan and the Soviet Union was signed in December 1978, which brought more Soviet aid and advisors to resume, Kabul. The Khalqi reforms served to ignite strong opposition from most of the deeply traditional and Islamic population. The security of rural women, for example, often depended on a sizable dowry, which was significantly reduced under new marriage laws. The land reforms, which were meant to herman melville, help small farmers, were opposed by many for kazantzakis essay having alienated them from their former landowners, on whom they had always relied for help in essay melville, growing and essay, selling their crops. A number of disenfranchised landowners along with many religious leaders either took up arms against collected herman melville the Taraki-Amin government or left the country. Some Afghans fled to Pakistan to join the Islamic Afghan dissidents such as Rabbani and Hekmatyar. Kazantzakis Essay? Some of the more prominent new rebels included: Sibghatullah Mojaddedi, who came from a well-known family of Sufi leaders, had ties to the royal family, was related to a prominent PDPA official (a valuable connection for most rebels), and formerly taught Islamic law in Kabul; Sayyid Ahmad Gailani, who was also tied to the royal family, was a Pir, or spiritual leader, and who until his departure from Kabul owned a Peugeot car dealership; Mohammad Nabi Mohammadi, who came from a prominent religious family and served in parliament in the 1960s where he criticized secular influence in Afghanistan, physically attacking, at one point, another member of parliament, Babrak Karmal.
There were other rebel leaders operating in the Afghan mountains or out of collected melville Pakistan. An important one, Yunus Khales had escaped from tuck everlasting essay, Afghanistan in 1974 after writing a book that criticized the Daud Administration. Essay Herman Melville? Unlike some other rebel leaders, Khales depended more on his genuine tribal support than his religious aura to galvanize Afghans in his home province of case study intranet Nangarhar to oppose the new government in Kabul. These leaders, along with Rabbani, Hekmatyar, and another who joined in collected, 1980, Abdul Rabb-ur-Rasul Sayyaf, formed their own parties and would eventually unite to form the Sunni Islamic Afghan rebel alliance, or the Peshawar Seven as they would later become collectively known as. These party leaders called for a jihad, or holy war, against the PDPA. Many other Afghan dissidents helped lead the charge against the Kabul government, including numerous commanders in the Afghan mountains, like Ahmad Shah Masoud. The Shiite Afghans also played an important insurgency role in the western half of Afghanistan. Some of the Shiite parties based their operations in Iran where they received support from intranet, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini?s government. It was the Peshawar Seven, however, who would grab the world?s attention, partly because the government of Pakistan, the host to most rebels and refugees and collected, the foreign journalists writing about them, chose to recognize their parties as the only legitimate ones in Pakistan. The United States, in the meantime, had found itself facing a policy dilemma with the PDPA?s ascension to power in Afghanistan.
This dilemma was summed up in dissertation abstracts online sciences, a secret memorandum to Secretary of State Cyrus Vance following the April takeover: We need to take into account the mix of herman melville nationalism and communism in and social sciences, the new leadership and seek to avoid driving the regime into a closer embrace with the Soviet Union than it might wish. Yet the memo also pointed out various factors favoring a hard-line approach to the new government: [A]nti-regime elements in Afghanistan will be watching us carefully to see if we acquiesce in or accept the essay herman, communist takeover. Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and literary, others of our friends in the area will see the collected herman melville, situation clearly as a Soviet coup. On the domestic front, many Americans will see this as an extension of pos support Soviet power and draw the parallel with Angola, Ethiopia, etc.(9) As a result, the United States compromised, maintaining correct relations with the melville, government while keeping channels open to the opposition. As dissatisfaction with the PDPA mounted within Afghanistan, however, the United States grew increasingly uncomfortable with the new government and its radical reforms. Style Thesis? To make matters worse, in February 1979, the U.S. ambassador, Adolph Dubs, was taken hostage by anti-government Shiite Muslims who demanded the collected herman melville, release of a political prisoner. Afghan police clumsily stormed their hideout, and Dubs was killed in the ensuing shootout. Kazantzakis Essay? Afghan authorities stonewalled U.S. requests for an independent investigation of the killing. Congress in essay herman melville, turn refused to replace Dubs with another ambassador and threatened to sharepoint case study intranet, cut aid to the DRA.
In March 1979, Afghans in the western city of Herat responded to rebel calls for a jihad by massacring hundreds of DRA officials and Soviet advisors who were in charge of introducing the women?s literacy program there. Afghanistan was beginning to draw attention from the outside world, including Washington. At the White House, National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski warned President Carter that the Soviet Union, with its hundreds of advisors in Afghanistan to assist in reforms and counterinsurgency operations, had territorial designs on collected herman, Afghanistan and possibly the whole South Asia region. Brzezinski and others worried that the USSR might take advantage of thesis its presence in Afghanistan in order to influence events in neighboring Iran or Pakistan, two traditionally pro-American countries that for years had helped safeguard U.S. interests in the region, namely access to oil and the containment of the Soviet Union. If the DRA were able to consolidate its power, Brzezinski argued, then the Soviet Union might turn Afghanistan into a launching pad for aggression in the region. Weeks after the Herat uprising and while President Carter was absorbed by collected, the Iran hostage crisis, Brzezinski pushed a decision through the Special Coordination Committee (SCC) of the National Security Council (NSC) to be, as he put it, more sympathetic to those Afghans who were determined to preserve their country?s independence.(10) Although deliberately vague as to what this meant, the evidence indicates that Brzezinski called for moderate covert support for Afghan dissident groups which had set up headquarters in pos support resume, Pakistan. Some, such as forces under the command of Rabbani and collected essay herman, Hekmatyar, had been operating out of Pakistan without much outside aid for years. According to a former Pakistani military official who was interviewed in 1988, the U.S. Embassy in Islamabad had asked Pakistani military officials in April 1979 to recommend a rebel organization that would make the best use of kazantzakis U.S. aid. The following month, the essay melville, Pakistani source claimed, he personally introduced a CIA official to Hekmatyar who, while more radically Islamic and anti-American than most Afghans, headed what the Pakistani government considered the most militant and organized rebel group, the Hizb-i Islami (Hekmatyar).(11)
Freedom of Information Act requests for records describing these meetings have been denied. But CIA and everlasting, State Department documents seized by Iranian students during the takeover of the U.S. Embassy in Tehran in November 1979, reveal that, starting in April 1979, eight months before the Soviet intervention and immediately following Brzezinski?s SCC decision, the United States had, in fact, begun quietly meeting rebel representatives. Although most of the cables and memoranda released to date show that U.S. officials politely turned down rebel requests for U.S. assistance, others reveal CIA support for anti-DRA demonstrations and close monitoring of Pakistani military aid for rebel parties based in Pakistan?s NWFP. Brzezinski?s decision to help the rebels was curious in light of Soviet activities in Afghanistan at the time.
According to collected essay, declassified documents and this author?s interviews, Soviet officials thought the Khalqi leadership was moving too fast with its reforms and urged Taraki and Amin to moderate the pace of change and broaden their political base by including non-communists in the government. This approach, however, was more amenable to Parcham leaders who, unfortunately for dissertation online Soviet officials, were not in power. When Khalq leaders sidestepped Soviet advice, Moscow sought other means to collected essay herman melville, induce political change, meeting with former members of the monarchy and other non-communists to seek their participation in the DRA government. Soviet and other East bloc diplomats in Kabul kept the U.S. Embassy informed of pos support their efforts. The ruling Khalqis, particularly Hafizullah Amin, had little use for collected essay melville Soviet counsel. The government responded to dissertation abstracts online and social sciences, the growing opposition with increasing brutality, and the PDPA?s base continued to narrow. Amin, who as the defense minister was in charge of the failed counterinsurgency operations, became the focus of Soviet frustrations.
State Department intelligence learned that, in August 1979, Moscow had decided there was no practical alternative in Afghanistan to the rule of Taraki and Amin but that Soviet officials had resolved to support the herman, more moderate Taraki against Amin. In the same month, a high-ranking Soviet military official, General Ivan Pavlovskiy, led a fact-finding mission to Afghanistan to everlasting essay, assess the stability of the government. In September, Taraki, on his way home from a Nonaligned Movement conference in Cuba, stopped in Moscow where he and Soviet officials reportedly discussed Amin?s future. Amin, perhaps sensing a coup, had Taraki arrested upon his return and executed him soon after. In October, General Pavlovskiy returned to Moscow and presented the collected essay herman, Politburo with a grim picture of the situation below their border.
The Khalqi government had lost control of thesis uwo 23 of Afghanistan?s 28 provinces to various rebel forces. Left with Amin, the herman melville, Soviets drew up plans for military action. By late November 1979, Soviet forces were moved to the Soviet Union-Afghanistan border. Graduate Uwo? Warsaw Pact forces were also placed on an advanced state of herman readiness. Two Soviet battalions were quietly flown into an airbase near Kabul during the first week of December, laying the groundwork for what was to dissertation online and social sciences, follow. On Christmas Eve 1979, tens of thousands of Soviet troops riding in tanks and armored personnel carriers stormed across the Amudarya River into the rugged Afghan countryside, while thousands more flew into the Kabul, Bagram and Shindand air bases, bringing with them exiled Parcham leaders, including Babrak Karmal, who had been hiding in Moscow. Within days, Hafizullah Amin was assassinated and replaced by Karmal who formed a new Parcham-led government. Superpowers and Doctrines of Hegemony. The Soviet invasion symbolized, ironically, the limits of Soviet influence in Afghanistan. Unable to stabilize the government through political means, Moscow attempted to do so with military force, much the same as the United States had done years before in Vietnam. To many observers in Washington, D.C., however, Afghanistan was beginning to look like another pawn on the Kremlin?s chessboard.
The invasion coincided with the decline of U.S. influence in Iran and essay herman, other Third World countries such as Angola and Mozambique in 1975, Ethiopia in style thesis statement, 1977 and Nicaragua in melville, 1979 where pro-Soviet governments had seized power. Literary Essay? It also coincided with an collected essay herman election year in which President Carter was coming under attack from conservatives for failing to prevent these Soviet gains. Many of these U.S. observers argued that the global balance of power, particularly the abstracts online and social, geostrategic balance in South Asia, had shifted in favor of the Soviet Union. Melville? The new dominant U.S. Kazantzakis Essay? perception of Soviet foreign policy, as evidenced by Afghanistan, was that it was expansionist in nature: the Brezhnev Doctrine of herman protecting socialist allies, U.S. conservatives claimed, had been logically extended to include expanding Soviet influence beyond the sharepoint, Warsaw Pact. This view was best summed up in a Defense Intelligence Agency report issued days after Soviet troops entered Afghanistan: The key motivation that propelled Moscow?s move was to bring its long-standing strategic goals closer within reach.
Control of Afghanistan would be a major step toward overland access to the Indian Ocean and to domination of the Asian sub-continent.(12) Reasoning that aggression unopposed becomes a contagious disease, President Carter warned the Soviet Union on January 23rd, 1980, that [a]n attempt by any outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf region [would] be regarded as an assault on the vital interests of the collected essay herman melville, U.S. and online sciences, [would] be repelled by any means necessary, including military force.(13) Journalists labeled this powerful warning the Carter Doctrine. Collected Melville? Since, however, the United States was neither interested in nor prepared for a war with the tuck everlasting literary, Soviet Union in Afghanistan or the Persian Gulf, Carter looked for collected herman melville alternative ways to slow down a potential Soviet drive and everlasting essay, make Moscow pay a heavy price for its intervention. He called for collected international economic sanctions against the USSR and a boycott of the dissertation online sciences, Olympic games being held in Moscow, sought military access agreements with several South and essay herman, Southwest Asian countries, and provided more covert aid to sharepoint intranet, the mujahidin. Not all U.S. officials believed that the Soviet intervention was part of an expansionist drive. While no declassified documents reveal any criticism of rebel military aid, some officials subsequently recalled in this author?s interviews that they had advocated quiet diplomacy with the Soviet Union in order to provide the Kremlin with a way out of what they believed was a political and military miscalculation.(14) Moscow had its own critics as well. According to interviews with Soviet officials, days after the collected, intervention, Soviet foreign affairs advisors pleaded with the kazantzakis, Kremlin leadership to essay herman melville, withdraw Soviet troops from Afghanistan. These advisors did not believe the intervention was worth ruining d?tente with the resume, United States, Europe and China.
What is more, the deeply traditional and Islamic Afghans, in melville, their opinion, were not yet prepared for socialism.(15) Cold War attitudes, however, prevailed in both Moscow and Washington. A combination of fear, pride and superpower obligations caused the leader of the free world and the vanguard of socialism to struggle violently over kazantzakis, a destitute country the size of Texas for the next ten years. Political vs. Military Solution. Carter?s reaction to the Soviet invasion received widespread approval among policy-makers. Hard-liners, including Carter?s opponent in the 1980 presidential elections, Ronald Reagan, had warned numerous times that the Soviet Union was on a roll in the Third World and essay melville, had to be rolled back. Moderates thought the case, intervention, regardless of its purpose, was an collected herman egregious act for which the case intranet, USSR should pay a price. All agreed that the Soviet Union should withdraw from Afghanistan. The question was how to essay melville, convince Moscow. Congressional conservatives opposed negotiations, distrusting the Soviet Union?s willingness to negotiate in good faith. According to their view, the kazantzakis essay, USSR would not withdraw unless and until it felt the costs of its occupation.
Most U.S. moderates and liberals fell into line with their conservative colleagues, supporting covert aid to the Afghan rebels, with virtually no one advocating diplomacy as a means of resolving the conflict. The State Department believed that the herman melville, rebels could probably continue tying up some 85,000 or more Soviet troops but that they were fragmented, lack[ed] effective national leadership, and certainly [could not] force a Soviet withdrawal.(16) After minimal deliberation at the White House, Carter opted for a two-track approach, supporting moderate levels of covert aid while seeking a forum for a negotiated settlement. Carter?s loss to Reagan in the 1980 presidential election signalled the end of the negotiation track. The new president favored a distinctly hard-line policy toward Afghanistan. Reagan sought to make the Afghan rebels and other anti-communist insurgencies the centerpiece of the Reagan Doctrine, an aggressive initiative designed to resume, increase the cost of Soviet support for Third World socialist governments. While few believed that the Afghan rebels could force a Soviet withdrawal, Reagan and his advisors hoped to tie Soviet troops down in Afghanistan?s Hindu Kush mountains until the cost of occupation became unsustainable. The key to this objective was Pakistan. Since the collected herman, overthrow of Mohammad Daud, Pakistan had played host to thousands (and eventually millions) of Afghan refugees and rebels who had fled their war-torn country for make-shift tent villages in the Northwest Frontier Province and Baluchistan. Without the cooperation of kazantzakis essay Pakistan?s military government, led since 1977 by Gen. Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq, the rebels would have had no sanctuary from which to launch their operations. The Carter Administration had cut aid to Pakistan in 1977 because of concerns about its nuclear program and General Zia?s disdain for human rights and democracy.
There was ample evidence to suggest that Pakistan was actively developing an atomic bomb. In addition, the Carter White House, with its public emphasis on respect for human rights as a precondition for foreign aid, was forced to respond to Zia?s well-known history of brutal and herman melville, dictatorial actions. The general had originally attained power by thesis, overthrowing Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. Herman? After promising elections within 90 days of the takeover, Zia postponed them indefinitely and eventually had Bhutto executed. To the United States, however, Zia?s record of pos support human rights abuses paled in collected essay herman melville, significance when compared to the Soviet move into online sciences Afghanistan. Literally days after the Soviet invasion, Carter was on essay, the telephone with Zia offering him hundreds of millions of dollars in economic and sharepoint case intranet, military aid in essay, exchange for cooperation in helping the rebels. Zia accepted this quid pro quo, but his government remained wary of Washington?s stated commitment to protect Pakistan from possible Soviet strikes across its border. The Reagan Administration was able to gain Pakistan?s confidence by sharepoint case, offering a huge, six-year economic and collected melville, military aid package which elevated Pakistan to the third largest recipient of U.S. foreign aid. The Reagan White House had equal success in graduate thesis uwo, persuading Congress to accept Zia as a new ally.
The conservative, Islamic general who was still pursuing a nuclear weapons program and seemed uninterested in ever holding elections was now a fellow freedom fighter boldly in charge of a front-line state. Although Zia spoke in concert with U.S. objectives of supporting Afghan self-determination and opposing the Afghan puppet government, he and his military had their own agenda in Afghanistan. Zia chose to favor the collected essay herman, more radically Islamic rebel groups who, in some cases, were no more popular or representative than the PDPA. He was able to dissertation abstracts online sciences, divert a disproportionately large share of U.S.-supplied weapons to these groups, especially the most radical one, Hizb-i Islami (Hekmatyar). Collected Essay Herman Melville? Later in the war, this would cause significant problems for the rebel movement. Whether the United States blindly yielded to Zia?s favoritism of the kazantzakis essay, fundamentalists or was in connivance with it is still in question.
The relationship between the CIA and collected essay herman melville, Pakistan?s Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate (ISI), the arm of the military responsible for distributing CIA-purchased weapons to the rebels, is not well-documented. Thesis? This author?s interviews with Pakistani officials indicate that U.S. officials in Pakistan were continually advised by ISI officials that Hekmatyar?s Hizb-i Islami was the most effective rebel organization, although some officials from Pakistan?s Foreign Ministry apparently differed with that assessment. Collected Essay Melville? Many secular Pakistanis outside of the government worried that foreign aid for Afghan fundamentalists such as Hekmatyar also served to bolster the conservative Islamic forces in Pakistan, including the military. Available documents and chronology show that during the ten-year Soviet occupation of Afghanistan, U.S. officials developed a stronger relationship with Pakistan?s generals than with either the foreign ministry or the civilian opposition. Congress and Covert Aid.
Afghanistan presents a unique case of congressional involvement with a covert aid program. Whereas a divided Congress often impeded the Reagan Administration?s efforts to aid the contras in Nicaragua, congressional hard-liners, riding a wave of bipartisan support, consistently and successfully pushed for more covert funding for tuck everlasting literary essay the Afghan rebels than the collected herman, White House ever requested. Hence, the debate regarding Afghan aid was relatively narrow in dissertation online and social sciences, scope although not without tension. Melville? While everyone seemed to case intranet, support Afghan self-determination and collected essay melville, a Soviet-free Afghanistan, several members of Congress, backed by conservative lobbying groups, criticized the administration for not pursuing vigorously enough a mujahidin military victory over the PDPA. Chicago? It was the collected herman melville, CIA, ironically, that cautioned against too much covert aid for the rebels. Officials from dissertation sciences, CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia, including Deputy Director John McMahon, warned Congress that too large a military support operation for the rebels might provoke Soviet retaliation against Pakistan and would certainly be subject to leakages and corruption. The CIA was especially resistant to calls for essay herman melville providing the mujahidin with U.S.-made weaponry. Traditionally, the Agency purchased foreign, usually Soviet-styled, weaponry in thesis, order to plausibly deny U.S. involvement if the need arose. Throughout the Afghan war, the CIA purchased Soviet-designed weapons from Egypt, China and elsewhere and transported them to essay herman, Pakistan. Graduate Thesis? Cables reveal that Chinese and essay herman, Egyptian AK-47 rifles and SA-7 anti-aircraft missiles arrived in Pakistan as early as 1980.
This covert purchasing process not only covered U.S. tracks, but ensured the thesis, availability of herman weapons that were compatible with the kind captured by the rebels from their Soviet-supplied enemies. In 1984, Congress passed a resolution, introduced by Senator Paul Tsongas (D-Massachusetts) and Congressman Don Ritter (R-Pennsylvania), which called for effective U.S. material aid for the rebels in their fight for freedom from foreign domination. Several legislators, particularly Congressman Charlie Wilson (D-Texas) and Senator Gordon Humphrey (R-New Hampshire), tried to use the chicago thesis statement, Tsongas-Ritter resolution to increase the collected essay melville, size and pos support resume, quality of the rebel covert aid program. While Washington and Moscow poured more weapons into Afghanistan, United Nations officials relentlessly pursued a diplomatic solution to collected herman, end the war. Pos Support? In 1982, the U.N. Secretary-General, Javier P?rez de Cuellar tasked Diego Cordovez to find a way for the United Nations to mediate a political settlement in Afghanistan.
For the next six years, Cordovez shuttled back and forth from collected essay herman, New York to South Asia to the Soviet Union and to Geneva. He tried to convince the numerous parties to the conflict?the Afghan government, the various rebel groups, the Soviet Union, Pakistan, the United States and Iran?to narrow their differences so that they could agree on a set of principles or conditions under which the thesis statement, Soviet military would withdraw from Afghanistan. Cordovez and his U.N. colleagues brought Pakistani and Afghan government representatives to essay herman, Geneva on numerous occasions to discuss conditions for a political settlement. Since Pakistan did not recognize the Afghan government as legitimate, Cordovez literally had to move back and forth between hotel rooms because Pakistani officials refused to sit at the same table with the DRA representatives. Compounding Cordovez?s difficulties was a strong sense of thesis uwo mistrust between the superpowers. On a number of occasions it appeared that Pakistan and Afghanistan were ready to sign an agreement that would prohibit Pakistan from allowing material aid for the rebels to pass through its territory in exchange for a Soviet withdrawal. Essay Melville? One or both sides, however, would consistently pull out at the last minute, raising suspicions that either Washington or Moscow was unsatisfied with the timing or conditions of the accord. To most U.S. officials, these U.N.-sponsored proximity talks looked hopeless or even frightening. In March 1983, Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs Lawrence Eagleburger reportedly expressed alarm at the prospect that the following round of Geneva negotiations might result in a settlement.
About the same time, Charles Cogan, then the pos support, CIA?s official in charge of covert operations in Afghanistan, told a journalist that Pakistan was not about to sign Cordovez?s proposed Geneva Accords at the next round or ever. He added that President Zia accepted the U.S. view that Pakistan?s security is best assured by keeping the Russians tied down [in Afghanistan].(17) On Capitol Hill, similar sentiments were voiced and more rebel aid was appropriated. Until the Soviet archives are open it will be impossible to determine how the U.S. hard-line approach affected Soviet policy toward Afghanistan. Was Moscow supporting U.N. efforts as a smokescreen for collected melville its strategy of subjugating the mujahidin, as Wilson, Humphrey and others argued? Or did increased U.S. aid for the rebels cause the uwo, USSR to dig in deeper, suspecting that the essay melville, United States was not interested in a political solution? Wilson and Humphrey eventually succeeded in galvanizing congressional backing for a stronger rebel military force in Afghanistan. Despite signs of corruption in both the military and humanitarian aid programs as early as 1982, Congress ultimately provided nearly $3 billion in covert aid for the mujahidin, more than all other CIA covert operations in the 1980s combined. Abstracts Online And Social Sciences? By 1987, the United States was providing the rebels with nearly $700 million in military assistance a year, more than what Pakistan itself was receiving from Washington. In 1984, Wilson used his powerful position on the House Intelligence Committee to tack on an additional $50 million for Afghan covert aid and convinced the CIA to purchase high-quality, Swiss-designed Oerlikon anti-aircraft missiles, which could pierce the collected herman melville, heavy armor of the USSR?s most formidable counterinsurgency machine, the tuck everlasting essay, Hind Mi-24 helicopter.
The CIA went even further in 1985, purchasing the sophisticated British-made Blowpipe anti-aircraft missiles. And in herman melville, 1986, due to pressure from pos support resume, several congressmen and a number of collected melville bureaucrats at the State and Defense departments, the CIA provided the mujahidin with U.S.-made Stinger missiles, the most effective shoulder-held anti-aircraft weapon in essay, the world. It was the first time the CIA had provided U.S.-made weaponry as part of a covert insurgency support operation, and the legislative branch was largely responsible. As a congressional staffer later put it: We finally broke the Agency?s virginity. Refugees and U.S. Policy.
The dislocation of 3 million Afghan refugees in Pakistan?one of the most tragic results of the war?was something Congress, the White House and the international community could all agree on: they needed massive assistance. Ultimately one-third of Afghanistan?s pre-war population fled the country, testifying to the destruction and chaos caused largely by heavy Soviet/Afghan government aerial bombing. For political as well as economic reasons, the United States urged other countries to contribute to the refugee cause. In 1981, the U.S. Embassy in Islamabad asserted that if funding for the refugees were too visible, it would damage the credibility of the mujahidin by focusing attention on U.S. Herman Melville? influence in literary essay, the Afghan insurgency.(18) Dozens of collected herman non-governmental organizations (NGOs) were willing to sharepoint study intranet, help the refugees and essay herman melville, rebels as long as they were provided with the necessary resources to do so. The United States channeled a significant amount of aid through favored NGOs and urged other countries to either aid the chicago style statement, same organizations or to contribute to collected melville, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). In the graduate uwo, end, no matter who distributed the aid, much of it ended up in the hands of rebel parties, providing them with significant political leverage over the millions of Afghan exiles. In addition to the humanitarian grounds for providing aid to collected melville, the refugees in Pakistan, the case, United States also sought to alleviate political and economic pressure on Islamabad and to help maintain a support structure for the rebels. In 1982, the CIA predicted that the presence of Afghan refugees in Pakistan would help generate political unrest and retard economic development until the end of the century.(19) While many Pakistanis demonstrated great hospitality and tolerance for collected essay herman melville the refugees, others despised their presence.
Cables from Pakistan reveal violent clashes between Pakistani border tribes and Afghan refugees over scarce resources and political, religious and personal differences. Some disgruntled tribes even took weapons and money from the Afghan government to disrupt rebel supply lines into Afghanistan. In fact, the Afghan government?s infiltration of Pakistan and the rebel parties was extensive and proved key to its survival. The government?s ministry of state security, known as KHAD, sought to kazantzakis, buy or rent the loyalty of Pashtun tribes who inhabited the Afghanistan-Pakistan border area (the tribes often inhabited both sides of the border). Weapons and money were doled out to essay herman, tribal militia who in abstracts online and social, turn interdicted rebel supply operations based in Pakistan. Some tribal leaders responded to Kabul?s material aid with political support, attending government jirgahs (assemblies) and collected herman melville, other PDPA-sponsored activities. President Zia tried to undercut the Pakistan-based tribes? support for thesis uwo the Afghan government by, among other means, conducting selective anti-narcotics sweeps through their home areas. Kabul?s strategy, however, continued to be successful, and essay, ultimately contributed to the rise of Najibullah, the KHAD?s director and the man responsible for this counterinsurgency campaign, to the leader of the DRA in 1986. Other kinds of sharepoint intranet counterinsurgency operations, including Soviet/Afghan government aerial search-and-destroy missions, as well as insurgency tactics, such as the mujahidin?s hit-and-run attacks on government-held garrisons and cities, were some of the principal causes of the refugee flow into Pakistan. But it was the aerial bombing that inflicted the collected essay herman melville, most damage. Congress, determined to counter what it called a Soviet depopulation campaign, called for an aggressive cross-border humanitarian aid program.
The Agency for literary International Development (AID) was tasked with implementing this unorthodox program. The objective of AID?s Cross-border Humanitarian Assistance Program (CBHA) was to provide Afghans inside Afghanistan?civilians and rebels alike?with the means to survive without having to flee to Pakistan. The mass exodus of Afghans had been putting too much pressure on Pakistan, and the empty Afghan villages left the rebels with little material or moral support inside the country. AID funds went toward building hospitals and schools, growing crops, and putting money in the pockets of local residents. The AID reports are actually some of the collected essay melville, richest documents in dissertation abstracts online sciences, the collection, describing the situation inside the normally inaccessible parts of war-torn Afghanistan and illustrating some of the bizarre politics of the mujahidin. As part of collected essay melville a pro-insurgency operation, the program was unique and essay, controversial. AID was being used to essay herman melville, maintain and build up the rebels? infrastructure.
As one U.S. Chicago Style? advisor explained to this author in melville, Pakistan: We borrowed a lesson from Mao. Intranet? The Soviets were trying to drain the sea to kill the fish [rebels], so we?re trying to keep the collected essay herman melville, sea filled.(20) Public Diplomacy and the First Casualty of War. In addition to providing the rebels with military and humanitarian aid, the tuck everlasting essay, United States provided psychological support. In 1983, a unique National Security Decision Directive, number 77, was signed into herman melville action to coordinate U.S. government agencies to enhance U.S. Kazantzakis? national security and counter anti-American propaganda through public diplomacy. U.S. officials had their work cut out for them in Afghanistan where media coverage was hindered by war and propaganda. To overcome these obstacles, the National Security Council, in keeping with NSDD 77, formed the inter-agency Afghan Working Group, which met twice a month to discuss ways of collected herman increasing media coverage of the war and generating sympathy and sharepoint study, support for the mujahidin. News coverage of the war was indeed limited, especially when one considers that this was the longest war in Soviet history, the largest CIA paramilitary operation since Vietnam, and, with 1 million dead Afghans, the bloodiest regional conflict in the world at the time. Nevertheless, no major American newspaper saw fit to station a reporter in essay, Peshawar, Pakistan, the sharepoint case study intranet, base of rebel political and military operations, and American television crews rarely ventured up to the Khyber Pass for a glimpse of the war.
A major reason for this, of course, was the risk involved in reporting a guerrilla war, especially this one. A journalist who wished to go inside faced a number of hazards ranging from contracting a serious disease to the chance of essay being killed in an air raid or ambush. What coverage there was tended to be biased toward the mujahidin. Several factors explain this. Graduate? Foreign correspondents and stringers who did go to Peshawar or managed to collected essay herman, go inside with the rebels encountered thousands of uprooted Afghans who all had horrific stories to tell about losing homes and relatives to Soviet/Afghan government counterinsurgency operations. Indeed, craters from Soviet bombs marked the uwo, landscape, villages were often emptied of their inhabitants, and many Afghans who found their way to Pakistan walked the essay herman, streets with artificial limbs, victims of land mines. In addition, the Afghan government often proved to graduate thesis uwo, be an unreliable source of collected essay melville information, causing Western journalists to rely heavily on U.S. officials for details of the war.
The DRA in 1980, for kazantzakis example, reported how Walter Cronkite (apparently confusing him with Dan Rather) on a visit into Afghanistan had ordered the execution of two Afghans?Islamic style. That same year the DRA expelled 18 Western journalists for biased coverage. When the collected essay, government allowed journalists to return to the country in 1986, the everlasting literary, journalists discovered in Kabul another side to the story: victims of rebel land mines and collected herman melville, indiscriminate mujahidin rocket attacks on the capital. Thus, for much of the war most reporters found it physically and journalistically safer to rely on Western diplomatic sources in Pakistan, the cover for U.S. officials at the Consulate in Peshawar or the Embassy in Islamabad. Despite the pro-mujahidin slant of Western news coverage, however, U.S. officials still complained of its limited nature. In 1985, Senator Humphrey sought to sharepoint case study intranet, remedy that problem. He pushed legislation through Congress that tasked the United States Information Agency (USIA) to teach Afghan rebels how to film and write about their jihad.
The USIA subcontracted Boston University?s School of collected herman melville Communications to train Afghans in Peshawar to become television and newsprint journalists. This program stirred controversy, drawing criticism from graduate thesis, professors at the university and several American journalists who called the exercise in public diplomacy a government propaganda operation. Documents on the project, which went forth despite the criticism, show how the United States worked with rebel parties, Pakistan, a CBS cameraman and several private organizations to increase and improve coverage of the war. The United States was also able to collected herman melville, influence coverage by taking advantage of Western journalists? inability to cover the war extensively first-hand. Once a week, a USIA officer in dissertation abstracts online and social sciences, Islamabad would read to foreign journalists portions of a Situation Report originating from the Embassy in Kabul. These Sitreps were to herman, serve two purposes. They provided U.S. officials at home and abroad with detailed information on the political and military situation in Afghanistan. They also formed part of the Afghan Working Group?s press and public information strategy to punch holes in the Soviet news blackout. The press, however, was usually allowed to hear only the first several pages of the Sitrep, which gave a relatively simplistic overview of the situation in the country, paying special attention to government human rights abuses and mujahidin military gains. The following 20-25 detail-filled pages of the sharepoint case, many now declassified Sitreps depicted a much more complicated and bizarre war being fought on more levels than just that of Soviet-backed communists against collected essay freedom-fighting Muslims. Beyond the refugee camps and press conferences in Pakistan, a real and very destructive war was going on inside Afghanistan.
Cables from Kabul, AID cross-border reports, DIA summaries and chicago style, journal articles by the few reporters who bravely ventured into war zones reveal how pockets of collected essay herman mountain tribesmen, toting Chinese automatic rifles and U.S. Stinger missiles, went up against well-armed Soviet and Afghan government forces. Rebel hit-and-run attacks, assassinations of pos support PDPA members, car bombs, rocket attacks on government-held garrisons and cities and other guerrilla tactics were met with massive aerial bombardments, mine-sowing operations, bribes and civic action campaigns from Kabul. Places like Paghman, Khost, the Panjshir Valley, Sarobi, and collected melville, Jalalabad, where the mujahidin continually bogged Soviet forces down, became familiar names to observers of this war just as Hue and Khe Sanh had in kazantzakis, Vietnam, where for years Viet Cong rebels tied down U.S. and collected essay herman, South Vietnamese troops. But as fierce as they were, the Muj were not the pos support, Viet Cong. Collected Essay Herman Melville? It is true that U.S. military aid improved the rebels? battlefield performance. Kazantzakis Essay? One Pentagon report claimed that Stingers forced more tactical and collected essay herman melville, air support changes in the last quarter of 1986 and the first quarter of 1987 than in the previous 7 years of the conflict.(21) Also, more and better land mines allowed the rebels to disrupt Soviet supply lines and ground communications, which were already hampered by the lack of railways and good roads. No matter how much military, humanitarian, or psychological support the United States provided them, however, the mujahidin remained fractious. It was not uncommon for one rebel group to resume, turn its guns on another. The United States was well aware of collected herman melville rebel infighting even before the Soviet intervention.
In 1979, rebel leaders confided to U.S. officials that they likened the idea of a dissident provisional government to putting five different animals in the same cage.(22) Saudi Arabia managed to stimulate some rebel unity by withholding aid from the various mujahidin parties until they agreed to coalesce and form a united opposition front. Yet foreign aid often did more to divide the rebels than to unite them. Everlasting Literary Essay? The Saudi government, which deposited many of its contributions into a CIA Swiss bank account, also gave direct support to several fundamentalist groups. Some of these groups practiced Wahabbism, a puritanical brand of Islam which was alien to the majority of Afghans. Iran supported the Shiite rebels, who played an important military role in the western part of the country but were left out of collected herman melville power-sharing arrangements made by the Sunni alliance in Peshawar. For its part, the essay, Pakistani military doled out a disproportionate amount of collected essay CIA-purchased weapons to kazantzakis, Hekmatyar?s radical Hizb-i Islami party, which often used the arms against rival rebel groups. The lack of unity impeded rebel attempts to overthrow the PDPA. Collected Herman? The more moderate, or traditionalist, rebel groups, such as those led by Sibghatullah Mojaddedi and Sayyid Ahmad Gailani, proposed finding a unifying leader, and they had a candidate: former king Zahir Shah.
In July 1987, a poll conducted among Afghan refugees by the independent Afghan Information Center indicated popular support for Zahir Shah as an alternative head of state for Afghanistan. Hekmatyar and other leaders denounced the poll as propaganda by resume, the monarchists. But U.S. officials had evidence from their own observations and essay melville, conversations that many Afghans might unite around the online and social sciences, former king for an interim period if only to help find a more expedient way to negotiate a Soviet withdrawal and an end to herman, the war. Many Afghans also believed that the king, who they conceded could have been a stronger leader during his 40-year reign, was someone they could rally around to oppose the study intranet, unpopular, but powerful, Hekmatyar. Diego Cordovez and his U.N. team also recognized the king as a potential key to a settlement and kept in regular contact with Zahir Shah?s representatives at his Rome residence. Pakistan, however, refused to grant Zahir Shah a visa and collected essay melville, kept a close eye on pos support, pro-Zahir activities. Pakistan?s President Zia and his supporters in the military were determined to put a conservative Islamic ally in power in Kabul. U.S. officials and private experts yielded to the Pakistani military?s objective, some supporting it, others rationalizing that the king?s return would do little good. Some of collected herman these officials argued that as a result of the war, Afghanistan had experienced a social change: political power, they claimed, had shifted away from the tribal leaders, the maliks, and the king?s Mohammadzai clan and toward the mujahidin commanders and their political/religious leaders in Peshawar.
The Soviet presence and Islam, they reasoned, had united Afghans of different tribes and essay, ethnic groups to herman, fight a common enemy. That unity was soon put to a test. On February 8, 1988, Mikhail Gorbachev surprised the world by announcing that the Soviet Union would withdraw its 100,000 troops from tuck everlasting literary, Afghanistan. Three days later, in the midst of celebrations in Peshawar, Professor Sayyid Majruh, the man responsible for conducting the controversial Afghan Information Center poll that had shown substantial support for Zahir Shah, was assassinated in collected essay herman, his office. His death, still a mystery, was soon followed by a string of assassinations and acts of sharepoint case intranet intimidation against other Afghan intellectuals who shared one basic sentiment: they were almost as opposed to a fundamentalist government in Afghanistan as they were a communist one. Divisions among anti-government Afghans would only widen further. The Geneva Accords and the Soviet Withdrawal. In some ways the fragmented nature of the collected essay melville, rebel movement worked to its advantage for sharepoint intranet much of the war. The USSR could find no central rebel base of operations to bomb, no one strategy planning meeting to infiltrate, no single popular leader to collected essay melville, negotiate with?or eliminate.
The mujahidin?s steady harassment came from all directions in this war without borders. Sharepoint Case Study Intranet? Gen. Collected Herman Melville? Boris Gromov, the tuck essay, last commander of the Soviet 40th Army in Afghanistan, boasted on his last day in the country that [n]o Soviet garrison or major outpost was ever overrun.(23) In this guerrilla war, however, that proved irrelevant. By late 1986, the Kremlin decided that the war had become too costly. Hundreds of thousands of Soviet men had rotated in and out of service in Afghanistan and collected herman, brought home all the signs of a losing, unpopular struggle: low morale, criticism of the government?s Afghan policy, drug and alcohol abuse, and sharepoint study, more.
The war also hit home in collected melville, other ways. Billions of chicago style thesis rubles were spent on collected essay, Afghanistan instead of the crumbling Soviet economy. In the troubled Central Asian republics, Soviet Muslims had come into contact with the Afghan jihad when, at various points during the war, rebel bands crossed the sensitive Soviet border to foment unrest among the Islamic population. The impact of the Afghan war on Soviet Muslims? later demands for independence remains unclear. The Soviet Union was also changing its approach toward the Third World.
Gorbachev and his advisors, faced with staggering economic problems, thought that previous Soviet administrations had given too much unconditional support to Third World governments, some of which seemed to dissertation and social, rely more on Soviet aid than broadly based domestic support. Gorbachev decided to collected herman, tie future foreign assistance to certain understandings, one being that the pos support, recipient government had to concentrate on building a broad base of support before implementing social and economic reforms. Afghanistan, which enjoyed a special position in essay, Moscow?s strategy to protect the essay, Soviets Union?s sensitive southern border, was no exception to Gorbachev?s new Third World policy. In December 1986, Gorbachev informed Afghan President Najibullah in essay herman, Moscow that the Soviet military commitment to his government was limited.(24) Najibullah returned to Kabul and thesis, immediately launched a policy called national reconciliation, an effort to broaden the government?s political support base. He announced a cease-fire and an amnesty for armed oppositionists.(25) But the war went on. Documents show that some U.S. officials in Moscow, Washington, D.C., and Kabul remained unconvinced of Soviet intentions to withdraw for quite some time.
In some cases, suspicions of Moscow?s ultimate objectives lingered until the very end of the Soviet pull-out. In November 1988, three months before the withdrawal was to be completed, a top official in the U.S. Embassy in Kabul claimed that the Soviet leadership might cancel their pull-out to prevent Najibullah?s government from unraveling. Although most of melville his colleagues disagreed, the diplomat?s suspicion illustrates a point: U.S. policy toward Afghanistan right up to the end of the Soviet occupation was based on study, a deep mistrust of Moscow?s goals, a mistrust which continued well after the withdrawal. Policy-makers argued that if Moscow succeeded in keeping the essay herman melville, PDPA in online and social, power, then excessive Soviet influence in Afghanistan would continue. With Iran still hostile to the United States, regional stability remained threatened. On Capitol Hill, key legislators such as Humphrey, Wilson and others also distrusted the Soviet initiatives.
Months before the U.N.-sponsored Geneva Accords were to be signed in April 1988, they galvanized enough congressional support to stop the collected essay herman melville, White House from guaranteeing the agreement until President Reagan had promised to continue arming the study intranet, mujahidin even after the USSR had withdrawn. As a co-guarantor of the accords, the United States was obligated to cut aid to collected, the rebels on the first day of the pull-out. Humphrey and uwo, others protested that this would leave the rebels at a military disadvantage since Kabul would continue receiving aid from Moscow. Secretary of State George Shultz took this matter up with Soviet officials suggesting that both sides cease supplying their respective clients when the collected essay herman, withdrawal began, a proposal he called negative restraint. The Soviet Union and Najibullah refused, unwilling to accord the Afghan rebels the same legitimacy as the Afghan government. Soviet and literary, Afghan officials, however, fearing a possible rebel onslaught following the Soviet withdrawal, tried desperately to negotiate a power-sharing agreement with the mujahidin leaders. Herman? The rebels refused, calling the offer a ploy to resume, keep the collected, PDPA in power. Online And Social Sciences? Due to congressional pressure and over Soviet objections, the essay herman, United States created a separate, unwritten clause to the Geneva Accords which stipulated that Washington could aid the kazantzakis essay, rebels as long as the Soviet Union aided Kabul. The United States called this stipulation positive symmetry. Other complications almost prevented the signing of the collected essay, accords. At the last minute, after the United Nations had convinced the Soviet Union to drop its demand for essay a coalition government as a precondition to signing, Pakistan insisted on the formation of a rebel-dominated interim government, made up largely of rebel and collected herman melville, other non-PDPA elements, before it would sign.
President Reagan called President Zia and assured him that the United States would stand by the rebels until they seized power, and that since the case intranet, USSR was probably going to withdraw with or without an agreement, Pakistan ought to sign. Besides, the White House had been advised that the PDPA would fall to the rebels shortly after Soviet troops had gone. On April 14, 1988, the governments of Afghanistan and Pakistan agreed?with the USSR and the United States acting as their co-guarantors?to refrain from any form of interference in each other?s territory, and to give all Afghan refugees the opportunity to return voluntarily to their homeland. For their part, the collected essay herman, superpowers pledged to stop interfering in Afghanistan, with the USSR agreeing to withdraw its troops. Except for the agreement on the withdrawal, the other elements of the accords would be rendered obsolete by positive symmetry. To Washington, however, that seemed not to matter, for a rebel military victory appeared to be right around the corner. Tuck Everlasting Literary? On May 15, 1988, Soviet troops began their ten month withdrawal from Afghanistan. 1. United States Department of State, The Nature of the Afghanistan Opposition, August 16, 1979. 2. David Gibbs, Does the USSR Have a Grand Strategy?
Journal of Peace Research , Volume 24, Number 1, 1987: p. 368. 3. United States Department of essay herman melville State, Elements of U.S. Policy toward Afghanistan, March 27, 1962. 4. United States Department of State, Annual Policy Assessment, March 9, 1976. 5. Maxwell J. Fry, The Afghan Economy. Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill, 1974, p. 4. 6. United States Department of State, 1971 Policy Assessment: Policy Review-A U.S. Strategy for the 1970s, June 26, 1971. 7. United States Central Intelligence Agency, Mohammad Daud: President of Afghanistan, August 13, 1973. 8. United States Department of State, Afghanistan in 1977: An External Assessment, January 30, 1978.
9. United States Department of State, The Afghan Coup, April 30, 1988. 10. Zbigniew Brzezinski, Power and Principle: Memoirs of the National Security Adviser . New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1983, p. Graduate? 427. 11. Author?s interview with Pakistani military official, Peshawar, Pakistan, November 1988. 12. Collected Herman? United States Defense Intelligence Agency, Intelligence Commentary, January 7, 1980. 13. Resume? Carter Would Fight for Persian Gulf; Seeks to Resume Draft Registration. Washington Post , January 24, 1980.
14. Author?s interview with present and former U.S. officials, Washington, D.C., 1988-1989. 15. Author?s interview with Viacheslav I. Dashichev, Moscow, November 1988. 16.
United States Department of State, Afghanistan and collected herman, Pakistan, March 1980. 17. Selig S. Essay? Harrison, Inside the Afghan Talks. Foreign Policy, Fall 1988: p. 41. 18. United States Department of State, Afghan Refugee Relief Update, November 16, 1988.
19. Central Intelligence Agency, Pakistan: Population Problems and Political Stability, November 1982. 20. Author?s interview with U.S. Collected Essay Herman Melville? Embassy advisor, Peshawar, Pakistan, November 1988. 21. United States Army, Impact of the Stinger Missile on Soviet and Resistance Tactics in Afghanistan, March 1989. 22. United States Department of State, Nature of the Afghan Opposition, August 16, 1979.
23. United States Army, Lessons from the graduate thesis, War in Afghanistan, June 1989. 24. A Diplomatic Solution to Stalemate: Gorbachev Never Wedded to the War. Washington Post , April 17, 1988.
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What is the Best Font for collected melville, a Resume (+10 Examples Tips) What are the best fonts for a resume? Well, the best resume fonts are those that are easy to read. That’s the bottom line. If you use a common resume font that’s easy to style thesis statement read, you win.
That’s all you have to do. No, there are no magical font that will get you more interviews. Some typefaces do seem to have a psychological impact on the reader. Would you like to know which great resume fonts can make you seem more truthful or professional? Of course, you would. In this article you will find:
The best resume fonts compared to the worst. Beautiful examples of how the herman melville, best resume fonts look. Chicago Style Thesis Statement. Pros and cons for each recommended resume font to make your decision easier. Psychological tips on standard fonts to use on a resume. Are you writing a resume for the first time? Or are you a professional who could use some tips on how to make a resume stand out? Either way, we've got you covered. Herman. Read our full guide: How To Create A Resume: A Step-By-Step Guide (+30 Examples) 20 Samples of the pos support resume, Worst and Best Resume Fonts. Let’s start with Calibri.
Microsoft replaced Times New Roman with Calibri as the default font for Word in 2007. So, when you write your resume in Word without changing the font you’re using Calibri. And there’s nothing wrong with that. Pro: As a default font, Calibri will not get messed up when a hiring manager opens your resume files. Plus it’s a professional and melville, easy-to-read font. Con: As a default font, many other job seekers will also use Calibri. That means your resume might not stand out from the others. If you want a less common font, put some thought into selecting one instead of going with what you’re given. Webdings isn’t even a font. Dissertation Online Sciences. It’s a typeface that uses pictures instead of letters.
So, unless you’re trying to send a secret message, there is no occasion to ever use Webdings on your resume. Want to essay melville know the secret to thesis writing a resume that gets your professional message across loud and clear? Have you heard of opening with a resume summary? If not, then you should read our guide: How To Write A Resume Summary: 21 Best Examples You Will See Two Swiss designers created Helvetica. And they named the typeface after the Latin word for Switzerland, “Helvetia.” There are those that say Helvetica is the collected essay herman, best font for a resume. Kazantzakis. Helvetica is a pretty, easy-to-read sans serif font. The only problem is collected herman melville, that Helvetica is kazantzakis essay, not free. You aren’t going to find it listed under fonts in melville Microsoft Word. You are going to have to buy it if you want to chicago thesis statement use it and collected melville, don’t have a Mac. Pro: A lot of kazantzakis essay, professionals rank Helvetica as one of the more beautiful Sans Serif fonts.
What are Sans Serif fonts? Sans Serif fonts are those that do not have the feet on letters like the “T” in essay Times New Roman. Designers describe them as fresh, modern, and good for resumes. Both the New York City metro and chicago style thesis statement, major corporations like BMW use Helvetica for collected essay, their signs. Con: Helvetica only comes preloaded on Macs. Otherwise, you have to tuck literary buy the font to use it. A Bloomberg article attacked Courier as one of the collected essay melville, worst resume fonts. That’s because Courier screams: “ I want my resume to look like I wrote it on a typewriter! ” You are not Jack Kerouac. You did not sit down and write your entire resume in one go on a typewriter. (If you did, you might want to consider rewriting your resume.) So, your resume shouldn’t look like you wrote it on uwo a typewriter.
Luckhurst is essay herman, also one of those that believes Helvetica is the most beautiful font for resumes. That’s for you to decide. If you want your resume to look professional, it's better to spend time choosing the right resume format. Sharepoint Study. Do you know which resume format is best for you? Find out by reading our guide: 3 Resume Formats: How To Choose The Best One [Examples] Arial looks like Helvetica. So much so that the main difference seems to be that Arial is free. Plus it’s a very standard typeface that’s easy and comfortable to collected essay herman melville read. Pro: Arial is the default font for case study intranet, Google Docs. It’s also a standard font for collected essay, Microsoft Word which means it will show up on most computers. Con: If you’re looking for a modern resume font that’s going to stand out chicago style thesis statement, a little bit, Arial isn’t it.
You might want to go with Garamond or other less obvious fonts. Or you might want to just pay for collected essay melville, Helvetica. Yes, I shouldn’t have to tuck everlasting literary tell anyone to avoid Comic Sans. Comic Sans is for essay herman, writing the dialogue that appears in the speech bubbles of kazantzakis essay, comic books. It was not designed for serious documents. Collected Essay Herman Melville. That’s why it has become the font that other fonts push down on the playground. With that said, it’s pretty obvious why you should never, ever use it on your resume. But what should you put on a resume?
Are you sure you aren't forgetting anything? Just in case you want to tuck find out, read our guide: What To Put On A Resume To Make It Perfect [Tips Examples] Georgia is the font used by collected melville, the New York Times online. Tuck Everlasting Literary Essay. It’s also used by Yahoo, Amazon, and Twitter. The designers wanted to create a font that’s easy to read online, making it ideal if you plan to send your resume as a PDF. Pro: You can find Georgia across writing platforms. Con: Georgia is accessible and a fine replacement font for collected melville, Times New Roman. That may lead many other job seekers to graduate thesis uwo use Georgia. So, again, if you want to collected essay stand out you might want to go with something else. Now, there are no rules about not using Times New Roman. In fact, it is the most standard resume font.
But that’s why you might want to avoid it. Imagine you’re the sharepoint study, hiring manager. Collected Herman. You’re scanning one resume after another in Times New Roman. Then you come across a resume written in dissertation abstracts online and social Georgia. It’s a similar font, but it's just different enough to be refreshing. Collected Herman Melville. You might actually favor the resume written in Georgia for that simple fact alone. That’s why Georgia is tuck literary essay, one of the best fonts for collected essay melville, a resume. It’s just refreshing enough to chicago thesis outshine resumes using standard fonts like Times New Roman. Want to know another refreshing resume secret? Add hobbies and interests to your resume to show off a bit of collected essay herman, your personality. Graduate Uwo. Don't believe me?
Read our guide: +20 Best Examples Of Hobbies Interests To Put On A Resume (5 Tips) Matthew Carter created Verdana over at Microsoft. Essay. He designed the font so that it is easy to read in small print on computer screens. While he named it after his daughter Anna, the font is not as well-loved as that little girl. Yet, Verdana remains a good choice for digital versions of resumes. Pro: Great for job seekers who need to squeeze more onto their resumes.
Especially if you know the hiring manager is going to kazantzakis essay read it online and not in print. Con: If you’re looking for collected herman melville, a “wow” resume font, keep looking. Verdana doesn’t look all that different from Arial and Arial looks like Helvetica. In 2010, Ikea ditched a personalized version of Futura in favor of Verdana. The Ikea catalog is the chicago style, third most printed document after the Bible and Harry Potter. The Swedish furniture company felt that it was time to bridge the essay herman, gap between digital and print. So, they chose Verdana. Futura looks good in print, but it can cause some hiccups for readers trying to consume text-heavy documents online. The Ikea Verdanagate controversy pit older aesthetic fonts against more practical modern fonts. Chicago Style Thesis. (Futura is from the 1920’s) Let’s say you do need a versatile font like Verdana that will look good both on your PDF and print resume. Just think about it.
Ikea is a master at essay herman, maximizing the use of chicago thesis statement, minimized space. A good trick for resume writers. Maybe that translates to their choice of font? You be the judge. Having trouble squeezing information onto melville, your resume? How long should a resume be in tuck literary the first place? Find out everything you need to know about resume length in our dedicated guide: How Long Should A Resume Be? Everything You Need To Know Garamond is a font with a long history. Essay Herman Melville. I won’t bore you with the details. But, Garamond fonts come from 15th and 16th-century designs. Why is that important?
Well, at its age, Garamond is thesis, timeless. And a timeless font is a good resume font. Claude Garamond was a French punchcutter and lived from 1480 to 1561. His designs formed the essay herman melville, basis for the Adobe version of Garamond. Later, Jean Jannon designed a typeface that most other digital versions of Garamond resemble. Regardless of the version, Garamond commands respect and charms its admirers. Pro: Among those who make it their business to know about fonts, Garamond is a favorite. It’s classy. Plus, Garamond meets all the resume, requirements of melville, a good resume font. Easy to read? Check.
Attractive? Check. Not something everyone and their mom uses? Check. Con: The Harry Potter books - Garamond. Graduate Thesis Uwo. It’s just a magical font. I guess there are those who could say that Garamond is collected herman, so timeless that it might make your resume feel dated. Okay, so you want an old school, classic looking font.
That’s why Garamond is essay, great. It’s French. It’s old. It’s classy. Fake Ancient Egyptian chic isn’t the answer. Papyrus may be a great font for essay herman, The Return of the Mummy , but it’s not a great font for your resume. Kazantzakis. It’s just as kitsch and childish as Comic Sans. Avoid it.
Instead, add accomplishments to your resume. Essay Herman. Adding achievements to your resume is the fastest way to make it classy. Don't know how? Need ideas? We've got you covered: Achievements To Put On A Resume - Complete Guide (+30 Examples) Unlike Garamond, Proxima Nova is a modern font. Mark Simonson created the sharepoint study, font as late as 2005. Proxima Nova is for you if you’d rather go for a sleek, modern resume font. It’s the font of choice for collected essay herman melville, websites like Buzzfeed, Mashable, and Flickr.
Pro: You don’t have to resume buy Proxima Nova if you’re using Google docs to make your resume. Con: Proxima Nova is not a Microsoft Word font. So, if that’s the herman melville, program you’re using to make your resume, you can’t use Proxima Nova unless you buy it. Want to go with the opposite of modern? Why not Trajan? Trajan’s designer had had Roman inscriptions in abstracts online sciences mind when he made the font for Adobe. The font is all in collected essay herman caps, with no lowercase letters.
So, using Trajan may make you feel like the Caesar of dissertation, resumes. But, it will just make your resume look like a Steven Spielberg movie poster. Leading with an outdated resume objective will also make your resume look bad. Read our guide to find out essay herman, how to write a modern resume objective that will land you a job: +20 Resume Objective Examples - Use Them On Your Resume (Tips) Lukasz Dziedzic, a Polish typeface designer, created Lato. It’s an open source font which means you can download and use it for pos support, free. Dziedzic was designing the font for a large corporate client in collected essay the beginning. That’s why the typeface has both serious and friendly qualities.
He said the dual nature of the font gave it the “feeling of the summer.” He named the font Lato, which is the Polish word for summer. Pro: Lato is sharepoint study intranet, a corporate font. So, you can rest assured that it will work well on collected herman your resume. Con: Lato is not a standard Microsoft Word font. That might mean that it will not load when some hiring managers open your resume. Let’s say you want to chicago style go for something more personal and melville, less corporate. Wouldn’t a font that looks like handwriting work well? No. You should personalize many aspects of the job-seeking process. Tailor your resume to the job description or write a personal email to graduate uwo the hiring manager.
But don’t choose a popular resume font that looks handwritten. They’re kitschy and unprofessional like that picture of dogs playing poker. Don't know how to tailor your resume to a job description? It's one of the best things you can do for your resume. Read our full guide to find out how to tailor your resume: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description In an experiment for the New York Times, writer Errol Morris made a quiz to see if fonts changed the way people respond to information. The quiz was a true or false question presented in several different fonts. Melville. Takers were told that their answers would let them know if they were optimists or pessimists. The results showed that Baskerville inspired people to select “true” more often. Pro: Hiring managers may find your resume more truthful if you use Baskerville. Con: Baskerville, like Garamond and everlasting, Didot, is an essay herman, older font and can give your resume a dated look. If you’re applying for a job in a startup, choosing a hipper font might have more impact.
Speaking of impact Okay, so most of these preferred resume fonts are boring and common. Pos Support. Let’s go for something with impact. Hey, isn’t there a font called Impact? Why, yes. Essay Herman. But you can’t use it on your resume. Because Impact is a bold font that’s difficult to read in the body of a resume. Case Study. So, if you want to collected essay make an impact, don’t use impact as a font. Making an impact on a resume is about putting all the right skills in all the statement, right places. Need to know what skills are the best for resumes? Read our guide: +30 Best Examples Of What Skills To Put On A Resume (Proven Tips) Didot is an elegant font designed by Firmin Didot just before the French Revolution.
Didot is not as old and classic as Garamond. But it was born during the Enlightenment and the reign of collected herman, Marie Antoinette. So, it’s a good font for dressing up your resume. At the tuck essay, same time, many professionals associate the font with fashion. Fashion brands like Ralph Lauren and Marks Spencer use Didot on essay melville their websites. So, keep in mind that there is dissertation sciences, a time and collected melville, place for Didot. You don’t want your resume to kazantzakis suffer the same fate as Marie Antoinette. Only use Didot under the collected essay herman melville, right circumstances. Pro: Elegant font design that qualifies as the safest choice if you must go with something fancy.
Con: You must buy Didot if you want to use it on your resume. That’s the biggest drawback and the reason why we’ve put it last on our list of dissertation online and social sciences, fonts. Also, Didot works best for fashion industry resumes. Try something a little less ball gown and a little more business casual for corporate resumes. Villain Font: Vivaldi (Or any other swoopy, cursive font) Ask yourself. Essay Herman Melville. Would this font look great on pos support resume my wedding invitations? Or would Heathcliff find my love letters more romantic if I used this font? If you answer “yes” to essay herman either question when choosing a font, then you shouldn’t use it for your resume. That’s because fancy, cursive fonts are difficult to read.
And “hard to read font” translates to “bad resume font.” So, do not use fonts like Vivaldi under any circumstances. If it must be fancy, make it Didot. Pro Tip: Remember that different fonts are easier to read on screen and in print. Make sure you choose a font that works both ways. Print out a copy of your resume to dissertation online make sure. Also, when choosing a font size for a resume keep it between 10-12 points . Making your resume font size smaller just to smash in extra information is a big no-no. Choosing a proper resume font is all about making sure your resume is easy on the eyes of whoever is reading it. You’ll also want to make sure that you’re using a universal font. One that will open on every computer and appease Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software.
There is some psychology behind how fonts work on essay herman the subconscious. That said, in the world of professional resume fonts, readability is king. Have a perfect resume font that didn’t make our list but got you your last job? Share it with us in the comments. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.
She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.
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An Essay on the Types of People I Dislike Most. No two men are alike. People differ widely in collected melville, their nature. Some people are of sweet nature. They are loved by all. Everyone wants to win their friendship. On the other hand, there are people who are ill-tempered.
They easily offend others. “Birds of a feather flock together”, is an oft quoted saying. Chicago Style Thesis Statement. It simple means that only people of the same nature can be friendly with each other. Some people dislike others due to their ugly appearance-black color, bad features, fat body etc. but on my part, I can say that I never disliked anyone on an account of his ugly appearance. I only dislike those nature is not good and who have a defective character. Thus, I dislike ill-tempered people. Image Source: bdb3b8.medialib.glogster.com/thumbnails/fee7ff2f0dbb2ca37a228b0e07904dbc07947b6efff8ecf9f5537508891c6ba8/i-dislike-you-source.jpg. Fashion is another of my pet aversions. Now-a-days people are becoming more and more fashion-minded.
They may not eat well, but they like to put on costly dresses. Students come to the classes with combs in their pockets. They comb their hair while the collected melville professor is lecturing. Dissertation. Similarly, some English educated girls do not appear to her Indians at all. They madly copy the western culture. They waste hours together in collected herman melville, dressing their hair and painting their faces with cream, powder, lip-stick, cheek-stick and what not. Such people, who go beyond their means to satisfy their craze for uwo, fashion, are not liked by me. Moreover, in their lust for fashion, our young men often show a womanish character and they take pride in it.
Such people are dislike by me. I am not against English literature, or the English language itself. But at the same time I abhor those who talk in English even in their homes. I have seen people who talk in English even to collected melville those who know little of it. Resume. They want to impose and show their superiority over others by doing so. I consider this habit, mean and objectionable.
Even after fifty years of freedom such people have not developed love and pride for their own language. They have slavish mentality. Hence they are the objects of my dislike. Of the various evils of which we have become victims, smoking is one. Wherever you go smokes will be there with cigarettes in collected essay herman, their mouth. They make the atmosphere of the already congested and crowded buses, trains and cinema halls suffocating. They may not smoke outside of the cinema halls but they cannot help smoking as soon as they occupy their seats there in. Kazantzakis Essay. they care neither for the law which prohibits them from smoking at essay herman melville such places nor the displeasure of their neighbors. Some are so obstinate that they do not stop smoking, Even if they are requested to do so by tuck essay, some non-smoker. I do not simple dislike such people, I heat them.
There are people who make promises but do not keep them. They borrow money, promises to return in the next week, but do not so even the next year. Students borrow books from their friends for a day, but do not return them ever after a month. I do not like this habit. Indeed, such people consider this habit of making false promises a fine art. They do not think about the herman loss which they cause to others. I always try to keep such people at an arm’s length. The problem of indiscipline is not confined to the class rooms or to the school and colleges alone. Even mature and responsible people behave in an indiscipline way go to graduate uwo the office, or the railway station, or the melville cinema hall and you will find men of sharepoint intranet position behaving in an in collected herman melville, disciplined way.
They think it an insult to stand in the queue. Kazantzakis. They pushed others and try to melville get their work done at earliest. I dislike such in dissertation, disciplined persons. I am very particular about good manners. So those who are ill-mannered are not liked by me. Collected. There are persons who never thanks others however kind a deed others may do for them. Similarly, if you go to them, they will never offer a seat although there may by so many vacant. They do not address their juniors and sub-ordinates properly.
They do not show even ordinary courtesy to others. Such discourteous and sharepoint case study intranet ill-mannered people are never tolerated by me. Many people act like spies. Those who have served in any office must have had a bitter experience of such people. They are known as black-sheep. Such people appear to herman melville be very friendly, but they try to harm you in sharepoint intranet, very possible way behind your back. If you happen to collected essay utter some words against your friend, or your superior, they work like telegraphic wires.
I always avoid the company of such people. This habit of back biting is strongly disliked by intranet, me. Some people think themselves to be very clever and shrewd. They seem to think that three-fourths wisdom of the world lies in their head and that the remaining one fourth is distributed among the rest of the world. The main characteristic of such people is essay their habit of style thesis statement boasting. Collected Essay Herman Melville. They are never tired of praising themselves. Besides this, they never find any good in others. They always find fault with the ways of pos support resume living and thinking of other people.
I feet that no sensible man would like to herman melville keep company with them. I have a particular dislike for such people. But today, the pos support resume world is changing swiftly. Collected Melville. Only those persons are successful, who can adjust themselves to every company? Those who have strong likes and dislikes find it very difficult to essay march ahead smoothly. So in spite of my strong dislike, I try to adjust myself even to collected essay herman melville people I dislike. But however much one may try to sharepoint intranet hide one’s aversions, sometimes they become quite apparent.
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English as A Lingua Franca Essay Sample. According to Merriam-Webster (2014), Lingua Franca is defined as a common language spoken among peoples with different native languages. Specifically, it has no geographic restriction, which means it could be an official and collected essay herman, standard language that applied to cross-national diplomacy and could be a regional language utilized by peoples who speak different mother tongues as well. It is known as “bridge language”, “working language”, “vehicular language” and “trade language”. It functions as a medium to facilitate the communication among peoples with diversified language backgrounds.
English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) The term ELF is defined as “communication in English between speakers with different first languages” (Seidlhofer 2005, cited in Gu, Patkin and Kirkpatrick 2014). A more detailed definition from Firth (1996), cited in pos support, Seidlhofer (2004), is collected essay that “it is a contact language between persons who share neither a common native tongue nor a (common) national culture, and for whom English is chosen as foreign language of communication.” It is used by individuals from “linguacultural background” and essay, speakers and locations of ELF are changeable. ELF can occur among employees within an international corporate headquartered in Shanghai, over herman melville the internet and social media or just between two backpackers in a hostel in dissertation abstracts online, Italy (Cogo 2012). World Englishes (WE) In general, World Englishes refers to all varieties of Englishes existed in the world today, particularly “new Englishes”-the localized or indigenized Englishes (Pakir 2009).
It is collected essay a sign of adaptation of English in certain geographic areas. Business English Lingua Franca (BELF) BELF focuses on the application of English Lingua Franca in business circumstances, but whether it is a neutral code of communication remains controversial. The supporters believe that it is neutral because it is not a mother tongue of anyone. Study! Besides, it is widely-used in global business where “BELF users and communicators” are participants and have the collected essay herman right to use it (Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005). The opposite views argues that ELF creators are from diverse cultural backgrounds which proves that this language is kazantzakis essay not cultural-neutral (Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005, in Meierkord 2012). The theory was lodged out by collected essay melville Benjamin Lee Whorf and is also known as Whorf Hypothesis.
Whorf believed that language shapes how we perceive the world and determine the study way we think. He asserted that “every speech community fits the need of its culture”. A famous example would be Eskimos’ various words in describing snow. Another would be sign language-a different system used by deaf people in daily communication (Bergman n.d.). Reasons for ELF. Wide Geographical Distribution. The historical reasons play an indispensable role in shaping English into collected essay melville lingua franca. During the period of British Colonialism (17th and dissertation abstracts, 18th centuries), English has been brought to America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Carrabin, South Africa and South Asia and English are well-established after years of essay herman development. Markedly, after the fall of the Britain Empire, Commonwealth of essay Nations was founded. Most of the members are from the former British Empire and new members from the Africa and Asia are included which quickens the pace of English becoming lingua franca in those nations.
As a result, both the influence and the number of English speakers are substantial. In other words, English has been a worldwide phenomenon. Spread of collected herman melville Political and Economic Power. The spread of English is bound up with culture value transmission including political and chicago style, economic element (Pennycook 1994). “It is closely linked to national and increasingly non-national forms of culture and knowledge that are dominant in the world” (ibid.). In the late 19th century, America has become the most powerful country both in its economic and political influence. During the British colonialism times, the most effective way to expand the political and economic power is to force the people from collected, colonies to learn English, which seems to be an unfeasible approach in tuck literary essay, the contemporary world. Nowadays, the spread of political and economic power conceals behind every piece of product in essay herman melville, Hollywood industry and every trade of advanced technologies and English has been an important medium during the whole process. In the current times, America is in the dominant position of the world, along with the graduate thesis uwo promotion of the frequent use of English. Globalization, driven by technological upgrades in essay herman melville, media and chicago statement, communication tools, is a flow of capital, goods, personnel and other resources around the world, generating new modes of global activity (Castells 1996, cited in Blommaert, p. 13). After the Second World War, corporation among different countries has become more frequent with the process of globalization.
In the political field, the growing number of the foundation of global organizations, including WHO and NATO requires for a shared language in order to herman melville improve the work efficiency. Case Intranet! In terms of essay global business, a common trading language is needed during international trade and English has become the choice. In addition, other factors like cross-national advertising, pop music as well as education all serve as catalysts for abstracts online and social English as a lingua franca for the reason that English language acts as a dominant medium during the information spreading. Implications for Management. The increasing awareness of language choice has taken place in global companies and during the essay herman melville “cross-national merger”. However, the thesis uwo language selection could be an intractable strategic decision and the challenge is considerable (Maclean 2006; Louhiala Salminen et al. Collected Herman Melville! 2005) given that the working staff are from diverse cultural backgrounds with different first languages. English as A Single Corporate Language. The adoption of chicago style thesis English as the standardized language is a prevalent phenomenon in international companies. This is not only a strategy from English-speaking enterprises but it is frequently used by non-English speaking companies during their business expansion.
An example would be Siemens AG, whose language management strategy has experienced a process of the collected herman exclusive use of German, the equal emphasis on German and English and the dominant position of English application in the current times (Maclean 2006). There exist several advantages of the application of English in corporations. Firstly, the graduate single corporate language policy is instrumental in melville, improving the sharepoint study operation efficiency. Collected! Cross-border management and direct communication between the headquarters and subsidiaries would be more effective and time-saving. Secondly, English has been widely-used in international business throughout the essay world and the status of English in the contemporary world is unshakable (ibid.). This is based on the fact that English has become a lingua franca in business field. As has been mentioned above, some scholars have categorized it as Business English Language Franca (BELF) (Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005). Some regard it as a culture-neutral language while others deny the opinion for the terms are created by people from diverse races and colors. According to Whorf Hypothesis, language is the determinant of people’s thoughts (Bergman n.d.).
Consequently, thoughts of those who don’t learn English as their first language are varied from those who learn English as their first language. English speakers from non-native English-speaking countries are affected by their native cultures. For native speakers of English, it is also a challenge to integrate into the group of those who learn English as a second language (Maclean 2006). As a result, the collected essay herman melville potential threat of the implementation of the single corporate language is that it could result in pos support, poor internal communication and misunderstandings among the employees from different cultural backgrounds, which, in return, will jeopardize the working efficiency over the long haul. Furthermore, the flexibility of collected melville monolingual policy is doubted. For instance, some operational problems are culturally specific to a certain geographical region and case, cannot be described in English.
The emergence of the herman melville phenomenon is closely related to the local language and cultural atmosphere (ibid.). Multilingual Policy Adoption. Nordea has been a cross-national corporate resulted from two merging companies from Finland and Sweden. Thesis! For Nordic countries where Finland and Sweden are included, English exerts very little influence in those countries and the development of English as a communication tool is a relatively new thing. The tradition lingua franca of these regions is Swedish which was what Nordea adopted as the corporate language at the beginning (Louhiala Salminen et al.
2005). However, Swedish has been replaced by English after the occurrence of “internal political problems” which is not an essay, ideal solution in the long run (Maclean 2006). As can been seen, the graduate thesis application of a single corporate language may worsen the current situation of non-English speaking corporation, adding more complexity to rather than simplify the existed environment especially when the third language is collected essay herman unfamiliar to most receivers in the organization. In this case, the relatively ideal solution is to take the advantage of the multilingual situation and graduate uwo, explore the possibilities of combining the existed language abilities of the staff rather than force the employees to acquire a second language (Maclean 2006). The adoption of bilingual, trilingual or multilingual strategy is matched with the complexity of the language environment of a company (Dhir and Abiodun 2002, cited in Maclean 2006). The Establishment of “Culture Three” A similar case study of language use and internal communication in two merger companies from Finland and Sweden was conducted. One is a Paper manufacturer and the other one is a bank group (Louhiala Salminen et al.
2005). The company has also experienced a process of herman language selection (from the adoption of Swedish to English). However, despite cultural differences, the result of the study shows that there is “no evidence of pos support conflicts or misunderstandings”. Besides, the study suggests that the collected herman melville shared value has formed within the company philosophy no matter whether it is because of the closeness of pos support geography between Finland and Sweden or the working experience (ibid.). When referring to the culture disparity in business, a “culture three” which is out of the cultural differences should be established (Holden 2002, cited in Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005). In the case companies, the culture is neither Swedish nor Finnish. Collected Essay Melville! It is “a new combination where interaction proceeds smoothly and contains discoursal features of both cultures” (ibid.).
To achieve this goal, it needs to have a pragmatic language which is functional in resume, day-to-day use and is effective and efficient in communication as well. Linguistic correctness is herman melville not the focus (ibid.). The grammar of such language may not be as authentic as native speakers but seldom impedes the communication and understandings. Implications for Non-native Speakers of resume English. English is no longer the language of native speakers and more business activities have taken place among non-native English speakers. Collected Melville! As a result, English during business trade is more functional. The correctness of grammar, fluency and pronunciation of English play a less important role in the success of business.
Knowledge and effective communication are more vital in business interactions nowadays (Kankaanranta and chicago style statement, Louhiala-Salminen 2010). As has been mentioned in essay melville, the previous section, non-native English speakers are from diverse culture backgrounds and sharepoint case intranet, are deeply influenced by their indigenous culture. Therefore, all encounters between non-native English speakers are collapses of cultures which requires for a wider range of knowledge of the collected herman backgrounds of the non-native English speakers for the purpose of conflicts elimination (ibid.). Playfulness and graduate thesis uwo, Creative Use of Language. Here is an essay melville, example of a conversation among non-native speakers of case English. “Extract : the boat (Isabel: Portuguese; Nana: Japanese; Anna: Italian) Isabel: I mean we don’t have problems … we all get on yeah Nana: yeah I think we are all on the same …on in… ah: what is it… on the same boat? Nana: yeah? … how do you say? On the same boat? Isabel: I don’t know yeah…on the same boat I think…on the melville bus on the train. Anna: anyway we understand you.
Isabel: yeah … we are all foreigners. Nana: all foreigners (laughing)” The context based on the discussion of the correctness of a preposition of an English slang. Instead of saying “I don’t know”, Isabel plays the language by case intranet offering different suggestions which continues the conversation. The non-native English speakers burst into laughter by collected herman the “mockery” that “we are all foreigners”. The foreign backgrounds are what bring the non-native English speakers together which in a way promote the communication and pos support resume, understandings among non-native speakers. The creativity in English application reveals the optimistic attitude of being “non-native” (ibid.). Those who perceive English as imperialism claim that the popularity of English endangers the preservation and survival of other native languages (Khan 2010). Take Arabic language as an example. The government has input a large amount of money in correcting the false use of native language since English has become the second language of the country (ibid.).
The opposing view has pointed out that the frequency of the second language application will not surpass that of the mother tongue consider that mother tongue is the most familiar and comfortable language for an individual, which, as a result, will not pose a threat to the survival of native languages (ibid.). Objectively speaking, the reason that some languages are on the brink of extinction is not only derived from the worldwide use of English, but because of the false language strategy implemented by essay the government. Children from wealthy family in Arabia have been sent abroad to study English at a young age, which gives rise to the ironical embarrassment that they are not good at either their mother tongue or English (ibid.). Similar situation happens in sharepoint case study intranet, China. Essay Herman! English ability has been an study, important criterion for college entrance examination. Even in postgraduate examination, applicants might be denied due to the poor performance in English exam regardless of the fact that the major he applies for is completely irrelevant to English. Collected Herman! In recent years, the ministry of thesis education has realized the essay herman severity of the graduate thesis uwo case and start to consider increase the herman melville percentage of Chinese subject in kazantzakis, the college entrance examination while the total mark of English will be reduced from collected essay herman, 150 points to 100 points. Furthermore, some Chinese educationists even point out that English should not be included in college entrance examination after 2016. Instead, it could be an elective course in high school. Overall, the widespread of English are potentially hazardous to chicago statement the mother tongue or minority languages of non-native English speakers in a way, but the government’s policy are more important in native languages and cultures preservation.
Implications for Native Speakers of English. With the emergence of World Englishes and the trend of English as a Lingua Franca, English is no longer the exclusive language of native speakers. The native speakers of English are losing their language status as native English is not the only reference point (Maclean 2006). Besides, for native English speakers, English is the only language skill they master, which therefore limits their career opportunity. Mono-lingualism is also an encouragement of melville narrow-mindedness and ethnocentricity and is not advantageous to business development in the long run (ibid.). Thesis! The English of native speakers are only culturally specific to certain cultures.
They could not explain Singapore English, Indian English and other World Englishes. “They are no longer effective communicators” (ibid.). Bergman, J. (n.d). Essay Herman Melville! Benjamin Lee Whorf: An Early Supporter of Creationism [online] Available at: http://www.icr.org/article/6391/ [Accessed07 December2014] Blommaert, J. (2010) The Sociolinguistics of Globalization. Resume! Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Corgo, A. Collected Herman! (2012).English as a Lingua Franca: concepts,use, and implications, ELT Journal 66(1): 97-105 Gu, M., Patkin, J. and Kirkpatrick, J. (2014). The dynamic identity construction in English as lingua franca intercultural communication: A positioning perspective. System 46: 131-142. Khan, R. (2010). Linguistic Imperialism? [online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c3TJe4jnqFo#t=22 [Accessed07December2014] Lingua Franca, Merriam-Webster (2014) [online] Available at: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/lingua%20franca [Accessed08December2014] Louhiala-Salminen, L., Charles, M. and Kankaanranta, A. Tuck! (2005).
English as a lingua franca in Nordic corporate mergers: Two case companies , English for Specific Purposes 24(2005): 401-421. Essay! Maclean, D. Dissertation Abstracts Online Sciences! (2006). Beyond English. Transnational corporations and collected essay herman, the strategic management of language in a complex multilingual business environment, Management Decision 44 (10): 1377-1390. Tuck Everlasting! Pakir, A. (2009). English as a lingua franca: analyzing research frameworks in international English, world Englishes, and ELF, World Englishes 28(2): 224-235. Pennycook, A. (1994).
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