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bfa thesis examples Advanced design seminar in which students develop a sustained individual project in essay help in uk a major area of concentration (print, Internet, multimedia). Dissertation? This semester-long project is designed to essay, encourage extended development and the synthesis of dissertation leeds, communication skills and related design disciplines. Essay? The final requirement for BFA graduation, the thesis project will be presented in an exhibition and in written presentation to met sine thesis, faculty. Prereq: completion of all major requirements for the BFA. 6 cr./6 hr. The Thesis should represent a significant body of essay help, independent creative work. It can take many different forms or combinations of forms: print, publication, Web, interactive multimedia, or animation.
The specifics will vary greatly from the sociological essay project to in uk, project. • to formulate a personal creative research project in an area of students’ interest. Binding Dissertation Leeds? Syllabus may be revised during the essay help semester depending on the needs of the course. You must pass the 10th week review to continue in Thesis. INCOMPLETES ARE NOT GIVEN IN THESIS. A passing grade in Thesis is prompts technology, A or B ONLY. Essay Help? quality of concept, 20% visual design, 30% execution of design and installation 30% written and oral communications 10% professionalism, 10% [participation in class, meeting deadlines, communications] Any act of academic dishonesty will be dealt with by applying the most stringent penalties permitted. Cheating includes but is not limited to binding leeds, receiving help during exams and essay in uk, submitting homework without properly acknowledging persons who assisted you. Statement on Academic Integrity, The CUNY Policy on Plagiarism: Plagiarism is the act of presenting another person’s ideas, research or writings as your own. The following are some examples of plagiarism, but by no means is it an exhaustive list: Copying another person’s actual words without the use of quotation marks and footnotes attributing the words to their source.
Presenting another person’s ideas or theories in your own words without acknowledging the source. Using information that is not common knowledge without acknowledging the source. Failing to management project, acknowledge collaborators on homework and laboratory assignments. Internet plagiarism includes submitting downloaded term papers or parts of term papers, paraphrasing or copying information from the internet without citing the source, and “cutting and pasting” from various sources without proper attribution. Essay In Uk? The City College Faculty Senate has approved a procedure for addressing violations of thesis research paper, academic integrity. Planning begins the semester before the Thesis semester when the essay student proposes a project.
It’s essential that the student start the Thesis semester with a clearly defined concept. Your project proposal must be approved before the start of the Thesis semester. At the first class meeting, we will discuss your project proposal. For week two, the met sine proposal should be expanded to essay help, at least 2 pages and met sine thesis review, more fully describe the project. It should include: an expansion of the proposal into a fully detailed description of the essay in uk project. [abstract + proposal] outline of the proposed research, reference/source material and reading list or URLs examples of the ideas informing and methods of achieving your proposed research description of media, materials and technical processes involved outcomes envisioned: what might be the final production pieces? images, diagrams, or other supporting materials consider the current design context of their proposed project. CLEARLY describe your concept, possible design styles and alternate approaches and include reference materials/inspirations.
In the sat essay technology research stage, the student collects material that is relevant to essay, the project; this includes both content research and design research. Research material can be drawn from books, magazines, web sites, videos, films, DVD/CD-ROMs, exhibition documentation, etc. Keep notes and cuhk thesis, document the research process; this documentation will become part of your archive. Thesis projects are expected to show a high degree of help in uk, originality. Students are expected to shoot their own photographs (where possible) and entirely create the graphic elements of their projects. **You must credit your sources in writing, in cuhk thesis your proposal and documentation book. See the College plagiarism policy for penalties for handing in work that's not your own. Students will develop a designed visual template for both text and help, sketch documents, so that all materials have a consistent appearance. Students are expected to document all stages of the Thesis project; i.e. to format at presentation quality, sketches, notes, research elements, concept descriptions for later inclusion in the Thesis book. All notes, sketches, templates etc. should have your name, the date and thesis research paper, a version number. The design stage occurs in conjunction with the above research. The student makes sketches and drafts that explore different facets of the design project.
Students are expected to essay, present multiple alternative concepts/solutions and be prepared for extensive revision. At the 10th week of the semester, students’ work-to-date will be reviewed. At this stage, any student who has not made significant progress on management their Thesis project will be dropped. Help? Planning for binding dissertation the BFA exhibition will begin at this point. Some time around mid-semester, students move to the production phase of the in uk project.
This will include executing the approved designs, dealing with technical and integration issues, and beginning the final assembly of the Thesis materials. The Thesis project is sat essay technology, completed, and final portfolio is submitted on the 15th week. Projects will be exhibited in a student-organized BFA exhibition on essay help in uk dates indicated. Thesis has an extensive writing component, including the proposal, case studies, text for web site, animations or other production pieces. Cuhk Thesis? All text must be clearly written, grammatical and free of proofreading errors. CORPORATE IDENTITY or ADVERTISING: at least 12 different completed designs, ads or collateral material. Poster design projects should include at least 8 design components. BOOK or MAGAZINE DESIGN: at least 15 pages of content. Projects must be fully printed and bound. WEB PROJECTS: incorporate a range of different media (images, animation, sound, scripting, interactivity), over at least 12 pages or screens.
Web projects must be fully functional on-line, either through our web server, or from an outside web site provider. INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA PROJECTS: for interactive projects, include a range of media (as for Web projects), extending over at least 15 screens. Interactive multimedia projects must be presented on Flash drive or DVD/CD-ROM and be fully tested and functional. They must include cover graphics and user instructions and must be cross-platform, i.e. Help In Uk? work on both Mac and PC. ANIMATION AND DIGITAL VIDEO PROJECTS, 3D: for motion graphics or animation projects, develop at least 3-5 minutes of original video material. For 3D projects: sketches of models, storyboard, script/storyline, examples of painted textures, sound, prints of rendered frames, 1 minute animation with titles. Presented either on Flash drive or DVD/CD-ROM, or as streaming video.
All screen-based projects should include collateral materials: DVD/CD cover graphics, poster, screen prints, labels, accompanying brochure or other items TBA. Documentation of project materials: All projects must include documentation of the entire work process, including written proposals and briefs, sketches, page or screen templates, grids, storyboards and final pieces. Documentation will be in book form AND on Flash drive or DVD/CD-ROM. Each student must submit 8 [color-corrected and edited] photos of their thesis installation [shot int he gallery while the exhibition is on. Design a document template that includes your name, date of item, version/revision number. [Week 1 project] Assignment sheets are given out each week. For previous weeks, go to the website. first thesis proposal initial research design of binding dissertation, page format.
See Writing References [Thesis Paper Style Guides, Articles on Writing, Copyright] revision of in uk, thesis proposal inspiration page first sketches. second sketches writing workshop. THURSDAY SCHEDULE ON TUESDAY. final thesis brief third sketches. NO CLASS SEPTEMBER 21. fourth sketches production schedule. production planning revise roughs, process sketches. additional design revisions start production. list of thesis elements production continues. A significant body of work must be completed by cuhk thesis, week 10 or students will be asked to drop Thesis. Last day to help, withdraw is 4/19. installation layout start final printing/fabrication. outline final thesis paper continue printing/fabrication. Cuhk Thesis? NO CLASS NOVEMBER 23. LAST CLASS, FINAL CLASS PRESENTATIONS. archive book of the thesis process, containing the abstract, documentation, prints and Flash drive or DVD/CD-ROM. and include all of your final project files. [this is separate from essay help in uk any book design in your exhibition] installation of Thesis work at the BFA show. completion of the written Thesis. submit 8 [color-corrected and imagination essay, edited] installation photos of your project in the gallery.
Final Production and in uk, Gallery Installation. INSTALL: Saturday December 9th, 11 am. EXHIBITION: Monday, December 11-Friday, December 15th, 2017. Imagination? RECEPTION: Thursday, December 14th, 5-8pm. FINAL THESIS PAPER due by essay, email: Thursday, December 14th. DEINSTALL Friday, December 16th, 11am, all documentation due. Students must prepare and submit a portfolio presenting the cuhk thesis results of the Thesis project. Portfolio components include: Minimum 8 page written project summary which will include: a statement of the Thesis goals/purpose a description of how those goals were pursued an in uk, assessment of the final results. a critical discussion of historical and/or contemporary examples relevant to the project should also be included. Binding Leeds? The Thesis images should be high-quality prints that either document the help in uk project or are the product of the Thesis project.
The nature of these images will depend on the kind of project undertaken. If the Thesis is a web or multimedia project, then the literature review management images document the project, and they should consist of help, screen shots from different parts of the project together with short written descriptions. If the Thesis is a print project, then the images themselves are the Thesis. In this case, they may be presented in a separate portfolio at a size that is appropriate to the project. These images should provide a clear presentation of the essay Thesis project. The research and development material should document what the in uk student did during the preparation of the Thesis project. Research material could include print-outs of relevant web sites, photocopies of book pages, magazine tear sheets, and reference images. Cuhk Thesis? Development material should include sketches and design drafts that were produced during the production process. It’s important to document the stages of your project through a series of progressive design sketches.
The Flash drive or DVD/CD-ROM should contain electronic versions of the Thesis material. Contents will vary based on essay in uk the kind of thesis for a paper, Thesis project undertaken If the Thesis is a web or multimedia project, then the essay help in uk Flash drive/DVD/CD-ROM files are the distribution media for the Thesis. For a print project, the sat essay Flash drive or DVD/CD is an archival record of your files. If the project is help, a print project, then the disk should include source files and reference images. It is the sociological, not necessary to turn in essay help every file or sketch, just final versions of the important ones. Literature Review Management? The disk should have cover graphics, be tested for errors and should be fully ready for use. Take eight  installation photos of your project in the gallery, and include them in your book and on the DVD/CD. Make sure they are color-corrected and essay help in uk, retouched as needed. You can borrow equipment [lights, tripod, camera] if needed from the DOC checkout.
All of the materials should be presented together in the sociological imagination essay a folder. We prefer a black Itoh-type book with clear plastic sleeves that can hold letter-sized sheets. Be sure to design the spine of essay in uk, your book and include a cover sheet with your name, the date and title for your project. Certain projects may call for other formats, such as large-format prints or 3D formats. PRESENTATION FORMATbinder folder with: plastic sleeves cover graphics for cuhk thesis folder and CD inkjet prints of weekly presentations showing the development of the project installation drawings list of thesis elements production schedule 8 installation photos Enclosing envelope if there are items that aren't contained in the plastic sleeves. Students must archive their project by providing EDM with a copy of the thesis book + digital files. No grade will be awarded without this documentation. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/05/ Purdue University MLA Citatons Guide, also see the link for electronic sources. In Uk? montecin/copyright-internet.htm Intro to copyright for sentence for a research the Web. maxb/ftf1964.htm First Things First manifesto. http://www.aiga.org/content.cfm/graphic-design-theory Need for theory in graphic design. Also see the case studies under ‘Professional Resources’ and articles in the ‘Society Environment’ section. In Uk? jsa3/hum355/readings/berger.htm Extract from John Berger's Ways of Seeing. bit.ly URL What is Research Design [pdf] from a social research perspective.
Branding Style Guides. Or google: images branding mockup. Using Photography in Branding. Data Visualization and Information Design. http://www.typechart.com Tool for visualizing type choices. Sat Essay? http://www.typetester.org Another tool for visualizing type choices. http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2008/10/07/retro-and-vintage-in-modern-web-design/ CSS Smashing Magazine article on Retro design; also in PDF in class handouts.
Reference for the Retro project. http://psdtuts.com/category/tutorials/ Tutorials, including for Grunge and 80's retro; also see 'Freebees' section for textured patterns. Also see 'tutorials' on Smashing Magazine for special tutorials on grunge, retro, textures and essay help in uk, pattern effects.
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Sample Essay Responses and Rater Commentary for the Argument Task. The sample essays that follow were written in response to the prompt that appears below . The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the response meets the criteria for that score. For a more complete understanding of the essay, criteria for each score point, see the for a, Analyze an Argument Scoring Guide. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the city is rarely used for essay in uk, these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. For years there have been complaints from residents about the quality of the literature on hospital management system, river's water and the river's smell. Essay In Uk? In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Thesis Sentence For A Paper? Use of the river for water sports is therefore sure to increase. The city government should for that reason devote more money in this year's budget to riverside recreational facilities.
Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to explain how the argument depends on the assumptions and what the implications are if the essay in uk, assumptions prove unwarranted. Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. While it may be true that the Mason City government ought to met sine review devote more money to riverside recreational facilities, this author's argument does not make a cogent case for increased resources based on river use. It is easy to understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is rife with holes and essay in uk, assumptions, and thus, not strong enough to review lead to increased funding. Citing surveys of essay in uk, city residents, the author reports city resident's love of water sports. Cuhk Thesis? It is not clear, however, the scope and essay help in uk, validity of the sociological, that survey. For example, the help, survey could have asked residents if they prefer using the river for water sports or would like to see a hydroelectric dam built, which may have swayed residents toward river sports. The sample may not have been representative of city residents, asking only those residents who live upon thesis review, the river. The survey may have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions dedicated to essay help river sports.
We just do not know. Sat Essay Technology? Unless the survey is fully representative, valid, and reliable, it can not be used to effectively back the author's argument. Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the river for swimming, boating, and fishing, despite their professed interest, because the water is essay polluted and smelly. While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on river sports, a concrete connection between the resident's lack of sat essay prompts, river use and the river's current state is not effectively made. Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from a wide range of people, or perhaps from in uk one or two individuals who made numerous complaints. To strengthen his/her argument, the thesis research, author would benefit from implementing a normed survey asking a wide range of residents why they do not currently use the river. Building upon the implication that residents do not use the river due to the quality of the river's water and the smell, the essay help, author suggests that a river clean up will result in increased river usage. If the river's water quality and cuhk thesis, smell result from in uk problems which can be cleaned, this may be true.
For example, if the decreased water quality and aroma is caused by pollution by factories along the river, this conceivably could be remedied. But if the quality and aroma results from the for a research paper, natural mineral deposits in the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true. Essay Help? There are some bodies of water which emit a strong smell of sulphur due to the geography of the area. This is not something likely to dissertation be afffected by essay help, a clean-up. Cuhk Thesis? Consequently, a river clean up may have no impact upon river usage. Regardless of whether the river's quality is able to be improved or not, the author does not effectively show a connection between water quality and river usage. A clean, beautiful, safe river often adds to a city's property values, leads to increased tourism and essay help in uk, revenue from those who come to take advantage of the river, and a better overall quality of essay, life for residents. Essay Help In Uk? For these reasons, city government may decide to invest in cuhk thesis, improving riverside recreational facilities. However, this author's argument is not likely significantly persuade the city goverment to allocate increased funding.
Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 6. This insightful response identifies important assumptions and in uk, thoroughly examines their implications. The essay shows that the proposal to spend more on riverside recreational facilities rests on three questionable assumptions, namely: that the survey provides a reliable basis for budget planning that the river’s pollution and odor are the only reasons for for a research paper, its limited recreational use that efforts to clean the water and remove the odor will be successful. By showing that each assumption is highly suspect, this essay demonstrates the weakness of the help in uk, entire argument. For example, paragraph 2 points out that the survey might not have used a representative sample, might have offered limited choices, and might have contained very few questions on water sports. Paragraph 3 examines the tenuous connection between complaints and limited use of the river for recreation. Complaints about water quality and odor may be coming from only a few people and, even if such complaints are numerous, other completely different factors may be much more significant in reducing river usage. Finally, paragraph 4 explains that certain geologic features may prevent effective river clean-up. Details such as these provide compelling support. In addition, careful organization ensures that each new point builds upon the previous ones. Met Sine Review? For example, note the clear transitions at the beginning of paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the logical sequence of sentences within paragraphs (specifically paragraph 4).
Although this essay does contain minor errors, it still conveys ideas fluently. Note the effective word choices (e.g., rife with . . . assumptions and essay in uk, may have swayed residents). For A Paper? In addition, sentences are not merely varied; they also display skillful embedding of subordinate elements. Since this response offers cogent examination of the essay, argument and conveys meaning skillfully, it earns a score of thesis review, 6. The author of essay help in uk, this proposal to increase the met sine review, budget for Mason City riverside recreational facilities offers an interesting argument but to essay help in uk move forward on the proposal would definitely require more information and thought.
While the sat essay prompts, correlations stated are logical and probable, there may be hidden factors that prevent the City from essay in uk diverting resources to this project. For example, consider the review, survey rankings among Mason City residents. In Uk? The thought is that such high regard for water sports will translate into technology, usage. Essay In Uk? But, survey responses can hardly be used as indicators of actual behavior. Many surveys conducted after the winter holidays reveal people who list exercise and weight loss as a top priority. Yet every profession does not equal a new gym membership. Even the wording of the survey results remain ambiguous and vague. While water sports may be among the residents' favorite activities, this allows for many other favorites. What remains unknown is the priorities of the dissertation leeds, general public. Essay? Do they favor these water sports above a softball field or soccer field? Are they willing to sacrifice the municipal golf course for better riverside facilities?
Indeed the cuhk thesis, survey hardly provides enough information to discern future use of improved facilities. Closely linked to the surveys is the essay, bold assumption that a cleaner river will result in increased usage. While it is review not illogical to expect some increase, at what level will people begin to use the river? The answer to this question requires a survey to find out the reasons our residents use or do not use the river. Is river water quality the primary limiting factor to usage or the lack of docks and piers?
Are people more interested in essay help in uk, water sports than the recreational activities that they are already engaged in? These questions will help the city government forecast how much river usage will increase and to assign a proportional increase to the budget. Likewise, the author is cuhk thesis optimistic regarding the state promise to clean the river. We need to hear the source of the voices and consider any ulterior motives. Essay? Is this a campaign year and the plans a campaign promise from the state representative? What is the timeline for the clean-up effort?
Will the state fully fund this project? We can imagine the misuse of funds in renovating the riverside facilities only to watch the new buildings fall into dilapidation while the state drags the river clean-up. Last, the author does not consider where these additional funds will be diverted from. The current budget situation must be assessed to determine if this increase can be afforded. In a sense, the technology, City may not be willing to draw money away from help other key projects from road improvements to binding schools and education.
The author naively assumes that the money can simply appear without forethought on where it will come from. Examining all the various angles and factors involved with improving riverside recreational facilities, the argument does not justify increasing the budget. While the proposal does highlight a possibility, more information is required to essay help in uk warrant any action. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 5. Each paragraph in the body of this perceptive essay identifies and examines an dissertation, unstated assumption that is crucial to the argument. Essay? The major assumptions discussed are: that a survey can accurately predict behavior that cleaning the river will, in itself, increase recreational usage that state plans to clean the river will actually be realized that Mason City can afford to spend more on riverside recreational facilities. Support within each paragraph is both thoughtful and literature on hospital system project, thorough.
For example, paragraph 2 points out essay help, vagueness in the wording of the survey: Even if water sports rank among the favorite recreational activities of Mason City residents, other sports may still be much more popular. Thus, if the first assumption proves unwarranted, the argument to binding fund riverside facilities rather than soccer fields or golf courses becomes much weaker. Paragraph 4 considers several reasons why river clean-up plans may not be successful (the plans may be nothing more than campaign promises or funding may not be adequate). Thus, the weakness of the third assumption undermines the argument that river recreation will increase and riverside improvements will be needed at all. Instead of dismissing each assumption in isolation, this response places them in essay in uk, a logical order and considers their connections. Note the appropriate transitions between and on hospital management system, within paragraphs, clarifying the links among the assumptions (e.g., Closely linked to the surveys or The answer to essay this question requires. ). Along with strong development, this response also displays facility with language. Minor errors in punctuation are present, but word choices are apt and sentences suitably varied in pattern and length.
The response uses a number of rhetorical questions, but the implied answers are always clear enough to support the points being made. Thus, the response satisfies all requirements for a score of 5, but its development is not thorough or compelling enough for a 6. The problem with the arguement is the assumption that if the Mason River were cleaned up, that people would use it for water sports and recreation. This is not necessarily true, as people may rank water sports among their favorite recreational activities, but that does not mean that those same people have the financial ability, time or equipment to pursue those interests. However, even if the writer of the arguement is correct in assuming that the Mason River will be used more by the city's residents, the arguement does not say why the cuhk thesis, recreational facilities need more money. If recreational facilities already exist along the Mason River, why should the city allot more money to fund them?
If the recreational facilities already in existence will be used more in the coming years, then they will be making more money for themselves, eliminating the need for the city government to devote more money to them. According to the arguement, the reason people are not using the Mason River for essay, water sports is because of the smell and the quality of water, not because the recreational facilities are unacceptable. If the city government alloted more money to the recreational facilities, then the budget is the sociological imagination being cut from some other important city project. Also, if the essay in uk, assumptions proved unwarranted, and more people did not use the river for recreation, then much money has been wasted, not only the money for the recreational facilities, but also the money that was used to clean up the prompts, river to attract more people in the first place. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 4. This competent response identifies two unstated assumptions: that cleaning up the Mason River will lead to increased recreational use that existing facilities along the river need more funding.
Paragraph 1 offers reasons why the first assumption is questionable (e.g., residents may not have the necessary time or money for essay, water sports). Similarly, paragraphs 2 and 3 explain that riverside recreational facilities may already be adequate and may, in fact, produce additional income if usage increases. Thus, the response is adequately developed and satisfactorily organized to show how the argument depends on questionable assumptions. However, this essay does not rise to cuhk thesis a score of 5 because it fails to essay help in uk consider several other unstated assumptions (e.g., that the survey is reliable or that the efforts to clean the river will be successful). Furthermore, the final paragraph makes some extraneous, unsupported assertions of sentence for a paper, its own. Mason City may actually have a budget surplus so that cuts to other projects will not be necessary, and cleaning the river may provide other real benefits even if it is not used more for water sports. This response is generally free of errors in grammar and usage and displays sufficient control of language to support a score of 4.
Surveys are created to speak for the people; however, surveys do not always speak for the whole community. A survey completed by Mason City residents concluded that the residents enjoy water sports as a form of recreation. If that is so evident, why has the river not been used? The blame can not be soley be placed on the city park department. The city park department can only do as much as they observe. Essay? The real issue is not the residents use of the river, but their desire for a more pleasant smell and a more pleasant sight. If the city government cleans the river, it might take years for the smell to go away. If the budget is changed to binding leeds accomodate the clean up of the Mason River, other problems will arise.
The residents will then begin to complain about essay help in uk other issues in their city that will be ignored because of the great emphasis being placed on cuhk thesis, Mason River. Essay In Uk? If more money is taken out of the budget to clean the river an assumption can be made. This assumption is that the sat essay prompts technology, budget for another part of essay help in uk, cit maintenance or building will be tapped into to. The Sociological Imagination? In addition, to the budget being used to clean up Mason River, it will also be allocated in increasing riverside recreational facilites. The government is trying to appease its residents, and one can warrant that the role of the help in uk, government is to please the people. There are many assumptions being made; however, the government can not make the assumption that people want the river to be cleaned so that they can use it for recreational water activities. The government has to leeds realize the long term effects that their decision will have on the monetary value of their budget. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 3. Even though much of this essay is tangential, it offers some relevant examination of the argument’s assumptions.
The early sentences mention a questionable assumption (that the survey results are reliable) but do not explain how the survey might have been flawed. Then the response drifts to irrelevant matters a defense of the city park department, a prediction of budget problems and the problem of pleasing city residents. Some statements even introduce unwarranted assumptions that are not part of the original argument (e.g., The residents will then begin to complain about other issues and This assumption is that the budget for another part of city maintenance or building will be tapped into). Near the end, the response does correctly note that city government should not assume that residents want to use the in uk, river for recreation. The Sociological Essay? Hence, the proposal to increase funding for riverside recreational facilities may not be justified. In summary, the language in help in uk, this response is reasonably clear, but its examination of leeds, unstated assumptions remains limited and therefore earns a score of in uk, 3. This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in binding, it which is not logical. First, this statement mentions raking water sports as their favorite recreational activities at the first sentence. Essay In Uk? However, it seems to have a ralation between the first sentence and the setence which mentions that increase the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. This is sentence research a wrong cause and result to solve the problem. Second, as a reponse to the complaints from residents, the state plan to clean up the river.
As a result, the state expects that water sports will increase. When you look at two sentences, the result is help in uk not appropriate for the cause. Third, the last statement is the conclusion. However, even though residents rank water sports, the cuhk thesis, city government might devote the budget to essay in uk another issue. This statement is also a wrong cause and sat essay technology, result.
In summary, the help in uk, statement is not logical because there are some errors in it. The supporting setences are not strong enough to support this issue. Rater Commentary for sat essay, Essay Response Score 2. Although this essay appears to be carefully organized, it does not follow the directions for the assigned task. Help? In his/her vague references to causal fallacies, the writer attempts logical analysis but never refers to any unstated assumptions. Furthermore, several errors in grammar and sentence structure interfere with meaning (e.g., This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical).
Because this response does not follow the directions for the assigned task and contains errors in sentence structure and met sine thesis review, logical development, it earns a score of 2. The statement assumes that everyone in Mason City enjoys some sort of recreational activity, which may not be necessarily true. The statement also assumes that if the state cleans up the river, the use of the river for water sports will definitely increase. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 1. The brevity of this two-sentence response makes it fundamentally deficient. Sentence 1 states an help in uk, assumption that is actually not present in prompts, the argument, and sentence 2 correctly states an assumption but provides no discussion of essay help, its implications. Although the response may begin to literature review management system address the assigned task, it offers no development. Essay? As such, it is clearly extremely brief . providing little evidence of an organized response and earns a score of 1. Register for the GRE General Test. Get never-before-offered official GRE practice tests, scores within minutes for all three measures and explanations for technology, correct answers! Show schools only the essay in uk, scores you want them to see only with the ScoreSelect ® option.
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”The Cherry Orchard” by Anton Chekhov Essay Sample. The Cherry Orchard is Chekhov’s magnum opus; of the 4 great plays which he has written, this is the one which comes closest to universality as well as to generalizations which embrace all men. The Cherry Orchard is a far less sombre play–it is a laughable, regrettable chaos, it was written, with daring effort, by a dying man. Conceivably it should be deemed something between an ordinary play, and a ballet for instance Petroushka. In normal drama there is generally a significant unity of action; however, very often, little unity of essay help, acting. In The Cherry Orchard the unity of technology, action is for the most part lost in a diversity of themes; its real unity lies in the union of its actors to make a total effect of essay in uk, combined tears and the sociological imagination essay laughter. However there is as well a propensity in drama for attention to be concentrated on essay the actor speaking at a given moment, whereas the met sine thesis review others eagerly wait their turns to speak; while in ballet the dancers dance simultaneously. At all events there are scenes of cautiously studied confusion in The Cherry Orchard which reminds of the crowd-scenes in a ballet like Petroushka.
Nowhere else in Chekhov’s major plays is there such a whirl of boisterous humor and ludicrous absurdity. (Ed Menta, 1997) Although it reflects striking aspects of the Russian soul it as well contains aspects of feelings and thoughts which are relevant to all mankind. The Cherry Orchard is born from essay help, silence, it is a huge pantomime recounting in the course of two hours and being decorated every now and the sociological then with bursts of poetry in the similar way as a necklace is livened up here and there with beautiful jewels. It is a setting of concise retorts which frame a very unusual silence. The Cherry Orchard flows gradually like life; it is a sort of pure spring in which one hears the murmur of souls. Only some plays can give such a physical “impression of the passing of time”; this effect is attained through the fact that starting from silence, the help in uk play reproduces most intensely the present; and the theatre is primarily the art of the present. In life the present is what is most difficult to get hold of. Consequently it is not surprising that The Cherry Orchard ought to be a play very difficult to grasp; its action occurs in silences, and the dialogues, with the the sociological imagination essay poetic outbursts which shine like jewels, are like music merely meant to essay make silence vibrate: silence struggles with time which in front of us or behind our backs constantly transforms the future into past and memory.
It is a play regarding the passing of time; thus whether the characters are Russian or Japanese does not matter. Similar to thesis some plays of Shakespeare and Moliere it is a play which has universal value and essay which belongs to technology all mankind. However just as that English genius has illustrated better than anybody else the approach of madness, and just as French insight is at its best in telling the problems of the human heart, the Russian genius appears to be better fitted than any other to handle the present or the lived moment. Is Russia not placed astride the east and the west in just the same way as the present is astride the past and in uk the future? Thus far the universal values which are found in The Cherry Orchard cannot detract from the great homage which is because of the Russian soul for having exposed to us this subtle and deep experience of the passing of time. The arrangement of this play, which is constructs on silence and which occurs in the present, is prompts basically musical. The present, certainly, is essay help something so indefinable, so fast changing, that the author never has sufficient time to build up a given theme, therefore he must always pass on sat essay to the essay in uk next.
There is no time to binding stop, thus we pass from an help, everyday incident to a sentimental sensation, from this sensation to a general thought, from that to sentence for a research a joke, from that to essay in uk reflections on sat essay society, and all that., without ever exhausting any one of these moments which are in fact merely means of help in uk, avoiding the danger to which one incessantly returns. Review Management System? We are confronted by a series of moments of torpor scattered with sharp awakenings and ineffective attempts to turn away a magnetic attraction towards suffering and help disaster, likewise as one tries to keep oneself awake for the reason that one is afraid of dying in one’s sleep. Each of prompts, these unfulfilled and incomplete moments leaves behind a state of apprehension which is in fact the help in uk true subject of the play. One cannot help thinking that if an author applied these subtle methods of composition to his art, his music would most likely be ultra-modern. The themes are no sooner stated than they fade away as if burnt out and there is an air of literature project, incoherence between the different themes which is actually the result of the most careful and essay help in uk systematic planning. Thesis Sentence For A Paper? The dramatic movement is tremendously subtle, and built as it is on help in uk a musical analogy, it is a slow movement. The dramatic cadence of the play is a matter of density and not of velocity, or of speed of cuhk thesis, acting and recounting events; it is efficient when every instant is help in uk filled to capacity.
It is met sine review often said, and it is help in uk even confirmed as far as The Cherry Orchard is sat essay prompts concerned in the Dictionnaire des Oeuvres, that there is essay very little action in Chekhov. What this in reality means is that there are no complex plots or abundance of incidents; however that does not mean that there is no action. Action must not be puzzled with plot. “Let whatever you do be always simple,” said Horace, and Racine added: “Invention consists in making something out of nothing.” The action of The Cherry Orchard is taut, and it holds the whole play, for thesis every one of its moments is well filled and has its own density which does not lie in the dialogue but in the flowing life. (F. L. Lucas, 1963) The rest of the play is made up of life itself. The house is asleep in the night, waiting; people arrive; have some coffee, read a telegram, after that go to bed. Essay Help? The morning comes, the birds awaken.
In small groups, the inmates of the the sociological essay house sit in turn on essay the same bench, similar to flights of swallows on the same telegraph wire. Some Jewish musicians pass by, playing; the moon rises; some dancing takes place; one more telegram is literature review on hospital read, then a few glasses of kvass, a game at cards; five people arrive from in uk, town. The time has now come to leave ‘the cherry orchard’; clothes have to the sociological imagination essay be packed up, furniture has to be brought together; one hears the jingling bells of the horses in the courtyard; the shutters are closed, a last glance at essay help in uk the old wells and all is over. This house, which two hours before was like a pregnant woman about to sat essay prompts give birth, is in uk now an icy tomb from which life has fled. Imagination Essay? This life composed of silences, these strangely fleeting themes, this sorrowful and essay in uk tormented unfolding of the action, confront French actors with entrancing problems. The French actor is used to basing his acting on the text which, in thesis sentence research the French theatre, usually contains the action; here in this case, acting must find its basis outside the text.
When the essay help action is contained in for a research the text, it unfolds at a quicker cadence than when it is outside the text. The French actor is thus used to a quick tempo. Help In Uk? The Cherry Orchard has a slow tempo, even for Russian actors, and besides that, Russian slowness is not the same as French slowness; consequently The Cherry Orchard must be produced according to French slowness and not Russian slowness, however this slowness constitutes for French actors an met sine thesis, outstanding discipline in the art of conveying the density of help in uk, life. There are few plays more entrancing than this play. There are not several actors who get thoroughly engrossed and lost in review on hospital project this play, however when that happens, those who do so live the best moments of their artistic lives. It is the same for a whole cast; The Cherry Orchard is one of the few plays in which an entire cast could in fact get so intensely lost as to cease to essay help think that they are in a theatre, and believe on the contrary that this family truly exists and that they are in real life, and such an amazing metamorphosis occurs in the name of poetic truth. This play belongs neither to the naturalism of the start of the system century nor to realism, it belongs to truth, and truth always has two faces, a real one and a poetic one–its look and its inner meaning, and that is the foundation of poetic realism as in Shakespeare. The Cherry Orchard reminds of a nest of tables which stretch indefinitely one into the other; it starts from any known everyday subject, to move to help the universal and the sociological imagination the general; it is in uk something like a Japanese flower which starts unfolding in a glass of water once the appropriate tablet has been thrown in; it is as well a kind of allegory, which starting from everyday life rises to review on hospital system the metaphysical plane; it begins from individuals in their own universe and it rises to in uk the general plane where individuals are seen under the angle of universality, and sentence research paper that is what makes it a great play. In the centre we have a woman full of charm, kind as well as unconscious to the point of amorality.
She symbolizes that type of human being which is weak, fervent, most attractive by the combination of virtue and weakness which makes the essay help in uk true hero. Her heart in her hand, a sinner full of love, distributing her money freely, Liouba is the symbol of met sine, humanity, the essay in uk eternal human being. Around her, there are three men who shape the three angles of a triangle and symbolize the three age-long social currents which never stop to battle against one another. Gaiev exemplifies custom, ancient civilization and the old generation; he stands for sentence an age which has lost its vivacity, which is now fast fading away, and which one tries to hold back with all the homesickness of a good thing which has been lost and essay help in uk thus far remains worthy of love. Technology? At the top of the second angle, we discover Lopakine, the son of a moujik, the hard-working business man, proud of his recently acquired strength, and as well somewhat feeling guilty of the imperfections which he still drags about him. He also loves and esteems the in uk age which is just fading away and would like to thesis review save it, however social evolution is tempting and he finds himself more or less compelled to buy ‘The cherry orchard’, sign of an obsolete world; it is help in uk he who has the idea of exploiting it in a modern way, by dividing the property into plots of land for building new houses. He announces in predictive tones the literature review on hospital management system project first revolution which was to essay help in uk break out a year later (we are in 1904). If Gaiev represents the past, Lopakine represents the present. So far nothing stands still, all things are destined to disappear, that is why Chekhov confronts Lopakine with one more character who is the third angle of the triangle, and who is Trofimov, the eternal student. Trofimov has a kind of undeveloped visionary gift which allows him to tell Lopakine that the present occupiers of his recently built houses will be their owners tomorrow; Trofimov, who is the potential revolutionary, announces the 1917 revolution and the truth that every social revolution is followed by another. We cannot help thinking regarding the permanent state of revolution of Trotsky.
These various social positions are examined and developed, with a control and a diplomacy which call forth the admiration of the most delicate sensibilities. Literature System? The social aspect of The Cherry Orchard is dealt with by a fairy-like hand and consequently is all the more effective. Like the Chinese methods of acupuncture, the in uk prick is small however the consequences are of met sine review, enormous importance and in uk go far beyond the ‘Russian case’. They have an effect on every one of us, both in space and time; it is something that is applicable for all men at all times. If the binding dissertation leeds individuals who are studied turn out to be sociological cases, sociology then turns into a science which is help of interest for the eternal individual. Trofimov elucidates how this kind of binding leeds, development occurs; he says: “If we wish to begin to live, we must first of essay in uk, all redeem our past and tear ourselves away from it; but one cannot do that without great suffering, and one cannot redeem anything without a frightful and obstinate effort.” This sentence is clearly addressed to a whole generation, as well as to imagination essay a whole society and as well to essay the religious notion of redemption; however it is also addressed to every individual throughout the ages and in its most general aspects. The Sociological Imagination? The human being, similar to societies and civilizations, comes to life, lives, dies and renews itself. Is it not said that every three weeks all the cells of our body are renewed, and that consequently every three weeks our being is something different from what it was formerly?
Chekhov deals with three types of human beings” Gaiev the help one who is about to dissertation disappear, Lopakine the one who is essay help due to replace him in the present, as well as Trofimov the one who already prepares for the one who will replace Lopakine. They are the past, the sentence for a research present and the future. Though, attractive our past might be, however such we might cling to it, we have to essay in uk become commendable to received the future, and so as to be so; we have to have the courage to tear ourselves away from our past; it is the price we have to pay for thesis research the right to live, it is the redemption and the ransom exacted by life; “good night, old life, good morning, new life”; and while the eyes may still be reddened by tears, a new smile starts to break. Essay Help In Uk? That’s life, and that is the lesson of cuhk thesis, The Cherry Orchard. That is the meaning of the three men who gravitate round Liouba Ranievsky, the moving sign of humanity on the march, on a plane far above any social plane. The Cherry Orchard is neither a pragmatic play nor a social play; Chekhov is too great a man to essay help in uk tie himself to one single plane; it is the play of a great poet who, owing to cuhk thesis the depth of his feeling, and an extraordinary vision, goes beyond the social, which is given the significance that it deserves, to the very sources of existence. (Daniel Meyer-Dinkgrafe, 2002) One more lesson which can be learnt from The Cherry Orchard is that Chekhov illustrates us what a true artist is. We rather are inclined to shun that word on account of hypocritical modesty, however we nevertheless know that an artist is essay in uk a witness for his time and so he must try first and cuhk thesis foremost to be the servant of justice.
We cannot be follower and just simultaneously; a true artist can merely be partisan of justice and nothing else; he can merely be committed to justice and to nothing else, and such was Chekhov’s love of justice that it is said that he was appreciated and admired by the two camps which existed in the Russia of his time. In The Cherry Orchard we love Gaiev and we love the good old days, however we as well love Lopakine and would hope to help him to in uk purify himself and to bring to him what he lacks and project what at times gives him a sense of disgrace. At the same time we cannot although approve of the ideas of Trofimov; we regret his droopiness, and would ask him to be more sensible in his revolutionary plans. Chekhov’s art is an art dedicated to justice, consequently to great art, and The Cherry Orchard leaves behind it a great feeling of impartiality. Chekhov is an artist for the reason that he gives us a lesson of diplomacy, control and primarily of restraint. One cannot be a great artist without a strong sense of pudicity. The lack of pudicity can merely be excused on the ground of simplicity and candor; but certainly one must not confuse restraint and essay help prudishness. Sat Essay Technology? Chekhov educates us the art of economy. One cannot take away anything from The Cherry Orchard; whatever could be left out has been, left out by help in uk the author.
One is reminded of Charlie Chaplin’s admirable remark regarding one of his films: “When a work seems finished, you shake it like a fruit tree so as to keep only the fruit which cling solidly to prompts technology the branches.” “Never put anything in a play which is essay help not absolutely necessary,” said Racine. With Chekhov the stage directions themselves are significant and must be examined with great care; in one of his letters he said: “One finds often in my plays the stage direction: “through tears”, but that is intended to show the state the characters are in and not the tears.” All his characters, like the majority of Shakespeares characters, are ambiguous; Lopakine the terrible is imagination as well a shy, undecided and good man; Madame Ranievsky, the victim, has too a very fervent nature; Gaiev who represents tradition is lazy; Trofimov, the revolutionary, is a spineless, impetuous character. All Chekhov’s characters are multifaceted, they are not wooden, they are all extremely alive and with throbbing hearts. (Oscar Lee Brownstein, 1991) Furthermore at all events a rough count reveals in this play some 35 occasions on which characters indulge in sobs or tears. Some, certainly, of these tears may be simplistic and ridiculous. But by no means all. It appears a lot of weeping for a pure ‘farce’. When Shakespeare speaks of human foolishness making ‘the angels weep’, he adds “who with our spleens Would all themselves laugh mortal”. This hardly proposes that the angels are mistaken, and inferior to men, for the reason that they weep rather than laugh. Essay Help? “Life is a comedy to those that think, a tragedy to those that feel.” May it not be best both to think and to feel? Thus the sentence for a Cherry Orchard rests on the heart –the heart which, a Trofimov says, holds 95 senses which go beyond the mind and beyond the 5 senses which have officially been put at our disposal. It is the heart which puts us in a state of tears when we look back upon our past and which as well pulses on and consequently compels us to face the present and the future.
It is the heart which matters, for it is superior to the head which merely produces ideas, or to the senses which merely produce greed; the heart is above all revelation, vision as well as why not say the word-love, that is to say true knowledge, for as Claudel shrewdly said, to know is to be born with, or at the same time as, the thing that one knows. Essay Help? (Maria Shevtsova, 2004) At present, certainly, The Cherry Orchard has achieved a fuller appeal, a deeper importance, by seeming so touchingly prophetic. For in 1917 the whole Cherry Orchard of Tsarist Russia was felled in blood. Though unluckily the new owners proved far less human and humane than Lopakhin. The play was invigorated by Stanislavsky’s company almost on the eve of the Third Revolution in 1917, before a vast audience of common folk. That night the actors wondered if they might be howled off the stage, or even physically attacked.
However, strangely enough, it proved one of literature review, their greatest achievements; as if even that rough populace in the auditorium felt the pensive, poetic charm of the old life now vanished for ever. After giving the play a marvelous ovation, they drifted out of the theatre–many of them to the barricades. Soon, through the darkness, rang the crack of rifleshots. Once more, on the fortieth anniversary of its first performance, The Cherry Orchard was revived in 1944. Though forty years had passed, many of the original actors were still there. Yet again Chekhov’s widow, Olga Knipper, played Mme Ranevsky. What artistic continuity, amid the catastrophe of war and help in uk revolution. The Cherry Orchard is said to have been the most popular play in Soviet Russia.
Daniel Meyer-Dinkgrafe, 2002. On Hospital Management System? Who’s Who in Contemporary World Theatre; Routledge. Ed Menta, 1997. The Magic World behind the Curtain: Andrei Serban in the American Theatre; Peter Lang. L. Lucas, 1963. The Drama of Chekhov, Synge, Yeats, and Pirandello; Cassell.
Maria Shevtsova, 2004. Dodin and help in uk the Maly Drama Theatre: Process to Performance; Routledge. Oscar Lee Brownstein, 1991. Strategies of Drama: The Experience of Form; Greenwood Press. Is this the perfect essay for sentence research you? Save time and order ”The Cherry Orchard” by Anton Chekhov.
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example good essay Read the topic and sample essay, then study the comments. Click on the highlighted text for comments about academic writing conventions; click on essay help the notes in the margin for commentary on the essay. Birth rates are falling in developed countries. Sentence Research? There is one simple reason for this - young people nowadays are just too selfish and too self-centred to have children. Essay Help? And this is particularly true of women. To what extent do you agree with this view? Support your argument with relevant readings and evidence. Countries in the developed world have seen a big shift in attitudes to imagination essay, population growth. Several generations ago, it was generally believed that too many babies were being born, and that societies should try to reduce their populations. Nowadays, however, the essay help in uk concern is the reverse - that birthrates are falling too low and binding, that urgent action is needed to encourage people to essay help in uk, have more children.
But what are the causes of this trend? And how much are the attitudes and lifestyles of imagination essay, young people to blame? This essay will consider a number of explanations for the so-called baby crash. Essay? My argument will be that to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful. The best explanation, I believe , is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world. Leeds? To take several examples, in Europe in 1960, the essay help in uk total fertility rate (TFR) was about thesis sentence for a paper, 2.6 births per female, but in in uk, 1996 it had fallen to 1.4 (Chesnais, 1998) . In many Asian countries, similar declines have been experienced.
Japan now has a birthrate of only the sociological imagination essay, about 1.3, and essay, Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) . Technology? A TFR of essay help, below 2.0 means that a country#039;s population is the sociological essay, not replaced, and thus there is a net population decline. This ageing of the population has the potential to create serious problems. Fewer children being born means that in the long term, a smaller proportion of the essay help populace will be economically productive, whilst a larger proportion will be old and economically dependent - in the form of pension, health care and other social services. Most experts agree that these greying societies will not be able escape serious social and economic decline in the sociological, the future (Chesnais, 1998). So what are the causes of this trend and what can be done to stop it? One common approach has been to lay the blame on young people and their supposedly self-centred values. It is argued that in developed societies, we now live in a post-materialist age, where individuals do not have to be so concerned about basic material conditions to survive (McDonald, 2000a). In Uk? Thus people, especially the young, have become more focussed on the values of prompts, self-realisation and essay help in uk, the satisfaction of thesis, personal preferences, at the expense of traditional values like raising a family. A strong version of this view is put forward by Japanese sociologist, Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) . He uses the term parasite singles to refer to grown children in their 20s and 30s who have left school and are employed, but remain unmarried and continue live at home with their parents.
These young people are spoilt, he says, and interested only in their own pleasure - mainly in the form of shopping. Essay Help? According to Yamada , it is this focus on self, more than any other factor, that is sentence for a research paper, responsible for Japan#039;s languishing birth rate (Ashby, 2000). In other developed countries, there is a similar tendency for essay in uk the young to remain at home enjoying a single lifestyle - and a similar tendency for older people to interpret this as selfishness (McDonald, 2000a). But is it reasonable to attribute the binding dissertation baby crash to the pleasure-seeking values of the young? The problem with this view is that whenever young people are surveyed about their attitudes to family, not only do they say they want to have children, they also express preferences for family sizes that are, on essay help in uk average, above the binding leeds replacement level (McDonald, 2000a). As an example, McDonald quotes an Australian study that found that women aged 20-24 expected to have an average of in uk, 2.33 children in their lifetime. Cuhk Thesis? Findings like this suggest that the values of the young are not at all incompatible with the help idea of having a family. It seems then that, as young people progress through their twenties and thirties, they encounter obstacles along the way that prevent them from fulfilling their plans to be parents. Some conservative thinkers believe the main obstacle is the changed role and status of women (eg.
Norton, 2003). According to this view, because young women now have greater educational and essay, career opportunities than in essay help in uk, previous generations, they are finding the idea of family and motherhood less attractive. Thus, educated middle class women are delaying marriage and childbirth or even rejecting motherhood altogether. It is claimed that women#039;s improved status - which may be a good thing in itself - has had the unfortunate consequence of threatening population stability. But there are several problems with this argument.
For one, the lowest TFRs in literature review on hospital management project, Europe are found in Spain and Italy (around 1.2), both more traditional, male-oriented societies, which offer fewer opportunities to women. Essay Help? In comparison, Sweden which has been a leading country in advancing the rights of women enjoys a higher TFR (1.6 in 1996) - even though it is still below replacement. Chesnais (1998: p. 99) refers to this contrast as the feminist paradox and concludes that empowerment of women [actually] ensures against a very low birth rate (my emphasis) . Met Sine Thesis Review? Another problem with trying to link improved education levels for women to low birth rates is that fertility in developed countries seems to be declining across all education and help, class levels. In a recent survey of Australian census data, Birrell (2003) found that, whereas the non-tertiary-educated group was once very fertile, its rate of partnering is now converging towards that of tertiary educated women. We can summarise the discussion to this point as follows: Young people today, in spite of what#039;s said about their values, still express a desire to have children.
However, few end up having as many as they say they would like. The improved education and career opportunities for women does not seem to met sine thesis review, be the decisive factor in reducing the number of children that a woman has. These conclusions suggest that there must be something else involved. Many writers are now pointing to essay, a different factor - the economic condition of on hospital system, young people and their growing sense of insecurity. Peter McDonald (2000a) in his article #039;Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses#039; discusses some of the things that a couple will consider when they are thinking of having a child. Help? One type of thinking is what McDonald calls Rational Choice Theory, whereby a couple make an assessment of the relative costs and benefits associated with becoming a parent. In traditional societies, there has usually been an economic benefit in management system, having children because they can be a source of labour to help the essay family. In developed societies, however, children now constitute an economic cost, and cuhk thesis, so, it is argued, the benefits are more of a psychological kind - for example, enjoying the status of being a parent, having baby who will be fun and will grow up to love you, having offspring who will carry on in uk the family name etc. Cuhk Thesis? The problem, McDonald suggests, is that for many couples nowadays the economic cost can easily outweigh any perceived psychological benefits.
McDonald (2000b) discusses another type of decision-making - Risk Aversion Theory - which he says is also unfavourable to essay in uk, the birth rate. On Hospital System? According to this theory, when we make important decisions in our lives life, if we perceive uncertainty in our environment, we usually err on the side of safety in order to avert risk. McDonald points to a rise in economic uncertainty which he thinks has steered a lot of young people away from life-changing decisions like marriage and parenthood: Jobs are no longer lifetime jobs. There is a strong economic cycle of booms and busts.
Geographic mobility may be required for employment purposes (McDonald, 2000: p.15). Birrell (2003) focuses on increased economic uncertainty for men. Referring to the situation in essay help, Australia, he discusses men#039;s reluctance to form families in terms of perceived costs and risks: Many men are poor - in 2001, 42 per cent of men aged 25-44 earnt less than $32,000 a year. Only two-thirds of men in this age group were in full-time work.
Young men considering marriage could hardly be unaware of the risks of marital breakdown or the binding long-term costs, especially when children are involved (Birrell, 2003: p.12). And Yuji Genda (2000) in Japan, responding to essay help, Yamada#039;s analysis of parasite singles, argues that the failure of thesis, young Japanese to leave home and start families is not due to self-indulgence, but is an understandable response to increasingly difficult economic circumstances. Genda (2000) notes that it is the essay young who have had to bear the for a paper brunt of the decade long restructuring of the Japanese economy, with youth unemployment hovering around 10% and a marked reduction in secure full-time jobs for the young. Young people around the world seem to have an essay help in uk, increasing perception of economic uncertainty and contemplate something their parents would have found impossible - a decline in living standards over their lifetime. According to a 1990 American survey, two thirds of sat essay prompts, respondents in essay help in uk, the 18-29 age group thought it would be more difficult for sentence their generation to essay help, live as comfortably as previous generations (cited in Newman, 2000: p.505). Furthermore, around 70% believed they would have difficulty purchasing a house, and around 50% were worried about their future. Findings like these suggest that the younger generation may be reluctant to have children, not because they have more exciting things to cuhk thesis, do, but because they have doubts about their capacity to provide as parents. If we accept that economics has played a significant role in young people choosing to have fewer babies, then the key to reversing this trend is for governments to take action to remove this sense of insecurity. Help? A number of policy approaches have been suggested.
Some writers have focussed on the need for cuhk thesis better welfare provisions for families - like paid parental leave, family allowances, access to essay help, child care, etc (Chesnais, 1998). Others have called for more radical economic reforms that would increase job security and raise the met sine living standards of the young (McDonald, 2000b). It is hard to know what remedies are needed. What seems clear, however, is that young people are most unlikely to essay help in uk, reproduce simply because their elders have told them that it is selfish to do otherwise. Castigating the young will not have the effect of making them willing parents; instead it is likely to just make them increasingly resentful children. Ashby, J. (2000).
Parasite singles: Problem or victims? The Japan Times. The Sociological Imagination? 7/04/02. Birrell, B. (2003). Fertility crisis: why you can#039;t blame the blokes. The Age 17/01/03 p. 14. Chesnais, J-C. (1998). Below-replacement fertility in the European Union: Facts and essay, Policies, 1960-1997. Review of Population and Social Policy, No 7, pp. 83-101. Genda, Y. (2000).
A debate on Japan#039;s Dependent Singles, Japan Echo, June, 2000, pp. 47-56. Ichimura, S. and N. Ogawa (2000). Policies to meet the challenge of an aging society with declining fertility: Japan and met sine thesis, other East Asian countries. Paper presented at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the help Population Association of America, Los Angeles, USA. McDonald, P. (2000a). Low fertility in imagination, Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses. People and Place, No 8:2. pp 6-21. McDonald, P. (2000b).
The toolbox of public policies to impact on in uk fertility - a global view. Paper prepared for prompts technology the Annual Seminar 2000 of the European Observatory on Family Matters, Low Fertility, families and help, Public Policies, Sevilla (Spain), 15-16 September 2000. Norton, A. (2003). Student debt: A HECS on fertility? Issue Analysis No 3. Melbourne: Centre for Independent Studies. Newman, D. Prompts? (2000).
Sociology: Exploring the architecture of everyday life. California: Pine Forge. Notice what the question is asking students to essay, do - in this case saying how much they agree with the literature review system #039;view#039; in the topic. What do you think? Is this a reasonable explanation for essay the declining birthrate? Hint: always spend some time looking over and thinking about an essay topic before you start your planning and reading for it.
As part of this thinking, you should give some thought to sat essay prompts technology, what your position (argument) could be. Notice how in the introduction, this student writer: introduces the topic area in a general way (ie. Essay Help In Uk? declining birthrates) introduces the main issue to be covered in the essay (ie. why this is happening). Hint: there are many different ways you can begin an essay - if you are stuck, try beginning with i) and ii). In the last part of the introduction, the student introduces his argument. Notice how he disagrees with the explanation in imagination, the topic, and then offers an alternative explanation. Hint: in the introduction it is always a good idea to state what you intend to essay help, argue. In this paragraph, the student considers the first part of the topic - that birth rates have fallen. This is presented as background information. Notice how the student begins the paragraph with a claim (that the birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world) and then supports this with relevant evidence (statistics from Europe and Asia). Hint: in your writing be aware when you are making claims - be aware also of the cuhk thesis need to support them with some evidence.
After giving some background in paragraph 2, the student reminds the reader what the main issue is - why birthrates have declined? Notice also that the essay in uk student has seen the issue as a #039;problem#039; - and asks What can be done about it? Hint: always be aware what the main issue is you are addressing in cuhk thesis, your work. This paragraph mainly summarises the ideas of those who think young people are to blame for declining birthrates. Notice how in help in uk, the first part of the paragraph, these ideas are discussed in a general way. In the second part, the student focuses on the ideas of a single writer (Yamada) as a specific example of prompts, this view. Hint: always try to find opportunities in your work to essay help in uk, engage with the ideas of individual writers.
The previous paragraph was concerned with summarising some ideas. Thesis Sentence Research? Notice how in this new paragraph, the student provides a critique of these ideas. (Recall the student#039;s argument in the introduction: . to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful). Essay? Notice too that the student provides some supporting evidence for this critique - mainly from the work of McDonald. Hint: it is quite OK to criticise the imagination ideas of other writers - in fact many essay topics will specifically ask you to do this. But if you are going to be critical, you need to provide good reasons for essay help your critique. Recall that the topic suggested that young people were to blame for declining birthrates - and then went on cuhk thesis to single out help in uk, women. In this paragraph, the the sociological student takes up this gender issue. Hint: aim to structure your essays so that all issues in the topic are covered - and in some logical sequence. In this paragraph the student seeks to dismiss the view that young women are to essay, blame. (There are several problems with this argument).Notice that the student then goes on cuhk thesis to explain these problems (For one. ; Another problem is that . ). Hint: the providing of a well-organised critique is something your lecturers will value highly in your work. Recall the second part of the student#039;s argument stated in the introduction: The best explanation is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young.
The student now elaborates on this part of the argument. Hint: remember that the argument is the essay help key to any essay you write. In the imagination body of your essay, you need to be sure that your argument comes through clearly. Providing evidence for the argument. The student is arguing that economic insecurity experienced by young people is the main reason why the birthrate is in decline. Notice how in the rest of the essay, he seeks to support this argument with various forms of evidence. The student presents a range of evidence: several theories discussed by McDonald some research by Birrell comments by Genda results of a US survey.
Hint: it is important to have an argument in your essay. But it is equally important to provide support for what you are arguing. Your essays will be judged mainly on your ability to do these two things. There are a number of things happening in essay help, the conclusion. In the first sentence, the sat essay student restates his argument - if we accept that. . He then goes on to discuss what could be done to deal with the problem. Essay? In broad terms this is a discussion of the implications of the students#039; argument. Cuhk Thesis? Notice also how the essay help student mentions the negative implications of the blaming approach.
Hint: a conclusion that only restates the argument can be a bit uninteresting. You might also like to consider the implications of your argument - but you should do this briefly. Think: I have argued for this position - so what might follow on from this. You may have noticed that this essay is quite tightly structured. Its paragraph structure can be set out thus: Introduction Background to issue Explanation point 1 - summary student#039;s critique Explanation point 2 - summary student#039;s critique Student#039;s alternative explanation - Evidence 1 - Evidence 2 - Evidence 3 Conclusion. Hint: always try to map out a structure for thesis sentence your essay. Do this before you do too much writing. You may have noticed that the essay is free of spelling, typographical and grammatical errors.
Hint: always read your work very carefully before you submit it. Avoid doing your editing on the screen. Always print out and edit from a hard copy. Note in the references section, you need to essay help in uk, list all the texts you have referred to (cited) in the essay - not all the texts you have read, as some students mistakenly believe. Notice that the sample essay refers to a total of nine texts. This is a good number, and paper, indicates that the student has done a fair amount of reading. Hint: try to essay, include a reference to most of the texts that you read for an essay - so that you can build up a reasonable list of references. Of course, all references have to be relevant to cuhk thesis, your argument. Notice how the student uses I in his essay: The best explanation, I believe, is.
And in essay, the previous sentence, another first person pronoun is used: My argument is that . Some students have the impression that they are not allowed to use these words in their written work. But in fact they can often be found in academic writing. In general, the best place to use them is in the introduction - when you are presenting your argument. But if you are concerned that it is not OK to sentence for a paper, use I, you can use other expressions - which avoid self-reference, but which mean much the same thing, e.g. This essay will argue that . Remember though, that the help in uk really important issue is imagination essay, not the words you use to present your argument - but that your essay actually has a clear argument. Try to keep your paragraphs a reasonable length. (Most paragraphs in this essay are around 7-8 sentences long.) Citations are used to help, indicate the source of the ideas you have used in your essay. Note that there are two main citation systems: the author-date system (also known as Harvard); the footnote system (also known as Oxford).
In this essay, the author-date system has been used. Sat Essay Technology? (Always check which system is required in each of in uk, your subjects.) Citation 2 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) Citations can be set out in binding leeds, a number of essay in uk, ways. One method is to present some information and then provide the citation immediately after it to indicate the source. Review? These are known as #039;information-prominent#039; citations eg: Japan now has a birthrate of only essay help, about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000). Other formats are considered further on. Citation 3 Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) This citation means that the student is prompts technology, dealing with the essay help in uk ideas of Yamada, but actually read about them in Ashby#039;s text.
Whilst you should make an effort to read ideas in prompts, their original form, this is not always possible. In such cases, use the #039;cited in#039; format. When you are summarising the ideas of essay, a writer, you need to use reporting expressions like the ones used here: He [Yamada] uses the term . According to Yamada. You use these to distance yourself from certain language. Research? eg. when you are using an informal expression, or a term used by others that you don#039;t necessarily agree with. In this paragraph, the essay student wants to reject the view in sat essay, the topic - that young people#039;s selfishness is to blame for the declining birthrate. Notice how he does this in a careful way, by using expressions like:
Findings like this suggest that . It seems then that . Being careful about the way you express your claims is a distinctive feature of academic style. When you quote an author (like Chesnais here) you need to use quotation marks, and indicate the exact page number in the citation. Sometimes you may need to change the wording of the quote slightly so that it fits into your sentence. If you need to add/change any words, use [ ]; if you need to delete words, use . (Whilst it is OK to change the wording of a quote, you must never change its sense.) Use italics when you want to essay help in uk, emphasise a word. (When you do this in a quote, you need to indicate that it is your emphasis.) It#039;s OK to use dot points in an essay (or numbered points here), but use them very sparingly. Citation 4 Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses. Notice how in some citations the literature system project author can be part of the essay help sentence: Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses some of the things etc. This is known as an #039;author-prominent#039; citation and is very common in academic writing. Notice the use of reporting verbs in this citation type (discusses).
Use #039;inverted commas#039; for management system the title of an article. Use italics for the title of a book. Notice some of the other reporting expressions used in the student#039;s summary of Peter McDonald#039;s ideas: . what McDonald calls. . McDonald points to . . which he thinks. It#039;s very important to make it clear to your reader when one paragraph ends and a new one begins.
In this paragraph (#9), there is some potential for confusion. Notice how the student has used indenting to make this clear. Quotes of more than one sentence in length should be separated from the main text. Help In Uk? Notice how these are indented and are in a slightly smaller font. Again you should indicate the on hospital management project page number. You only have to provide a separate list of references when you use the author-date system. Entries should be set out in alphabetical order. Each entry should generally be set out in the following order and help, format: Author family name, Initial. (date). Sat Essay Technology? Title. Place: Publisher. It is becoming increasingly common for students to refer to sources from the world wide web in their essays.
In addition to providing author and title of site, you need to include: the URL for the site when you accessed the site. Although web references can be very useful, you obviously need to exercise some caution - there is a lot of essay in uk, junk around. Imagination Essay? Check all sites carefully to be sure the information provided has credibility (.edu and .org sites are generally the more reliable). Problems? Questions?
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Essay: The Federal Emergency Relief Administration. Mattress factory stuffing room workers. The economic collapse of 1929 known as the Great Depression caused widespread hardship throughout the United States. Essay. When President Franklin Roosevelt took office in January 1933, 15 million Americans were unemployed. Many had lost not only their jobs, but their also their savings and homes and cuhk thesis were dependent on relief money from the essay in uk, government to survive. Thesis Review. Businesses and banks had closed, production and sales of goods and essay in uk services had been severely reduced. Review. Most federal relief efforts had been mired for some time in help a quagmire of political and legislative wrangling. Literature Review On Hospital Management System. Little aid or direction had actually reached the state level. On May 22, 1933, the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) was inaugurated. The chief architect of this program was Harry Hopkins, the former president and help in uk executive director of the New York State Temporary Emergency Relief Administration and a man who had, by 1933, 20 years of experience in social work and welfare administration. He had worked with (then Governor) Franklin Roosevelt in New York, and the two became good friends, with Hopkins serving as Roosevelt's chief advisor and confidant throughout his administration.
Hopkins sprang into action less than a week after Roosevelt's inauguration, approaching Roosevelt's secretary of labor, Frances Perkins, with a plan for a program of federal relief. Impressed, Perkins agreed to take the literature review on hospital system, proposal to essay help Roosevelt, who quickly agreed to the plan. When Roosevelt appointed Hopkins as director of FERA, he called him to his office for met sine review, a five-minute talk. The president told the essay help in uk, Washington newcomer two things: give immediate and adequate relief to the unemployed, and pay no attention to politics or politicians. Hopkins did just that. Thirty minutes later, seated at review system a makeshift desk in a hallway . he began a program committed to essay in uk action rather than debate, a program that would eventually put 15 million people to work. Even more important, FERA established the doctrine that adequate public relief was a right that citizens in need could expect to received from their government. Sentence Research Paper. (J. Hopkins p. 309) FERA had three primary objectives: 1) Adequacy of relief measures; 2) providing work for in uk, employable people on the relief rolls; and 3) diversification of relief programs. FERA accepted as elementary that all needy persons and their dependents should receive sufficient relief to sentence research paper prevent physical suffering and to maintain a minimum standard of living. (Williams p. Help. 96) In a report to Congress in 1936, FERA indicated that while actual physical suffering was prevented, it was never fully possible to achieve living standards of minimum decency for cuhk thesis, the entire population in need of relief. It has been estimated that during this period of relief, roughly three-fourths of the heads of families on relief were employable.
They may not have been generally employable in private industry due to age, but they were considered employable by FERA. The FERA's goals for work relief included not only genuine work (as opposed to make work projects) but also work opportunities that were sufficiently diversified to give relief workers employment in line with their previous job experience. The working conditions and wages also had to be in essay help line with those found in the private sector. Brass band at Volunteer Park. The purpose of FERA was to work cooperatively with state government, providing federal grants for relief purposes. Grant applications required that states were to provide information on the amounts necessary to meet relief needs in the state and the amounts available from binding dissertation leeds public and help in uk private sources within the state to thesis sentence for a paper contribute toward those relief needs. States also were to essay help provide information on provisions made to assure adequate administrative supervision of the funds, the methods by technology which adequate relief levels would be assured, and the purposes for which the funds would be used. The provisions of the help, Federal Emergency Relief Act of cuhk thesis 1933 provided that authorization for help in uk, FERA would expire in two years from the sat essay technology, date of inception.
The most pressing problem for FERA at first was to build up adequate local relief organizations. Few of the help, existing state relief agencies had been in existence for more than 7 or 8 months at the time of creation of leeds FERA. Essay Help In Uk. Those state relief agencies that were deemed to be inadequate or flawed in some way had to be overhauled to meet the requirements of FERA. Most states had little experience with running genuine work relief programs and literature review management almost no experience in providing appropriate work for white-collar workers. Despite directives and orders issued in 1933, states and localities were not quick to essay cooperate by binding leeds accepting federal projects. Either through inertia or a desire to institute projects of purely local interest and benefit, state involvement in work relief programs were slow to start in 1933. Faced with continued high unemployment and concerns for public welfare during the coming winter of 1933-34, FERA institute the Civil Works Administration (CWA) as a short-term measure to get people to work. As the CWA program drew to a close in March 1934, it was replaced by help the Emergency Work Relief Program of FERA. This program continued and expanded many of the projects begun under the CWA.
The bulk of the work relief projects, were engineering and construction oriented. Other projects included sanitation improvements, repair or construction of public buildings, national park improvements, real property surveys, library projects, art and theater projects, and archeological excavations. The Washington Emergency Relief Administration (WERA) supervised numerous construction and repair projects in the state. In Seattle, it built the Montlake playfield field house and the Montlake Community Clubhouse, which has since acquired the name Tudor Building, after its architecture. The Sociological Imagination Essay. Other projects in Washington were of an essay help, agricultural nature. Among these were a rural electric survey of the state, research on binding dissertation, the development of new fruit by-products, research to determine the vitamin C content in Washington apples, a survey of essay in uk part-time farming, and research on the use of by-products of the fishing industry as feed for the poultry industry. (WSU MASC) Blacksmiths at work inside a forge shop. The Emergency Work Relief Program provided for three special classes of projects for white-collar workers: 1) Planning; 2) public health, welfare and recreation; 3) education, arts and research. . It had been estimated that there were about 560,000 white-collar workers between the ages of 16 and 64 on the relief rolls in March 1935, approximately 11 percent of all employable persons on relief rolls at this time. Federal encouragement of white-collar projects has been productive of more bitter criticism than any other single activity of the various federal relief agencies.Much of the criticism.has arisen from a misunderstanding of the peculiar problems which beset the imagination, relief agencies in essay help in uk attempting to meet adequately the met sine thesis, relief needs of those white-collar workers who were forced to help in uk apply for relief. During 1932 and 1933 a growing number of unemployed teachers applied for relief after their resources had become exhausted. Shortly after the FERA was initiated we attempted to do something for met sine, this group of needy teachers.
Obviously it was hardly enough to give them direct relief. With thousands of teachers out of work there were, at the same time, hundreds of thousands of men and women in need of educational facilities. We decided to put these unemployed teachers to work teaching those unemployed who wanted instruction. (H. Hopkins p. 113) In March 1935, at the peak of the in uk, emergency education program, more than 44,000 persons were employed and the number of pupils was slightly higher than 1,724,000. Each state could choose to develop or emphasize any or all of the following, depending on local conditions: 1) General adult education; 2) literary classes for adults; 3) vocational education; 4) vocational rehabilitation; and cuhk thesis 5) nursery schools for pre-school children from underprivileged homes. Another part of the emergency education program was the college student aid program.
It provided part-time employment for those college students who would otherwise have been unable to essay help continue their education. The projects for cuhk thesis, the students were planned and supervised in large part by the college authorities. Funds through the emergency education program were made available for student employment at Washington State University (WSU) in Pullman from 1934 to 1936. During part of this time period there were also funds available through the essay help, Civil Works Administration but these were primarily for public works projects. On Hospital Management System. The FERA funds at WSU were administered by a Central Faculty Committee made up of the Dean of Men, the Dean of Women, the Superintendent of the Central Correspondence Office and one faculty member. The Committee operated through the office of the Dean of Men. Food bank interior.
The requirements for the use of the funds were that they be used to employ not more that 10% of the help, total full time student population, of which 25% had to be students not previously enrolled. Binding. Although the FERA funds enabled many students to attend WSU who could not otherwise afford to, the program was terminated in essay in uk 1936 when this relief activity was transferred to the Works Progress Administration. Prior to FERA, few efforts were made to the sociological institute special projects for essay help, women. In October 1933, Hopkins appointed a director for review, the newly created Women's Division. FERA also ordered states to essay in uk appoint a qualified woman to head a women's division in each state agency. These agencies were to plan special projects that would benefit women and to exert pressure on other divisions of state relief agencies to insure that women had equal consideration for work opportunities for which they were qualified. Among the sat essay prompts technology, projects providing work for women were sewing room projects in essay which clothing, bedding, towels, etc., were fabricated for distribution to persons on relief rolls; food canning projects; nursing and teaching projects; and various research and statistical surveys. (Williams p. 132) Finally, there were three types of special programs within FERA, the Federal Surplus Relief Corporation, the Self-Help Cooperative Program, and the Transient Program. The Federal Surplus Relief Corporation had two main purposes. The Sociological Imagination Essay. First, it helped keep farmers above the destitution level by serving as an agency for removing price-depressing surplus commodities from the open market.
Secondly, it served as the agency through which these surplus commodities were made available to the state and local relief administrations for essay in uk, distribution to relief clients. At times, processing of the commodities was done by work divisions of the state relief agencies. The Self-Help Cooperative Program was a small part of FERA which had as its mission to help existing grassroots cooperatives produce goods for themselves and to facilitate the cuhk thesis, exchange or barter of other goods needed by the members of the cooperative but which could not be produced within this group. The program also helped groups that wished to start cooperatives. The need for a special program for transients soon became manifest. Localities have always regarded the indigent transient as an undesirable character and a drain upon local resources. During the depressing this age-old dislike was fanned by the fear that a non-resident who was seeking relief might at any moment take some job which 'properly' belonged to a local person. (Williams p. 147) New school roof construction. The Transient Division of FERA was established in in uk July 1933, volunteering to furnish all the necessary funds for a transient program in those states that drew up an approved plan for dealing with transients.
Local antagonism toward transients was so great, however, that despite the fact that no state and local funds were required, only binding dissertation leeds, a few states had applied for essay in uk, funds before September 1933. (Williams p. 148) It was not until late in December that 40 states and the District of Columbia were operating transient programs. Most states required a period of residence of one year to qualify for relief in for a research paper that state, and essay help FERA accepted this. FERA defined as a transient one who had lived less than the twelve preceding months in the state in which he was applying for aid. During the period of over two years that the program was in existence, transient relief bureaus existing in most large cities and along the main travel routes. The bureaus provided transients with food and shelter and, if possible, a job. At times, large transient camps were set up on the outskirts of cities. FERA and the Seattle Salvation Army collaborated in the operation of shelters for homeless men at sat essay two locations in essay Seattle: 213-1/2 Second Avenue South (the former United States Immigration Building) and at 117-1/2 Main Street. Because of Seattle's position as a gateway city to the Pacific and to Alaska, transients who visited the shelters came from all over review system, the United States and even from foreign nations. Because Federal Emergency Relief Act of 1933 mandated that FERA should end two years after its inception, a new program was needed to take its place.
The program put in place was called the Works Progress Administration (WPA), and it took over and improved the programs put in essay place by FERA. Literature Review On Hospital Management System. The WPA was created May 6, 1935, by authority of the Emergency Relief Appropriate Act of essay help 1935. Hopkins, Harry L. Spending to save: the complete story of relief. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1936. Hopkins, June. The road not taken: Harry Hopkins and New Deal Work Relief. Presidential Studies Quarterly 29, 2(306-316). Washington State University Libraries Special Collections web site. Sat Essay Prompts Technology. Accessed July 31, 2003. In Uk. http://www.wsulibs.wsu.edu/holland/masc/
Williams, Edward Ainsworth. Federal aid for relief. New York: Columbia University Press, 1939.