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Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Computer technology made its way into writing instruction and assessment with spelling and grammar checkers decades ago, but more recently it has done so with automated essay evaluation (AEE) and diagnostic feedback. Seafood? And although many programs and tools have been developed in the last decade, not enough research has been conducted to support or evaluate the claims of the developers. Biology? This study examined the effectiveness of love seafood, automated writing instructional programs in consistent scoring of essays and appropriate feedback to student writers. It examined the drowning experience essay, scoring and instructional program called MY Access! Home Edition , which has an error feedback tool called My Editor to address these issues. The study combined a quantitative study of agreement and correlational analyses with an analysis of content and topic. Participants included 114 English language learners who wrote 147 essays to three writing prompts, which were graded by seafood essay, trained EFL raters and MY Access . From the sample, 15 randomly selected essays were also used for an error analysis comparing My Editor with human annotations to examine My Editor ’s accuracy. The main findings were that MY Access scoring was only correlated moderately with human ratings. Furthermore, because MY Access scoring is limited to the recognition of questions, content words, not how these words are organized at the discourse level, it did not detect slightly off-topic essays and plagiarism. Finally, My Editor ’s error feedback, with 73% precision and 30% recall, did not meet the expectations of an accurate tool.
In conclusion, the home edition of MY Access was not found to be useful as an independent instructional tool. These findings give us pause regarding the seafood, effectiveness of MY Access . Computer technology is custom papers increasingly becoming part of love seafood, language learning and custom, writing, despite initial rejections and lingering skepticism over the last few decades (Dikli, 2006 Dikli, S. ( 2006 ). An overview of automated scoring of essays . The Journal of Technology, Learning, and love seafood, Assessment , 5(1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1640/1489 [Google Scholar] ; Xi, 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). In Paradise? It was first used in writing classes with spelling and grammar checkers, which eased worries about “minutiae (such as how to spell minutiae) while composing, or even when revising and polishing” (Calfee, 2000 Calfee, R. ( 2000 , September ). Love Essay? To grade or not to experience, grade . In M. A. Hearst (Ed.), The debate on automated essay grading ( pp. Essay? 35–37 ). IEEE Intelligent Systems, 15 , 22–37. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Educational Activities Department. Decisions In Paradise Part 1 Essay? [Google Scholar] , p. 35). Recently, it has taken on a bigger role in love seafood essay writing assessment in the form of automated evaluation of essays. This has attracted much attention from the assessment industry, writing instructors, and problem papers, other stakeholders in an ongoing debate about the value of automated essay scoring, now known as automated essay evaluation (AEE).
AEE applications include scoring engines with instructional programs in Criterion, MY Access , and WriteToLearn . Love Seafood? These programs, with their combination of automated scoring, automated feedback, and writing instruction tools, have gained ground at different educational levels in the United States. Since the essay, pioneering work on the Project Essay Grade by Ellis Page in 1965, many automated essay evaluation initiatives have emerged. These included ETS’ e-rater , Pearson’s Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA), Bayesian Essay Test Scoring System (BETSY), and Vantage Learning’s IntelliMetric . Love Seafood Essay? A review of AEE developmental and drowning essay, research histories shows a tilted playing field toward the assessment industry that has dominated the seafood, debate. As Warschauer and descriptive, Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. Love? , Ware, P. ( 2006 ). Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 – 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, the majority of essays, research validating different AEE systems is vendor funded and carried out to love seafood essay, “demonstrate that it [AES software] ‘works’ either in the sense that its ratings correlate with those of human ratings or that particular features or aspects function as desired” (p. 166). However, voices from the instructional side were first heard in Ericsson and Haswell’s book (2006) Machine Scoring of Student Essays: Truth and Consequences in which many writing instructors reported AEE failures in scoring essays satisfactorily. This study emerged from a similar concern: that AEE systems are not able to do a satisfactory job as writing instructors would expect. It examined this concern with a study of writing, MY Access , which uses Vantage Learning’s proprietary IntelliMetric scoring system.
We selected MY Access for seafood essay, analysis because it is a popular program in problem solution research the United States. Researchers have adopted different terminology to categorize AEE systems, depending on how they were developed. Brent and Townsend categorized ( 2006 Brent, E. , Townsend, M. ( 2006 ). Automated essay grading in the sociology classroom: Finding common ground . In P. F. Ericsson , R. Seafood? H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 177–198 ). Custom? Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) AEE systems as statistics-based and rule or knowledge-based approaches, whereas Ben-Simon and love seafood, Bennett ( 2007 Ben-Simon, B. , Bennett, R. E. ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. Biology Questions? The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6 (1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1631/1475 [Google Scholar] ) categorized them based on methods, namely, brute-empirical and hybrid methods. Statistics-based programs create scoring models based on a large set of pre-scored essays of love, 300 or more. This input is processed by the scoring system, such as IntelliMetric or e-rater , which extracts the predictive features from graduate papers texts that lead to the assigned ratings for essay, new essays. The primary focus in statistics-based programs remains on linguistic considerations, such as mechanics, syntax, and writing conventions. The extracted features (usually more than 50) are then boiled down to intern resume, 8–12 most dominant ones that are analyzed by using linear multiple regression equations to decide their best weightings in predicting the ratings for new essays.
The set of finalized predictive features varies from love seafood essay one scoring model to another. Until now, these models are prompt-based as the system is trained using different sets of graded essay responses to specific prompts. By this definition, ETS’ e-rater and Vantage Learning’s IntelliMetric are statistics-based because they extract features and essay, their optimal weightings using statistical calculations instead of building on theory and indicators of good writing. Therefore, IntelliMetric belongs to the brute-empirical method . Rule-based or knowledge-based systems are trained on love essay, a large domain-representative text, such as textbooks or articles. The input for drowning, these systems is an expert knowledge base that results in love seafood a grading rubric detailing the criteria to score constructed essay responses. IEA, a scoring machine for discipline-specific courses (now known as Knowledge Analysis Technologies), has at its core Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), a machine-learning method that characterizes a word used in a sentence, passage, or essay based on semantic associations (Landauer, Foltz, Laham, 1998 Landauer, T. K. , Foltz, P. W. , Laham, D. ( 1998 ). The intelligent essay assessor: Applications to educational technology. Interactive Multimedia Educational Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning, 1 (2). Retrieved from http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/1999/2/04/ [Google Scholar] ). LSA claims to be the only evaluation system in which meaning is dominant. Simply put, “it promises to help teachers and learners by evaluating essays based on what their authors appear to know about a topic” (McGee, 2006 McGee, T. General Questions? ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on the intelligent essay assessor . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp.
79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] , p. 83). Finally, IEA and the later versions of e-rater , with their smaller set of theoretically grounded features linked to seafood, good writing characteristics, are hybrid method- based systems. Hybrid methods start with a set of features that are judged by general biology essay, writing experts to be indicative of good writing skills. These features serve as the blueprint on which the scoring rubric of automated scoring systems is generated. Either a set of pre-scored essays or an love seafood essay, expert knowledge base is used to extract the optimal weightings for different features in the final scoring rubric. The combination between theoretically based features and statistical calculations to generate a scoring model leads to what is called “hybrid approaches.” Objections to computer-automated essay evaluation. Despite all the advances, objections to computer-automated essay evaluation have been formidable. There are two main objections: humanist and defensive objections. First, there is the problem solution papers, well-known objection from the Conference on College Composition and Communication ( 2004 Conference on love essay, College Composition and Communication. ( 2004 ). CCCC position statement on teaching, learning, and writing essays, assessing writing in digital environments . Retrieved from http://www.ncte.org.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/cccc/resources/positions/digitalenvironments [Google Scholar] ): “Because all writing is social, all writing should have human readers, regardless of the purpose of writing” (p.
36; cited in Carr, 2014 Carr, N. ( 2014 ). Computer-automated scoring of writing responses . Love Essay? In A. Intern? J. Kunnan (Ed.), The companion to love, language assessment ( pp. 1063–1078 ). Essay? Malden, MA : Wiley . [Google Scholar] ). Generally, various studies on AEE systems have responded to humanist objections, mainly challenging the validity of love essay, fairly strong relationships between human ratings and AEE ratings in several corporate-conducted studies. But the resume, correlations and love seafood essay, agreement studies have not always shown high indices. Legal Intern Resume? Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. Love Seafood? J. ( 2016 ). Graduate? Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of seafood essay, WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) reported that correlations between human ratings and automated scoring by three AEE systems are high: .79 to .87 for e-rater (Burstein et al ., 1998 Burstein, J. , Braden-Harder, L. , Chodorow, M. , Hua, S. , Kaplan, B. , Kukich, K. , … Wolff, S. ( 1998 ). Computer analysis of experience, essay content for automated score prediction (Research Report 98-15). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ), .93 (average) for Intellimetric (Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. Love Essay? ( 2006 ). Custom Graduate Papers? Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/docs/intellimetric/IM_ResearchSummary_IntelliMetric_Accuracy_Across_Genre_and_Grade_Levels.pdf [Google Scholar] ), and .76 to love seafood essay, .95 for IEA (Foltz, Lochbaum, Rosenstein, 2011 Foltz, P. W. , Lochbaum, K. E. , Rosenstein, M. R. Decisions? ( 2011 , April).
Analysis of love seafood essay, student ELA writing performance for a large scale implementation of formative assessment. Part 1 Essay? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . [Google Scholar] ). She also noted that exact agreement percentages are 45–59% for love seafood, e-rater and 76% for Intellimetric (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Drowning? Journal of Technology, Learning, and essay, Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ) and 50–81% for IEA (Foltz et al ., 2011 Foltz, P. W. , Lochbaum, K. E. , Rosenstein, M. R. ( 2011 , April). Analysis of student ELA writing performance for a large scale implementation of formative assessment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . Decisions In Paradise? [Google Scholar] ) but for love, adjacent agreements the percentages are very high: 87–97% for e-rater , 99% for Intellimetric , and 91–100% for IEA (from the same authors). Furthermore, it is widely known that high reliability or agreement does not equal validity. Landauer, Laham, and Foltz ( 2003 Landauer, T. K. , Laham, D. , Foltz, P. ( 2003 ). Automated essay assessment . Assessment in Education , 10, 295 – 308 . doi: 10.1080/0969594032000148154 [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) commented on this problem, “The fact that all these disparate methods [human judges and automated essay scoring] produce similar results at least raises the suspicion that one could get acceptable reliability results with the use of variables that are not conceptually valid [emphasis added]” (p.
305–306). As Koskey and Shermis ( 2013 Koskey, K. L. K. , Shermis, M. General Essay Questions? D. ( 2013 ). Scaling and norming for automated essay scoring . In M. D. Shermis , J. Love? Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation: Current applications and new directions ( pp. 199–220 ). New York, NY : Routledge . General Biology Questions? [Google Scholar] ) pointed out, the scoring of essays by automated essay evaluation is based on mainly quantitatively assessing the observed variables in essays. These variables are often referred to as “proxies” as opposed to seafood essay, “trins,” which are the latent and real underlying variables that we are interested in measuring. They cited a system that claims to writing, count the number of love, times “but” is used in an essay as a proxy for sentence complexity. Moreover, because developers usually publicize scoring rubrics but choose to drowning experience essay, keep the weightings of these variables confidential, Coniam ( 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on love seafood essay, ESL student writing scripts . Problem Solution Research? ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) commented in his study with BETSY that “despite high correlations with a human rater, computer programs still lack transparency in seafood essay terms of how they achieve the grades they award. This creates a validity problem as we do not know how ratings are achieved” (p. General Biology Questions? 276). Second, defensive objections are more problematic.
McGee’s ( 2006 McGee, T. ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on the intelligent essay assessor . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and love seafood, consequences ( pp. 79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) experiments challenged all the experience, claims about IEA. He found the “meaning” implicated by love essay, IEA to totally disregard cohesion and coherence, which are of great importance to the meaning construction of decisions 1 essay, any text. Such findings make sense, because the most well-known approach to assign ratings to essays in AEE systems is the love, regression approach to predict the quality of an essay. Experience Essay? However, the seafood essay, scoring of essays, content always poses a bigger challenge for these systems than other observed variables, such as the number of commas, the number of sentences, or the use of verb/noun agreement. Seafood Essay? Thus, to evaluate the general biology essay questions, content of an essay, AEE systems use an additional technique, such as those used by LSA to supplement their prediction weightings of this variable. They base their evaluation of content on an analysis of keywords and synonyms or sets of keywords and synonyms in essay an essay and compare their Euclidean distance to the words on a master list.
On the basis of such an approach, the appropriacy of the factual content in an esssay is measured in essay terms of its similarity of essay, lexical choices to a corpus at decisions 1 essay, the expense of coherence and cohesion. The “meaningful factual content” carried by the AEE system is, therefore, independent of seafood, any factual accuracy. As a result, a “bad faith essay” can easily trick the system into drowning experience essay assigning a high score for love, a mechanically written essay. Such findings have resulted in resistance from writing instructors. The recent Handbook of automated essay evaluation (Shermis Burstein, 2013 Shermis, M. D. , Burstein, J. (Eds.). ( 2013 ). Handbook of automated essay evaluation . Problem Solution Research Papers? New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) showed the recent advances and continuing evolution in recent years and its awareness of the objections presented above.
A few of the questions they raised were: “Can systems be gamed? Does the use of AEE foster limited signaling effects by encouraging attention only to formal aspects of writing, excluding richer aspects of the writing construct? Does AEE subvert the essay, writing act fundamentally by depriving the student of a true ‘audience’?” (p. 2). In the last 45-year period of AEE systems, validation research of automated scoring has provided many findings. Yang, Buckendahl, Juszkiewicz, and intern resume, Bhola ( 2002 Yang, Y. , Buckendahl, C. W. Essay? , Juszkiewicz, P. J. , Bhola, D. S. ( 2002 ). Problem? A review of strategies for validating computer-automated scoring . Applied Measurement in Education , 15, 391 – 412 . doi: 10.1207/S15324818AME1504_04 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) identified three broad approaches. Essay? First, much of the research on automated scoring systems has been devoted to demonstrating correlations or agreements between automated ratings and human ratings. Graduate Papers? The second group of essay, studies has investigated the relationship between AEE ratings and in paradise, external indicators, such as teachers’ judgments of student writing skills or other test results (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Seafood Essay? Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2007 Vantage Learning. ( 2007 ). MY access!® efficacy report . New Hope, PA: Vantage Learning.
Retrieved from legal intern http://www.vantagelearning.com/school/research/myaccess.html [Google Scholar] ; Weigle, 2002 Weigle, S. C. ( 2002 ). Assessing writing . Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ). External factors that have been researched include multiple-choice tests, grades in courses dependent on writing, teachers’ ratings of student writing skills, and students’ self-evaluations (Ben-Simon Bennett, 2007 Ben-Simon, B. , Bennett, R. Seafood Essay? E. ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6 (1). Legal Intern? Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1631/1475 [Google Scholar] ). The third approach has explored the scoring process and mental models used by AEE systems. For example, one concern about AEE scoring is the weighting of essay, length as a scoring trait because length was found to be a highly predictive feature in e-rater (Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. , Burstein, J. ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-rater®’s performance on TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ). In Jones’s ( 2006 Jones, E. ( 2006 ). ACCUPLACER’s essay-scoring technology: When reliability does not equal validity . Custom? In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) study scored by WritePlacer Plus , ACCUPLACER’s program using IntelliMetric as its automated scoring system, 85% of the love, variance in essay ratings was accounted for problem solution research, by length. 1 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. The winner’s technique was simply to write a paragraph and repeat it 37 times. E-rater gave this essay the highest possible score of 6 while two human raters both scored it “1,” creating the maximum discrepancy of five points between automated and human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. E. , Burstein, J. Seafood? C. , Chodorow, M. , Fowles, M. E. Writing Descriptive Essays? , Kukich, K. ( 2002 ). Love Seafood? Stumping e-rater : Challenging the validity of automated essay scoring . Computers in Human Behavior , 18, 103 – 134 . doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of in paradise part 1 essay, Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). View all notes. Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading?
Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to automated scoring, in the same way questions are asked in a validity argument (as proposed by Chapelle, Enright, Jamieson, 2008 Chapelle, C. , Enright, M. , Jamieson, J. (Eds.). ( 2008 ). Building a validity argument for TOEFL . New York : Routledge/Taylor and Francis Group . [Google Scholar] ). These questions included underrepresentation or misrepresentation of constructs and writing tasks, validity and consistency of scoring, and whether test takers’ knowledge of the love, scoring algorithms would impact their writing. AEE systems and non-native student writers of English. Particularly relevant to this study is the performance of automated scoring systems on non-native (ESL and EFL) student essay responses. However, this dimension of AEE systems has received little attention (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Writing? Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Instead of building systems to love, directly target non-native English speaker responses, models for native speaker essays have been used for comparisons with non-native counterparts. As Warschauer and Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. , Ware, P. ( 2006 ). Automated writing evaluation: Defining the custom, classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 – 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, none of the love seafood essay, AEE systems were originally built for writing descriptive essays, the EFL/ESL population, but their development gradually has accommodated the needs of this population. This is demonstrated in the various feedback options, including first language feedback now available for speakers of Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean in MY Access . Yet questions still remain whether these accommodations, well intentioned as they are, really help EFL/ESL students improve their writing skills. Weigle ( 2013 Weigle, S. ( 2013 ). English as a second language writing and automated essay evaluation . In M. D. Love Essay? Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of graduate, automated essay evaluation ( pp. 36–54 ). New York, NY : Routledge . Love? [Google Scholar] ) also pointed out the need for descriptive essays, “the applicability of automated essay scoring (AES) systems to love seafood essay, non-native speakers (NNSs)” (p.
36). Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . Intern? [Google Scholar] ) found that WriteToLearn with Chinese undergraduate study participants was consistent but highly severe compared to the four trained human raters in scoring essays but, more importantly, it failed to score seven essays. EFL teachers and independent researchers’ studies. A number of EFL researchers have recently reported results of their student writers’ reaction to MY Access and its instructional applications, including My Editor, MY Access ’ text analyzer and proofreading tool, and My Tutor , the seafood, writing instructional tool generating feedback. In Chen and descriptive essays, Cheng’s ( 2006 Chen, C. E. , Cheng, W. ( 2006 , May ). The use of computer-based writing program: Facilitation or frustration? Paper presented at the 23rd International Conference on love seafood, English Teaching and Learning , Republic of China . Essays? [Google Scholar] ) investigation of 68 students who reflected on their use of MY Access in their writing classes, students expressed concerns about love, two aspects: the unfairness of MY Access ’ grading and its inability to decisions in paradise part, judge the content of essays. In addition, after the initial excitement, students started to seafood, feel the repetition and problem solution, generality of the diagnostic feedback that they felt was not personalized enough to be useful for essay revision.
Fang’s ( 2010 Fang, Y. Love Essay? ( 2010 ). Writing Descriptive Essays? Perceptions of the computer-assisted writing program among EFL college learners . Educational Technology Society , 13, 246 – 256 . Essay? [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) study focused on biology essay, student perceptions about using different tools on MY Access among 45 junior college students. The students found MY Access a useful writing tool, especially its grammatical proofreading tool, My Editor , but they were not totally happy with its essay scoring system. Students also thought MY Access helped them more with locating and love essay, revising form than content. Such results were reinforced by Dikli’s ( 2010 Dikli, S. Experience? ( 2010 ). The nature of automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 – 134 . doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) investigation into the nature of My Editor and My Tutor ’s feedback to ESL student essays. This study found significant differences between MY Access and love essay, written teacher feedback as well as students’ more positive response to the latter.
The cutting edge work of AEE systems may yet be in providing diagnostic feedback to writers. Some error detection programs have been making improvements over the last few decades to improve their specificity together with precision. Leacock and Chodorow ( 2003 Leacock, C. , Chodorow, M. General Biology Essay Questions? ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . Seafood Essay? In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp. 195–208 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . [Google Scholar] ) argued that the value of error diagnosis depends on how specific and problem solution papers, informative it is. They take the love, position that generic responses, such as “something is wrong here,” are inferior to custom, specific comments, such as “this is a subject-verb agreement error.” With the latter kind of feedback, students are provided more cues to improve their writing. Assessment of love, Lexical Knowledge is reported to achieve a precision level of 80% in experience pointing out errors. This still means that 20% errors flagged are actually well-formed constructions (Leacock Chodorow, 2003 Leacock, C. , Chodorow, M. ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp.
195–208 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . Essay? [Google Scholar] ). Their study also showed that the four most predictive error types for custom, student essays are agreement, ill-formed modals, ill-formed infinitive clauses, and love seafood essay, ill-formed participles. MY Access has an error feedback tool called My Editor . It detects spelling, grammar, and punctuations errors. It also diagnoses vocabulary choice and sentential-level errors. As students click on My Editor when they work on their drafts or revise an already submitted essay, a computer screen shows the students their essays with errors. Automated feedback can thus be used as an initial response to student writing. The possible quick generation of feedback to student essays also is better than the notoriously time-consuming nature of custom papers, writing instructors giving feedback, especially in love large classes. Of course, the expectation is that diagnostic feedback will help student writers, although the written error feedback literature poses some concerns. Research in the area of written corrective feedback (WCF) has not been conclusive in what extent student writers benefit from decisions in paradise part WCF or even whether they benefit at all (see Ferris, 1999 Ferris, D. ( 1999 ). The case for grammar correction in L2 writing classes: A response to love, Truscott (1996) . Legal Resume? Journal of Second Language Writing , 8, 1 – 11 . doi: 10.1016/S1060-3743(99)80110-6 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] , 2004 Ferris, D. ( 2004 ). The “grammar correction” debate in L2 writing: Where are we, and where do we go from essay here? (and what do we do in the meantime…?) . Decisions Part 1 Essay? Journal of Second Language Writing , 13, 49 – 62 . Seafood? doi: 10.1016/j.jslw.2004.04.005 [Crossref], [Web of decisions part 1 essay, Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , 2006 Ferris, D. ( 2006 ). Does error feedback help student writers? New evidence on the short- and long-term effects of written error correction . In K. Hyland , F. Hyland (Eds.), Feedback in second language writing: Contexts and love, issues ( pp. 81–104 ). Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ; Shintani, Ellis, Suzuki, 2014 Shintani, N. , Ellis, R. , Suzuki, W. Biology Essay Questions? ( 2014 ). Love? Effects of written feedback and biology, revision on learners’ accuracy in using two English grammatical structures . Language Learning , 64, 103 – 131 . doi: 10.1111/lang.2014.64.issue-1 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Essay? The picture is further complicated because most automated error feedback is in English, with a very limited range of part 1 essay, first language options. This is in line with Dikli’s ( 2010 Dikli, S. ( 2010 ). The nature of automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 – 134 . Love Essay? doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) findings in drowning experience her study, which suggested that systems need to improve their feedback to non-native essays by love seafood essay, giving shorter and less redundant feedback using simpler language and adding feedback for intern, off-topic or repetitive essays.
Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. Essay? ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and general biology, feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to seafood, automated feedback: whether automated feedback system accurately identifies writers’ errors, whether it can do this consistently, and whether the feedback is drowning meaningful, and whether the seafood essay, feedback results in resume improved writing. Liu and seafood, Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. General Biology Essay Questions? , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of seafood essay, automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of intern resume, WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . Essay? [Google Scholar] ) found in their examination of WriteToLearn’s feedback, overall precision and recall of errors were only 49% and 18.7% respectively. These figures did not meet the minimum threshold of 90% precision (set by Burstein, Chodorow, Leacock, 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. Papers? ( 2003 ). Essay? Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ) for it to general biology essay, be considered a reliable error detecting tool. Seafood? Furthermore, it had difficulty in identifying errors in the use of articles, prepositions, word choice, and expression. On the basis of the issues raised in automated scoring and diagnostic feedback, we decided to examine the following research questions. What do the agreement and strength of the relationship between human ratings and MY Access ’ scores reveal about MY Access ’ rating? How does MY Access address content as a scoring trait? How does it treat off-topic essays? How accurate is My Editor ’s feedback when compared to that of writing instructors? Data were collected from a total of drowning essay, 114 EFL and ESL student writers.
The participants contributed 147 essays from three prompts, 105 essays based on two prompts from the list of 90 preloaded prompts on MY Access! Home Edition and love seafood, 42 essays based on one end-of-term essay prompt that was not a pre-loaded prompt. The sample included 97 Vietnamese EFL students and 17 ESL students in drowning experience essay the United States. The Vietnamese EFL students were either second- or third-year English majors at a university in central Vietnam pursuing a 4-year BA program. The 17 ESL students were level four and five (intermediate to love seafood, advanced) students in an Intensive English Program (IEP) at in paradise part, a State University in California. The large majority of essay, these ESL students were Asian, with Chinese as the legal intern, biggest group. Three prompts were used in all. Two prompts from MY Access were selected from a list of 90 pre-loaded prompts based on their genres: one informative and one argumentative. Prompt 1 was titled What have you learned?
Prompt 2 was titled Internet classrooms vs. Traditional classrooms . The third writing prompt was not on the list of 90 pre-loaded topics on MY Access . It was an end-of-term exam prompt administered at the university in Vietnam. Prompt 3 was titled Milestones . Prompts 1 and 2 as they appeared on MY Access are presented in Appendix A and Prompt 3 is presented in Appendix B. Experimental prompts used by the researcher. A total of love essay, 42 end-of-term exam essays were submitted to three different MY Access prompts, two of which were pre-loaded topics on MY Access (one persuasive “Challenges of Parenthood” and one informative “Power sources in questions the Year 2050”) serving as “false” prompts for love seafood, these essays, and legal intern resume, the other was the teacher-created prompt (the real topic). Seafood Essay? The researcher used the teacher-created topic function on MY Access to add the following end-of-term exam prompt: “What are the important milestones in descriptive essays a person’s life in your culture? Give the reasons why they are important.” These essays submitted to this newly created prompt in the system produced a set of 42 scores.
Afterward, these essays were submitted to the two false prompts, called the first and second experimental prompts. These experimental prompts and love essay, the teacher-created topic are presented in Appendix B. The two essay prompts from MY Access were administered as either homework practice or in-class essays, depending on legal intern resume, the genres each class was working on in their curriculum and seafood essay, their class schedules. Resume? More specifically, the homework essays were keyed in by the student writers and sent to the teachers in the Word file, which were then forwarded to the researcher. Love Essay? The in-class essays were handwritten and submitted to the teachers. Afterward, these essays were typed up and in paradise part 1 essay, double-checked for fidelity to the original handwritten versions. The third group of essays written to the teacher-created prompt included student essays written in a 90-minute exam for the previous semester.
The variation in essay writing conditions among the participants does not interfere with the results of the study because MY Access is designed to facilitate self-conducted writing practice, and timing or the resources students get access to while writing are all acceptable, as long as the final essays are typed in and submitted online to the system. The scoring of the seafood essay, 105 essays written to the two prompts from MY Access was based on a holistic rubric posted on MY Access website (see Appendix C). The rubric used was a 1–6 scoring scale with five major traits of writing: Focus and Meaning, Content and Development, Organization, Language Use and Style, Mechanics and Conventions. Solution Research? Corresponding to each score point was a brief description of each trait. For example, to love, achieve a “6,” an essay establishes and maintains “an insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and audience [in terms of Focus and graduate papers, Meaning]” or “contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics [in terms of Mechanics and Conventions].” On the love essay, other hand, “1” indicated an biology questions, essay that inadequately communicated the writer’s message and failed to support ideas with details and/or examples (in Content and Development). After the love seafood, essays were put together, coded, and printed out, they were sent to two human raters for scoring.
The raters were both non-native EFL instructors with MA degrees in TESOL with about 5 years of teaching experience at the tertiary level in Vietnam. Prior to the actual scoring, the raters worked together to clarify the guidelines of the holistic scoring rubric posted on MY Access . They also went through some essays that had been rated by drowning essay, MY Access to get an overview of how Intellimetric rated these essays based on the set of criteria in the rubric. After that, the essay, raters piloted their ratings on a small set of general essay, four essays and analyzed the differences in their ratings to resolve any problems regarding their interpretation of the rubric. The scoring rubrics were examined to see if there were high agreements between human ratings and MY Access ratings. Double ratings from two trained EFL teachers were obtained and averaged for the set of essays written to seafood essay, the two prompts on MY Access . An inter-rater agreement analysis (exact, adjacent, and discrepant) and correlation analyses were conducted. In addition, the effects of prompts and raters on ratings and the effect of essay length on ratings were examined by using ANOVA. Forty-two essays written for the end-of-term exam were collected. Because these essays were written to a topic other than the 90 ones pre-loaded on descriptive, MY Access , they provided a tool to reveal the way IntelliMetric deals with content in essay assigning ratings. Pearson correlations were calculated between the essay, ratings these essays received when they were submitted to the real topic (using the essay, teacher-created function on MY Access ) and the ratings MY Access generated as these same essays were submitted to the two experimental (or false) topics on essays, the system. In addition, with the love essay, help of the corpus-based vocabulary tool Compleat Lexical Tutor (Lextutor at http://www.lextutor.ca/), which uses the one-million-word Brown corpus, quantitative statistics were generated for word frequencies and keywords used in the texts created from the essays. This analysis provided clues regarding how MY Access dealt with off-topic essays by examining data from the content analysis of the writing, 42 end-of-term essays.
Two theoretical concepts termed precision and recall were examined for seafood, this question. Specifically, precision is the number of cases in which My Editor and the human annotator agree are errors divided by the total number of cases that My Editor flags as errors (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. Intern? , Leacock, C. Love Seafood Essay? ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the legal intern, 15th Annual Conference on seafood, Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). Recall is the number of cases correctly identified by My Editor (the hits) divided by the total human annotator-flagged cases. That is, the drowning essay, number of My Editor ’s hits divided by love essay, the total of hits and misses (i.e., cases identified by the human annotator but overlooked by drowning experience, My Editor ). In this analysis, 15 essays were randomly selected from the sample. The first EFL teacher annotated errors using the same system of error tags adopted by My Editor . Error tagging was based on seafood essay, four major trait feedback categories: grammar, usage, mechanics, and style.
Only the first three traits were focused on. The trait of style was intentionally left out of custom graduate papers, this analysis because it constitutes an love essay, ambiguous aspect of writing (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. Essays? , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for love essay, automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). For the papers, purpose of this basically quantitative analysis, judgments about love, good or bad writing style may be too subjective to be suitable. Errors identified were tallied for the calculation of precision and recall . Before the actual coding of legal intern, errors took place, the human annotator underwent a self-training process to familiarize herself with MY Access ’ error tagging system. She submitted 10 essays from the collected data (other than the 15 essays in the subsample) to MY Access to have a thorough look at the feedback generated by My Editor . Through this, a list of error tags were noted down, including 16 categories: spelling, capitalisation, article, preposition, run-on sentence, fragment, consistency, contraction, punctuation, subject-verb agreement, word form, mass and count nouns, wrong word choice, confused word, comparative, and superlative. The actual error annotation was done with constant reference to love, reliable sources of grammar and English language use, some of which include Raymond Murphy’s ( 1994 Murphy, R. ( 1994 ). Solution Research? English grammar in use: A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate students ( 2nd ed .). Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Google Scholar] ) English Grammar in Use , Michael Swan’s ( 2005 Swan, M. ( 2005 ). Practical English usage ( 3rd ed .).
Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press [Google Scholar] ) Practical English Usage , and John Eastwood’s ( 1999 Eastwood, J. ( 1999 ). Oxford practice grammar ( 2nd ed .). Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press . [Google Scholar] ) Oxford Practice Grammar . Research question 1: MY Access ’s rubrics for scoring essays. Descriptive statistics of human ratings and MY Access ratings. Descriptive statistics for the three sets of ratings by human Ratings 1 and 2 and MY Access are shown in Table 1. The results show very similar mean ratings from the two human raters, while MY Access appears to essay, be more generous. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of solution research, MY Access. Table 1. Love? Descriptives ( N = 105). In general, ratings from the two human raters, their averaged ratings, and MY Access ratings met the necessary assumptions regarding normal distribution, linearity, and range on the 1–6 scale. Therefore, correlations, ANOVA, and simple linear regression could be calculated. Table 2 reports the problem research papers, exact and adjacent agreement percentages (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from love essay http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. Drowning? , Burstein, J. ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-rater®’s performance on TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73).
Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ) between the love essay, two human ratings and between the averaged human ratings with MY Access ratings. Intern Resume? Generally, there was better agreement between the two human ratings than their agreement with MY Access . An exact plus adjacent agreement statistic of 71.4% and a disparate statistic of 28.6 % between human and MY Access scoring are not very convincing results. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 2. Human inter-rater and rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Correlations between human ratings and MY Access’s scoring. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between the two human ratings and between the human ratings and MY Access ratings. Table 3 shows a fairly strong correlation between Human Rater 1 and love, Rater 2 ( r = .783, p .05), but the correlations between Human Rater 1 and MY Access ( r = .672, p .05) and biology, Human Rater 2 and MY Access ( r = .629, p .05) were both moderate. Furthermore, correlation between Averaged human Rater 1 and seafood, Rater 2 ratings and MY Access ’ ratings was also moderate ( r = .688, p .05). Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 3. Correlations between two human ratings and descriptive, MY Access ratings.
Difference between human ratings’ average and MY Access ratings. A paired-samples t- test was computed to compare the means of human ratings’ average and MY Access ratings. Love? The mean of the averaged human ratings’ was 3.76 (SD = 1.18), and the mean of MY Access ratings was 4.09 (SD = 1.19). The t -test showed that there is a statistically significant mean difference between the problem solution research, human ratings and MY Access : ( t (104) = ?3.538, p .05). The effects of seafood essay, prompts and raters on ratings. A 2 ? 3 mixed-design ANOVA was calculated to examine the effects of the prompts (Prompt 1 and Prompt 2) and ratings (Rater 1, Rater 2, and MY Access ) on ratings. The dependent variables (Rater 1, Rater 2, and custom graduate papers, MY Access ratings) in the ANOVA test met the assumptions of being normally distributed and measured on an interval scale.
The main effect for rater ( F (2,103) = 7.516, p .01) and the main effect for prompt ( F (1,103) = 18.912, p .01) were statistically significant but the prompt x rater interaction ( F (2,206) = 1.259, p .01) was not significant. Essay length as a predictive feature. A simple linear regression was calculated predicting essay ratings assigned by both human raters and MY Access based on essay length (i.e., the number of words in each essay). A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 118.002, p .05) with an seafood, R 2 of .534. The predicted score of an essay (assigned by the human raters) is equal to 1.302 + .008 (length) points when length is measured in number of words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for each extra word. A simple linear regression was then calculated predicting MY Access ratings based on essay length. A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 116.719, p .05), with an R 2 of .531. The predicted score of an essay (assigned by MY Access ) is equal to 1.610 + .008 (length) points when length is measured in number of words. Custom Graduate? Essay ratings increased .008 point for each extra word. As can be seen in the results above, about 53% of the variance in seafood both the averaged human ratings and MY Access ratings could be accounted for writing essays, by essay length.
Therefore, length was found to be an love, equally strong predictor of the questions, ratings assigned by both MY Access and the human raters. Research question 2: Content in MY Access ’s scoring models. Descriptive statistics of the three sets of ratings submitted to love, three MY Access prompts. As shown in legal Table 4, the mean score of the 42 essays was highest when they were submitted to the teacher-created prompt. Love Seafood Essay? This set of score is termed the real score, followed by the mean score as the same essays were submitted to the first experimental prompt, then to papers, the second experimental prompt. Informed by essay, prior research on other automated scoring programs and a strong feeling that essays written to teacher-created topics on MY Access cannot be “comprehended” by the system, the researcher played a trick to confirm her doubts. Forty-two essays were submitted to three different prompts in MY Access and the results are presented here. Experimental topic 1: Challenges of legal intern, parenthood.
When the essays answering the teacher-created topic on “Important milestones in your culture” were submitted to love seafood essay, the first experimental prompt “The challenges of (teenage) parenthood,” only drowning essay, 11 essays (26%) were flagged as off-topic while 27 received the feedback “great job”; the remaining four were given “1 s” due to “major syntax problems” (“great job” and “major syntax probems” are generic diagnostic feedback phrases used by seafood, MY Access to describe essays earning high overall score and legal resume, those having poor grammar use, respectively). When the two prompts were compared, the real topic and seafood, the first experimental one, there was possible overlapping content in student essay responses. Graduate Papers? An examination of the seafood essay, 42 essays showed that 24 essays mentioned “becoming a parent” or at least “becoming a parent after getting married” as one of the descriptive, most important milestones in their culture. Furthermore, most of the essays frequently referred to words like grandparents, parents, adulthood/adult, married , and teenage/teenager . Below is the list of word frequency derived from the essay, submission of all the essays (making a 15580-word text) to the corpus-based Compleat Lexical Tutor ( Lextutor ) that counts words in texts and lists their keywords based on the obtained word frequencies. Writing Essays? It then compares these keywords, which are the words in the texts that are far more frequent, proportionally, than they are in a general reference corpus. Lextutor uses the Brown corpus, whose one million words comprise 500 texts of 2000 words on a broad range of love essay, topics. Figure 2 lists the 30 most frequent words for this 15580-word text, with those most likely to appear frequently in essays written to the first experimental prompt in bold.
To interpret the number preceding each word listed in legal Figure 1 and 2, it is essay instructive to consider the graduate, explanation cited from seafood essay Lextutor : The number accompanying each word represents the descriptive, number of times more frequent the word is in your text than it is in the Brown corpus. Love? For example, the biology essay, first item in the output 1364.00 milestone is essay calculated on the basis that milestone has 4 natural occurrences in the Brown’s 1 million words, but 85 occurrences in drowning experience essay your 15580-word text. These 85 occurrences are proportionally a lot more than the 4 occurrences in the Brown. Taken as a proportion of 1,000,000 words, these 85 occurrences represent 85/15580 ? 1,000,000 = 5456 virtual occurrences. Love Seafood? These 5456 occurrences are 1364.00 times more numerous than the 4 occurrences in Brown. [www.lextutor.ca/keywords/freak.pl] Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Figure 1. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 42 essays. Figure 1. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 42 essays. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of legal intern resume, MY Access.
Figure 2. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 11 off-topic essays. Figure 2. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 11 off-topic essays. Judging from the love, corpus comparison and the possible overlapping content areas between these two prompts, MY Access ’s failure to recognize the off-topicness of problem papers, 31 of the 42 essays seems predictable. The 11 essays flagged as off-topic were then put together in a subtext of 3,969 words and submitted to Lextutor for the frequency list. Again, the 30 most frequent words in this subtext are shown in love essay Figure 2. What can be seen from the in paradise part, comparison of the two lists is that words more relevant to seafood, the expected content area of becoming parents during the teenage years have disappeared, including babies, grandparents, spouse, parents, eighteen , and legal intern resume, happiness . Table 5 presents a few of the mismatches between human ratings and love seafood, MY Access ratings for off-topic essays. The ratings assigned by MY Access are much higher for all off-topic essays.
Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 4. Custom Graduate? Descriptives of ratings for same submissions to three MY Access prompts ( N = 42). Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. Experimental topic 2: Power sources in the year 2050. When the same set of essays was submitted to the second experimental prompt about “Power sources in the Year 2050,” a totally irrelevant focus compared to the real topic, 40 essays were flagged as “off-topic”; only two received 1 s due to essay, “major syntax problems.” In contrast, none of the submissions to the teacher-created (real) topic “Important milestones in your culture” was flagged as “off-topic,” with 36 receiving “great job,” and six given 1 s due to “major syntax problems.” My Editor ’s error feedback: Accuracy. Table 6 presents precision and recall measures of the human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access.
Table 6. Human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback results. In this subsample of problem solution research, 15 essays, students made far more mistakes with articles (124 errors) than with any other error type. Essay? Punctuations and run-on sentences were next on the list. Graduate Papers? Subject-verb agreement was the fourth problematic area that needed attention. Essay? The number of the errors found in each of the other types ranged from 0 to problem solution, 36. Of the total number of errors in each error type identified by the human annotator, My Editor demonstrated quite an uneven performance.
My Editor was most precise in its identification of open or closed spelling errors, although in this subsample, it corrected only love, two cases ( part time to part-time and everyday to every day ), both of which matched the human annotator. However, the system also missed a lot of open/closed spelling cases that needed corrections with the descriptive essays, recall of only 28.6%, which means it missed 71.4% of the total human-flagged cases. My Editor also did well with article errors, with the seafood essay, precision of 96.9%. However, similar to open/closed spelling errors, the system missed 75% errors of this type the human annotator identified. Capitalization and intern, run-on sentences were the two error types that showed a similar pattern in My Editor ’s performance: a precision of love essay, around 80% accompanied by the missing level of about 50% of all the biology, cases flagged by the human annotator. Spelling and consistency, which combined the two subtypes of love seafood, verb group consistency and part 1 essay, noun phrase consistency errors, exhibited the smallest number of seafood, cases overlooked by My Editor with recall values of drowning, 76.9 and 70.2, respectively. Of all the cases tagged by My Editor in these two types, around 80% were precise diagnoses.
In addition, My Editor failed to love essay, read the experience essay, essays at the sentence and discourse level. It was least precise with its diagnosis of confused words errors with precision of only love seafood, 28.6% and recall of 11.1%. This means that of all errors in this category flagged by descriptive essays, My Editor , only 28.6% were really errors; the rest were false positives. It also missed almost 89% cases of this type compared to the human annotator. Overall, My Editor was 73% precise in flagging errors of the 16 error types designated for seafood, this analysis and covered 39.6% of all the general biology, errors the love seafood, human annotator flagged.
In other words, it missed 60.4% errors that should be attended to according to the human judgment. Biology Essay Questions? Researchers on error feedback tools maintain that they would choose to err on the side of love seafood, precision over recall (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Experience? Proceedings of the seafood essay, 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow, Gamon, Tetreault, 2010 Chodorow, M. , Gamon, M. , Tetreault, J. ( 2010 ). Custom Papers? The utility of love essay, article and problem research papers, preposition error correction systems for English language learners: Feedback and assessment . Language Testing , 27, 419 – 436 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364391 [Crossref], [Web of love, Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), which “means that we [they] would rather miss an error than tell the student that a well-formed construction is ill-formed” (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] , p. 6). In studying Criterion , Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for in paradise part, automated evaluation of seafood, student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ) set the minimum threshold of 90% precision for drowning experience, the tool to be useful for students. If My Editor is judged by these criteria, it falls short. My Editor ’s feedback offers suggestions for possible errors rather than dictating corrections to the writers.
Students can click on love, any error tagged by My Editor , and a smaller screen pops up to explain the drowning experience, problem. After the brief diagnosis, there are some suggestions that students can choose from. The screen also demonstrates the seafood, rule that explains more generally how My Editor identifies and deals with that error type (e.g., spelling, preposition, etc.). Descriptive? General examples and ways to correct the errors in the examples are also provided. With this diagnosis-suggestions-example-rule approach, students can learn to judge for themselves if they have really made a mistake and choose among the given correction options.
However, certain gaps in seafood MY Editor ’s feedback can be addressed to better accommodate the ESL/EFL learners’ needs. What was noticeable about My Editor ’s feedback about noun phrase consistency was its double flagging of the same errors: It is sure that there are many Mass vs. count errors conflict Noun phrase consistency errors. The word conflict in the above sentence should agree in number with its plural determiner many . Therefore, labeling it as noun phrase consistency (implying inconsistent number agreement) is the best way to draw the student’s attention to essay, his/her mistake. Seafood? However, the first label mass vs. count errors on the same word suggesting “if the sentence requires a singular noun, consider [much] or [many a] instead of ‘many’” goes against the second suggestion of consistency. Such conflicting comments can confuse the biology questions, student who may think that they need to fix two errors. Double flagging also occurred among Subject-Verb Agreement errors. For example, in the next sentence, “Argument Subject-verb agreement errors take Subject-verb agreement errors place,” it is love essay suggested that argument be changed to arguments to in paradise part 1 essay, agree with the plural verb form take , while in love seafood the second place, it is suggested that take (which should be grammatically correct now after the change of the subject noun) be changed to takes to agree with the original subject noun argument . Along with articles, the English tense-aspect system is problematic for EFL learners, especially those from Asian first language backgrounds.
Yet My Editor does not seem to drowning experience essay, be programmed to deal with tense and aspect errors, except for its two rare attempts at essay, diagnosing cases related to tense errors, both of which failed. The first one was a false positive where the system traced back to the preposition at in the phrase at drowning experience, childhood and seafood, assumed that at refers to the past. It thus suggested the inappropriate use of could have become . Here is MY Access ’s annotation. At childhood, we are taught carefully by parents, teachers. We are take Verb group consistency errors care of or bring up carefully from many peoples around. That is a good environment so that The child can become Incorrect use of past tense a good person at first life. The second attempt successfully located the error and offered a usable suggestion, but its flagging term was misleading for the student as this error is not about tense: Besides, students haven’t Verb tense, instead of ‘have not’, consider using the more standard [do not have] to pay for graduate, buying books, textbooks are in essay the Internet too. Except for these two cases, nowhere else in all the essays could feedback be found about inconsistent or wrong tense usage. In essay ESL2-14, the use of tenses was a major issue, but MY Access overlooked them. The adverbial phrase in the past is clear evidence of past tense.
My Editor did not identify the descriptive, error. In the past, all the students have to take the traditional classroom. Many students sit in seafood the classroom. There is blackboard Missing articles, computer, desks and chairs. All the students take the descriptive, class in love the classroom like that . (From Essay ESL2-14) These gaps in drowning experience My Editor ’s feedback can be attributed to its inability to love, handle information across sentences at the discourse level. Solution Research? As long as words or phrases were grammatically correct, meaning and content were ignored. In the love seafood, first research question, the exact plus adjacent agreement between human ratings and drowning experience, MY Access were moderate (71.4%) and the correlations between human ratings and MY Access were also moderate (r = .688). But the difference between the averaged human rater score and seafood, MY Access was found to be statistically significant.
These findings do not provide adequate support for any implicit claims of drowning experience, MY Access that it can score essays like human raters. In addition, a feature shared by human and automated scoring is seafood that 53% of the variance in both ratings could be accounted for by the length of the essays. Overall, the agreement and correlational findings in this study were not very different from those found in earlier studies of e-rater and IEA systems. But Vantage Learning’s ( MY Access’s developer) findings of .93 correlation and 76% exact agreement and 99% for adjacent agreement were not found in this study. Thus, the high agreements and correlation indices found in studies conducted by MY Access developers (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and legal intern resume, Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. ( 2006 ). Seafood Essay? Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/docs/intellimetric/IM_ResearchSummary_IntelliMetric_Accuracy_Across_Genre_and_Grade_Levels.pdf [Google Scholar] , as cited in Liu Kunnan, 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Essays? Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) could not be confirmed. In the second research question of how MY Access dealt with content, the essay, results show that My Access scores off-topic essays more generously because it is unable to systematically flag the essays as off-topic. Writing? It is obvious MY Access “read” the essays in mathematical models of syntax, lexis, mechanics, and love seafood essay, discourse. This is a real problem because the ability to identify off-topic essays is a capability that trained human raters are expected to have and any AEE system that is developed to either supplement or replace human raters must have.
With cutting-edge developments in the field of writing descriptive, computational linguistics and corpus linguistics, it is hoped that off-topic essays can be identified in the future in the same way human readers can by reading and judging essays for their overall meaning and other features, such as persuasiveness and voice. The third research question examined MY Access ’s automated feedback in accuracy and potential gaps compared to seafood essay, human annotators of errors in the essays. Decisions In Paradise? Its instructional tool, called My Editor , is seafood essay uneven in its ability to detect errors correctly and decisions in paradise part, provide appropriate corrective feedback. Specifically, its accuracy in many grammatical areas is low and uneven. Furthermore, its standard as a useful error feedback tool is too low by the 90% standard set up by researchers such as Burstein et al . Love Seafood? ( 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). My Editor ’s plausible four-step sequence (clarification-suggestions-example-rule) in generating error feedback is supposed to turn errors into learning opportunities not only by scaffolding students’ judgments about possible errors in their essays but also by providing them with linguistic knowledge as they work their way through the feedback. However, this approach presents two possible problems. First, the metalanguage used to custom graduate, describe the love essay, errors, offer suggestions, and state the custom papers, rules may challenge ESL/EFL students’ comprehension due to their limited knowledge of the target language. Second, such an essay, approach does not discriminate between error types. Research? For example, the way article errors are dealt with should not be identical to the way spelling errors are treated. While the former constitutes a highly problematic area for EFL/ESL students and thus cannot be simply pointed out without clarification, the latter is usually straightforward and only needs flagging for students to easily correct themselves. Love Seafood Essay? Thus, the meaningfulness of error feedback has to general biology, be addressed in AEE systems.
Furthermore, prioritization of errors is necessary in the feedback system (e.g., syntactic errors vs. usage errors vs. discourse coherence errors); this prioritization needs to seafood, match the priorities of writing for a particular purpose and proficiency level. We conducted this study from the perspective of EFL writing instruction. The findings of the study point to two practical implications for EFL teachers who may use AEE. Custom Graduate? First, the diagnostic feedback MY Access generated was not individualized, simple, and essay, accurate enough for legal intern resume, home tutoring purposes, although it would serve as a good companion to writing instructors to offer instant and intial diagnostic feedback. At the same time, as Whithaus ( 2006 Whithaus, C. ( 2006 ). Always already: Automated essay scoring and grammar-checkers in college writing courses . Love? In P. Part 1 Essay? F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. Seafood Essay? 166–176 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) puts it, “When software is questions used as a tool for assessment, response, or revision, it is essay not necessarily opposed to effective composition pedagogies” (p. 170). The optimum choice could be a combined pedagogy where the problem solution papers, writing instructor acts as the essay, facilitator between students and AEE systems prior to and while using it in the writing class. Second, the question of how AEE systems should be incorporated in EFL writing instructors’ lesson plans is partially answered.
It is worth stressing that at this moment in the development of the AEE, it would be unwise to paddle against the current by refusing AEE systems as part of instruction. In the United States, AEE systems have been making a presence at different educational levels from middle schools to tertiary institutions to assess writing in placement or practice tests. Similarly, EFL writing classes can benefit from helpful features of AEE systems, such as its instant scoring and feedback, which make regular practice possible without adding to drowning, the workload of classroom instructors. But for seafood essay, this to in paradise 1 essay, happen, AEE systems have to offer a more conducive computer-mediated and Web-based environment where teaching and learning take place. Beyond this study, there are some positives to using AEE systems. First, providing scores and feedback instantly (even if it is on word and sentence-level errors) can clearly reduce the love seafood essay, burden of drowning experience, writing instructors’ grading work so that they can deal with other critical aspects of writing after the AEE feedback and possible revisions. Second, offering automated feedback without the instructor could be useful in love seafood essay contexts where loss of face is custom graduate a major consideration for students.
To illustrate, some students might be willing to accept repeated error correction and low grades from an AEE system instead of receiving similar criticisms from an instructor. But many persistent questions remain: Would AEE systems be more suitable for formative and in-class writing assessments? Could AEE systems be used for seafood, other types of writing tasks, such as short answer or descriptive responses? Could AEE systems cause unintended consequences, such as changes in students’ writing strategies? Could AEE systems evaluate writing styles or approaches from students around the world without bias to any sub-groups? Could AEE systems become transparent enough to allow assessment professionals to examine the suitability of the problem solution research papers, systems for essay, use in their own contexts? These questions need to be pursued.
This research was funded by The Fulbright Vietnamese Student Program. Prompts used in the study (from MY Access ) Prompt 1 (Informative) What Have You Learned? Although school may not always be fun, it’s essential for problem, our education and development. School teaches us really important lessons that will help us later in life. What is the love, most important thing you have learned in school so far?
Write a multi-paragraph essay in which you discuss one thing school has taught you and essay, its importance to essay, your life and experience essay, your future. Use specific examples and details to support your response. Prompt 2 (Argumentative) Internet Classrooms vs. Traditional Classrooms.
With advancements in technology, some students have chosen to complete their schoolwork through the Internet, rather than in traditional classrooms. Those who support a traditional classroom approach to learning argue that it provides more of an seafood essay, opportunity for students to interact with the teacher and other students. Essay? Those who feel that learning over love seafood, the Internet is better argue that it allows students to learn anytime and anywhere they choose. Do you feel education is better provided in traditional classrooms or when offered over the Internet? Write an essay to research papers, be read by a classroom teacher in which you persuade the reader that either traditional classroom education or Internet-based learning is better. Experimental and real prompts used in the study. Experimental Prompt 1: (Persuasive) Challenges of Parenthood.
Many people believe that being a parent today is one of the most difficult jobs you can have. Love? Some teens believe that they are old enough to face the decisions in paradise part 1 essay, challenges of parenthood; others do not. State your position on the issue and provide reasons for your decision. Discuss the factors you took into consideration in making your decision. Experimental Prompt 2: (Informative)
Power Sources in the Year 2050. Picture yourself living in love seafood the year 2050. Power sources operating in writing your house have changed. Describe the love, new power sources used to make your home run more efficiently. Explain how these power sources are different from what we use in our homes today. Write about the benefits and disadvantages of this new technology and how it will affect future generations. Real prompt: (Teacher-created topic function on MY Access ) What are the drowning experience essay, important milestones in a person’s life in your culture?
Give the reasons why they are important. MY Access’ s 6-point Holistic Rubric. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of seafood, MY Access. Table 1. Writing Descriptive? Descriptives ( N = 105). Note . H1 = Human Rating 1, H2 = Human Rating 2, AVE = Averaged ratings of Human Raters 1 and essay, 2, MA = MY Access ratings. Table 2. Human inter-rater and rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Note . Custom? Exact agreement: the proportion of times Rater 1 ratings exactly matched Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access exactly matched the averaged human ratings; adjacent agreement: the proportion of times Rater 1 ratings were within one point of Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access were within one point of the love, averaged human ratings; if two scores assigned to the same essay were more than one point apart, they were considered disparate ratings. Table 3. Correlations between two human ratings and essay, MY Access ratings. Note . H1 = Rater 1’s ratings, H2 = Rater 2’s ratings, AVE = Averaged human ratings, MA = MY Access ratings. *Correlations are significant at the .01 level (2-tailed). Table 4. Descriptives of ratings for same submissions to seafood essay, three MY Access prompts ( N = 42). Note . REALSCORE = ratings for papers, submissions to the teacher-created (real) prompt.
Experimental1 = ratings for the first experimental prompt, Experimental2 = ratings for the second experimental prompt. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. HR 1 = Human Rater 1 score, HR 2 = Human Rater 2 score. Table 6. Human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback results. Note. Precision = Hits divided by My Editor’s total (example: 2 ? 2 = 100); Recall = Hits divided by human annotator’s total (example: 2 ? 7 = 28.6)
Establishes and love, maintains an insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas fully and artfully with a wide variety of general biology essay questions, details. Demonstrates a logical, cohesive organizational structure and sequence with an effective use of essay, transitions. Provides precise descriptive language use, artful word choice, a defined voice, and writing essays, well-structured and varied sentence types. Contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Establishes and maintains a clear controlling or central idea and demonstrates a basic understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas fully and clearly with extensive detail. Demonstrates a logical organizational structure and sequence with consistent use of transitions. Provides precise language use, appropriate word choice, some evidence of voice, and well-structured sentences with some variety.
Contains few errors in paragraphing, grammar and love, usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Establishes a controlling or central idea and demonstrates some understanding of the intern resume, purpose and audience. Develops ideas adequately using sufficient appropriate details. Demonstrates an appropriate organizational structure and sequence; however, may lack transitions or be inconsistent. Provides appropriate language use, word choice, control of voice, and essentially correct sentences with some variety.
Contains occasional errors in paragraphing, grammar and love seafood, usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics, but the errors do not make comprehension difficult. Establishes a controlling or central idea but demonstrates little understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas briefly and inconsistently. Demonstrates an attempt at an organizational structure and sequence, but lacks transitions, and may not be unified or consistent throughout. Contains simple language use, word choice, an awareness of research, voice, and relies on simple sentences. Contains errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Suggests a controlling or central idea but demonstrates minimal understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas incompletely or inadequately using few, if any, details and/or examples. Suggests but does not maintain a basic organizational structure and sequence. Contains unclear or inappropriate language usage, word choice, and few, if any, sentence types. Contains serious errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics (errors may make comprehension difficult).
Fails to establish a controlling or central idea or show understanding of the purpose and audience. Fails to support ideas with details and/or examples. Shows no evidence of a unified structure, and seafood essay, no evidence of transitional devices. Demonstrates unclear or incoherent language use and major errors in sentence structure, word choice and usage. Major errors in paragraphing, grammar and legal, usage, punctuation, spelling, and seafood essay, mechanics significantly interfere with the communication of the message. 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into in paradise part 1 essay assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. The winner’s technique was simply to write a paragraph and repeat it 37 times.
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The answer is yes — if you want to. Every person’s experience is unique, so you’ll need to choose a template that best reflects and promotes your skills and experiences.Our templates are built to be customizable to any industry and are great for any of the 3 resume formats. The fact is, the web is filled with so many fantastic and creative template designs that there is undoubtedly something for you out there. We are proud of the graduate, designs we’ve created, and have seen that they are effective at landing interviews. But we’re not finished yet — we’ll be adding template designs to this page extensively in the near future. If you feel like creating your own, that’s fine too.
Readability is love seafood essay king when creating a good template — it is the most important factor, followed by how the resume itself is structured to showcase your best experiences and conceal your negative ones. You may have read on writing descriptive, the Internet that it’s inappropriate to use a resume template. You’ll hear these arguments: 1. It shows you’re lazy and uncreative, and love seafood essay, unable to design your own. Wrong, it shows you’re efficient. Papers? (Creating your own is fine, too.) 2. Since your experience is unique, a resume template won’t cut it. Wrong again. Seafood Essay? Your experience is biology essay personally unique, but you still generally fall into pattern that many other people have traveled before. 3. Essay? The hiring manager will be tired of looking at biology essay questions, that resume template design because a lot of love essay, other people use it.
That hiring manager should be fired. It’s the content of legal intern, your resume that matters, not the love, aesthetic (unless it’s not readable.) We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. Legal Intern Resume? We invite you to scroll back to the top and choose from one of our many resume libraries, and start writing. cover letter for nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where?
It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on your resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Good luck on the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. With regards to your military experience, check out our military to love seafood essay civilian resume guide: https://resumegenius.com/blog/go-shooting-guns-coffee-runs. Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers. Best of luck! I’ve worked in the same industry for part the past 13 years. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. Love? The jobs have been similar, so the essay, experience looks a bit repetitive.
I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. Love Seafood Essay? i need template resume that suitable for trainer and coach.. can u suggest to me with template is legal intern resume suitable.. #128578; I had a job for essay 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct.
Start with the company name and included the general biology essay questions, related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Essay? Good luck! Consider trying the research papers, ‘Job Hopper’ or the love seafood, ‘Executive.’ They should able to problem solution research papers fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck! We suggest using the ‘Gatsby’ Template. Love Seafood? Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template.
In terms of format, if you want to research include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by love essay, profession an has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in KSA. I’m trying to apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Since I’m from the medical profession, I’m having difficulty in choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs. What template should I use? Try the ‘Murray’ template. Good luck! Hello.
Which is good for problem solution research cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. Love Essay? So i want to highlight the writing essays, other things. Thanks #128578; Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for seafood a career in education? Check out our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and intern, input your own experience. Try using the ‘Freeman’ template.
Best of luck on the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for seafood essay a college freshman trying to apply for experience a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for what you’re trying to do. Good luck with the summer program.
Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and love, accounting market. Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the ‘Entry-Level’ template. Essays? Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work. Now seeking to get back into seafood, the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and socialize.
What resume do you suggest? Try the ‘Job Hopper’ template. Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for legal resume a 9th grader trying to seafood essay apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year.
I couldn’t find any clear examples on the web, and custom graduate, I was hoping you could help me out seafood essay, with what template I should use.. Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for decisions part 1 essay the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out our “How to Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further!
Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to love check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on your preference. Good luck! It really depends on biology, what job you’re applying for.
Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out seafood, this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on legal intern, the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on love essay, your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an decisions in paradise 1 essay aside, you may want to look into whether you’re qualified to get back into accounting after that many years outside of the essay, field. I understand that some regulations and research papers, rules change over love seafood the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. If that doesn’t seem to be a problem then go with the drowning experience, functional resume for sure.
Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Our “Classic” template on this page should do the love seafood, trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Afterwards, feel free to choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of intern resume, a professional experience section, and you should be good. Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to love seafood help you land more interviews in experience essay, today’s competitive job market.
How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to essay download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. Resume Builder Comparison | Resume Genius vs. LinkedIn Labs.
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Cheating In College Essays and seafood Research Papers. Cheating in College “ Cheating is to deceive by graduate trickery; swindle” (Dictionary.com). From time to time, every . person has cheated. The problem of essay, cheating , or academic dishonesty is not a new problem in college . Ever since there have been exams to cheat on, papers to copy, and homework to be copied. More and more, faculty is experience trying to understand why students cheat, and how to combat cheating . There are a number of reasons that students cheat are that they want to get good grades, it is an easy work. Academic dishonesty , Cheating , Plagiarism 970 Words | 3 Pages. Professor Course Date Cheating on seafood essay College Exams Introduction Any form of cheating is solution papers a form of dishonesty.
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Academic dishonesty , Cheating , College 886 Words | 3 Pages. 101 Date 02/04/2014 Cheating and the College Student Students face many dilemmas in their lives and problem cheating . is one of them. Cheating does not start at the college level for many they start in high school. Cheating , as defined by Merriam Webster dictionary, is to break a rule or law usually to gain an love seafood advantage at something. (Online dictionary, 2014) The reason for this definition is to decisions part 1 essay summarize what cheating means and the place it has in love seafood essay, college student’s lives. Solution Research Papers! Cheating is said to harm the. Academic dishonesty , Cheating , Education 771 Words | 5 Pages. Consequences of love, a College Student Cheating. Consequences of a College Student Cheating Students are driven to cheat when there are too much emphasis to drowning experience essay ace exams from . Love Essay! both parents and solution papers school officials. It’s difficult to love dismiss entirely of why students cheat, but taking the pressure away, students are less likely to engage in such conduct.
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Academia , Academic dishonesty , Cellular network 383 Words | 2 Pages. College and high school have the same goal; which is to educate students and give them knowledge that will help them along the way in life. . They both allow for growth and development, but have two completely different experiences. While high school is mandatory and essay helps prepare students for college academically, it can also teach life lessons that will never be forgotten. College is typically for students who would like to continue their education at a higher level and work towards achieving their. College , Education , High school 1244 Words | 4 Pages. society, fairness, or specific virtues. Secondly, ethics refers to the study and development of one’s ethical standards (Williams, 2010, pp. 2-4). . Cheating is defined in the dictionary as, to biology deceive by trickery; swindle, however the love essay, dictionary fails to drowning essay tell you if it is right or wrong to cheat.
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College , High school , Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps 1182 Words | 3 Pages. Cause and Effect of Cheating in School Every action has a consequence, whether it is good or bad. The choices you make can follow you the problem papers, . Love Seafood Essay! rest of your life. Cheating is an issue that affects many students at one time or another throughout their education. There are many different ways to cheat: copying homework, looking over at a peers test, plagiarizing, and so on. Nothing good comes from cheating your way through school, the only person you are cheating is yourself. There are serious consequences. Academic dishonesty , Cheating , Education 1018 Words | 3 Pages.
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Academic dishonesty , Cheating , Education 867 Words | 2 Pages. Is Cheating Out of Control? Cheating is out of seafood, control now a days; it used to be considered an unmentionable sin. However, in decisions in paradise 1 essay, . this day and period, it has become more common and somewhat of a daily occurrence. Cheating is love seafood essay more widespread today than in the past. Solution! According to the article titled Cheating in School, “ cheating has not been an seafood essay issue of problem solution papers, values, but simply one of love essay, practicality.” This shows that many view cheating as a insufficient occurrence and something that can often be skipped over. Black-and-white films , Cheating , Debut albums 1820 Words | 4 Pages.
I had been promised that, if I chose to take APALI, I would be in for a life-changing experience. Through being active in student leadership at De Anza . College , I had come across many APALI alumni who all had nothing but good to legal intern say about the program. Essay! Though most identified as API, there were several, non- API’s who told me that the things that they learned in drowning, APALI transcended race. Skeptical, yet curious, I decided to enroll my last quarter at love De Anza. The first day, though fun, did little to. De Anza College , Ethnic group , Juan Bautista de Anza 1400 Words | 4 Pages. Academic Dishonesty: Internet Cheating. Academic Dishonesty: Internet Cheating AET/510 August 19, 2012 Dr. Legal Resume! Gregory W. Dlabach, Ed.D Academic Dishonesty Academic dishonesty is . an “intentional act of love essay, fraud” by essay which a student claims credit for the work of another without authorization (Pincus amp; Schmelkin, 2003).
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Being a student requires personal interpretation, and analysis. Copying someone else’s work is disadvantageous. If cheating becomes a regular practice to someone it can be harmful. Academic dishonesty , American football , Cheating 1046 Words | 3 Pages. Concequences of Students Cheating on Exams. Consequences of love essay, a college student cheating on exams The most common reason for cheating is to complete the course . as soon as possible. In today’s world when you look at the word cheating you can find many definitions and meanings for it. Every person has a different definition for the word cheating . The word cheating to problem research papers me means to copy someone else’s work as your own. Students can always find a way to cheat by using reference materials or getting the answer ahead of time in a close book test.
Academic dishonesty , Cheating , Education 888 Words | 3 Pages. February 11, 2013 Cause and Effect Cheating At first, the thought of cheating seemed harmless; but in seafood essay, all reality, there is . Descriptive Essays! just no positive side to cheating . However, what exactly is cheating ? Cheating is an seafood immoral way of reaching a goal; such as breaking the rules to gain an advantage, deceiving, or fraud. Cheating is becoming a bigger issue in schools, relationships, and even sports. There are countless reasons why people cheat. Most people believe that cheating is resume wrong. Love! Yet studies show that. Academic dishonesty , Cheating , Gamesmanship 1026 Words | 4 Pages. 31 March 2008 Why Do College Students Cheat? Cheating among students in college . has worsened over the years and not much is being done to writing essays stop it. Where is the line drawn when it comes to love seafood essay cheating in problem research, the classroom?
And why do kids do it? In today’s world people are growing lazier and always looking for ways to do less work and essay a lot of that has to do with improved technology. Improved technology has also made cheating easier. Students can send each other e-mail’s. Academia , Academic dishonesty , Cheating 1845 Words | 6 Pages. Academic Dishonesty and Prevalent Cheating Strategy.
Cheating in School: A Growing Epidemic? Marc Ryan Calimba Charry Fe M. Cornelia Zephanie Marie R. Danieles Dianne Rachelle Y. Dela Rama . Shirley Serojano Introduction: “Cheating’s OK!” This line is most likely heard by many of us. Decisions In Paradise 1 Essay! Cheating is seafood essay widespread that even a Catholic Institution of St. Paul University Dumaguete (SPUD) is experience essay not exempted to have student cheating on exams. Cheaters only need to master the skills of cheating without actually acquiring knowledge and skills measured by the. Academia , Academic dishonesty , Cheating 1803 Words | 7 Pages. his colleagues described what happened when they asked college students to solve math puzzles for cash rewards. When the researchers changed . the seafood essay, experimental conditions such that the writing descriptive essays, students assumed the love seafood, examiner could not detect cheating , the average self-reported test score rose significantly. The researchers determined that the scores were not inflated by a few students who cheated a lot but rather by many students cheating a little.” Cheating is a form of decisions in paradise part, dishonesty which could involve academic. Academia , Academic dishonesty , Cheating 325 Words | 2 Pages.
Don't cheat. Cheating is a sign of immaturity along with dishonesty. Love Seafood Essay! ' Cheating are the immoral ways that are adopted to achieve . any goal'. There are different individual approaches regarding the custom papers, ways to seafood essay achieve set goals. The ethical and right way is to perspire and to legal intern maintain perseverance in the competitive race. Seafood! The other way is by intern resume adopting a short cut and love seafood essay following the immoral ways to reach a conclusive stage. The later one seems to in paradise 1 essay be fruitful in short term gains. Seafood Essay! But the long terms effects. Academic dishonesty , Cheating , Ethics 608 Words | 2 Pages.
101-032 Academic Integrity: how to solve the problem at MCC When considering the academic integrity, or lack thereof, amongst today’s college . students, it is important to understand that there are a variety of reasons why students cheat. More importantly, they have been influenced by faculty members as well as teachers they had in general biology, high school. While every college is different and made up of unique demographics, it is generally true that there are students who will always cheat, and students who will. Academia , Academic dishonesty , Cheating 942 Words | 2 Pages. There has always been an arousing debate on whether all students are required to take college entrance exams in order to seafood essay be accepted into problem solution papers a . desired university. The standardized tests are currently used all over the United States in order to enroll or decline certain students based on a minimum score according to the college . The most common tests taken by high school students is the ACT and essay the SAT, both covering basic curriculum involving all major subjects studied throughout grade school, in.
College , Educational Testing Service , High school 838 Words | 3 Pages. “The Art of Cheating ” How this cheating in the electoral system could be minimized if not totally eradicated? In Philippine . politics, it has been a conventional wisdom that no one loses – they just get cheated. Drowning Experience Essay! Cheating in love, the Philippine elections has been so common that they have mastered the so-called “The Art of Cheating .” Charges of fraud and cheating have characterized the past elections in the country often citing irregularities in the manual counting of votes. This so-called “art of cheating”. Automation , Democracy , Election 776 Words | 3 Pages. The Cause and essay Effect of Cheating in College Exams. CAUSE AND EFFECT CHEATING ON COLLEGE EXAMS Although there are a lot of just and love honest students in colleges right . now others don't care about their education.
Students continually try to cheat their way trough graduation. But the dilemma comes when they find out that the graduate papers, consequences are more significant that the essay, grade they received. Nowadays there are a lot of uninvolved parents, most of them don't sit with their child to help them with their homework or talk to biology them about the importance of seafood, school. Academic term , Cheating , Debut albums 580 Words | 2 Pages. College Student Challenges facing college student College life is writing descriptive essays changing for nearly every student. . From meal plans and roommates to study abroad and college finances. College life can be a difficult thing to get used to and handle. There will be a lot of time where you doubt yourself and essay your decision.A lot of custom graduate, student became overwhelm by the requirement of seafood essay, college , the change that took place too fast.
No matter how prepared you think you are for papers college , there are still of love essay, shock when. Education , English-language films , Friendship 957 Words | 3 Pages. ? Cheating is always wrong Society provides many examples of grown people cheating ; from card games to relationships, sports, . politics, academics, employment and the list goes on. A common phrase is “If you’re not cheating you’re not trying”. Papers! Cheating is so common it worked itself into the very fabric of American life, permeating nearly everything we come into contact with; “well everybody else does it” some say. While there is love seafood no doubting the argument made by those who invest their entire life. Alex Rodriguez , Batting average , Bernard Madoff 560 Words | 2 Pages.
DEFINITION of CHEATING Have you ever forgotten to study for a test but still gotten an “A”? Have you ever been in in paradise part 1 essay, last place but still ended . up winning the game? Have you ever been romantically involved with more than one person at love essay the same time? If you have answered “yes” to any of the following questions, you might be a cheater! Cheating is research papers a word that is all too familiar to most people in the world. Many try to find justification for their actions but, in reality, there is no just way to. Cheating , Morality 1079 Words | 3 Pages. Cheating: Academic Dishonesty and Honor Code.
Cheating used to be considered an unmentionable sin. However, in this day and age, it has become more common and somewhat of love, a daily . occurrence. Cheating is more widespread today than in the past. According to the article titled Education: The New Morality, cheating has not been an issue of descriptive, values, but simply one of practicality. This shows that many view cheating as a mere occurrence and something that can often be skipped over.
The reason cheating has become such a pervasive movement is because. Academia , Academic dishonesty , Cheating 981 Words | 3 Pages. The Code against Cheating on love seafood essay a Test. being a new student here at problem solution research Wilson College for almost an entire semester, I honestly can say that the Honor Principle work the way I think it . Seafood! should. I can’t speak for anyone else but being actually able to follow it is kind of hard. I have never been to a school before where teachers leave students in the classroom to take tests. To be honest, I don’t think teachers back home would even trust the students in a classroom by themselves taking a test. At Wilson College it is legal way different. I’m guessing. Cheating , University 1103 Words | 3 Pages.
Cheating Beauty? Beauty Pageant is seafood a competition based on the women’s physical beauty. Legal! Sometimes clothing, modeling, gesturing, talent . and love seafood personal interview are considered for choosing a winner, the beauty queen. Every contestant will try to enhance her make-up skill, hairstyle, body shape, and even knowledge of the world in descriptive essays, order to have the love essay, best performance and accomplish the intern, final stage of the competition. Doing cosmetic surgery is one kind of methods to “modify” one’s flaw and achieve. Beauty , Beauty contest , Ethics 2029 Words | 5 Pages. particular article we have two people being the main observation, Joe and Danielle (who are first year medical students). They both are taking an exam . and Joe has witnessed Danielle cheating via-text messages on seafood essay her phone and is unsure of what to writing do.
With the faculty being aware of current student cheating and essay encouraging students to drowning experience report the names of the wrongdoers, he is burdened and angry that he has witnessed this taking place but does not know if he should report her to the. Cheating , Education , Individual responsibility 480 Words | 3 Pages. Why is It So Difficult to Stop Cheating? ?HaoLun Li Instructor Basnage English 92/93 2/03/2014 Why is it so difficult to stop cheating ? In the article “The Case of the Purloined . Seafood Essay! Paper”, Brigid Schulte states that students are cheating more in school homework and exam. Brigid Schulte focuses on a teacher called Abeshouse, who is a high school teacher. But, she is finding lots of plagiarism when she collects her students homework. She finds out custom papers, that every students homework are all look the same. Love Seafood! So, she goes to Internet and finds a website. Education , High school , Homework 1418 Words | 5 Pages. paper stores to solution determine where best to spend your cheating dollar.
After selecting papers on topics in history, psychology, and seafood biology, I had . each paper graded by one of custom graduate papers, my judges. These were: Slate writer David Greenberg, who teaches history at essay Columbia; my dad, who teaches psychology at the University of Rhode Island (sometimes smeared as the ASU of the writing descriptive, East); and my girlfriend, who was a teaching assistant in seafood, biology at Duke (where she says cheating was quite common). So, which site wins for the. 3OH!3 , Erik Erikson , Infinite Jest 1870 Words | 6 Pages. Cheating occurs everywhere. Somebody right now in a classroom, baseball park, football field, basketball court, or a workplace is secretly . cheating to be one step ahead of his competition at all times. Some say it is the nature of competition that arises these cheaters, but others believe it is the drowning experience, enormous amount of pressure that is put on these athletes. Although many current athletes secretly follow the cheating paths of Barry Bonds and Lance Armstrong to excel in essay, their respective sports, they. Alex Rodriguez , Barry Bonds , Baseball 1313 Words | 4 Pages. Cheating and Sportsmanship HPE essay-BY Elliott Biggs Just like everything in life, sports too are governed by rules, customs and even . competition. Sports are a way through which we are able to connect with our past and have good feelings about the future.
Sports acts as a way of bonding people despite their age, gender and race differences. Sports today, instead of bonding people and teaching them discipline and teamwork is causing them to cheat. And athletes have a reason to cheat now with all. Blood , Blood doping , Drugs in sport 1071 Words | 3 Pages.
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college essay exam Frequently Asked Questions. The College Writing Exam (CWE) is an important graduation requirement for all PCCC students. Students will be asked to write an essay based on one of two questions provided. The exam is administered by computer. The essay will be typed and the computer will allow you to love seafood essay, use spell check, but not grammar check or the Internet. The exam usually lasts 3 hours. E-mailed to students at their PCCC e-mail address Posted on their degree audits Mailed to students. If you take the exam:
by the 15th of the month, you will receive your results by drowning experience the 30th of the seafood, same month. later than the 15th of the month, you will receive results by the 15th of the following month. When should a student take the drowning experience essay, College Writing Exam? Students are eligible to take the exam after completing EN 101 and one Writing-Intensive course required for love seafood, their degree. Problem Research! Students who do not meet these requirements may still be admitted to seafood essay, the exam with approval of the 1 essay, department chair. Students who want help preparing for the College Writing Exam (CWE) can make an appointment by emailing the Writing Center at firstname.lastname@example.org. Though we recommend making an appointment to make the best use of your time, walk-in sessions are available if a tutor is free. Any student who wants to review their failed exam with a tutor must make an love appointment as the Writing Center will need at least 24 hours to obtain a copy of your exam.
The Writing Center will open for the Fall Semester on Monday September 11th! All Writing Center hours are subject to intern resume, change. For exact availability, or to make an appointment, please visit: http://tutortrac.pccc.edu/. College Writing Exam TESTING DATES and TIMES. GENERAL TESTING INFORMATION. For walk-in testing, no appointment is required, but a PHOTO-ID is required at entry. You may appear any time during the essay, time ranges listed If you have taken the exam previously, you must bring an approval letter from the Writing Center to be allowed to retest. Some sessions times are LIMITED to ONLY 5 seats on a first come, first served basis. Only 1 test session per legal intern, person per seafood, month is problem solution research papers allowed. How do I get the test results? Results are mailed to essay, students and are posted on their degree audits.
Practicing for the CWE All students are encouraged to brush up on their writing skills BEFORE taking the exam. Practice is especially important if more than one semester has passed since the completion of EN 102. Review the materials found in this guide. Writing Essays! Prepare yourself with a practice essay on essay, a topic related to the theme for your test date. Students may make arrangements to experience essay, work with a tutor by contacting the Writing Center at Paterson.
Wanaque campus students should arrange for CWE assistance with Kathy Coffey in room W128, 973-248-3019, email@example.com. January 10 and 17. By Appointment Only-Begin testing from 9:00 AM until 10:00 AM. EVERY WEEKDAY By Appointment or Walk-in. M, Th: 9am-8pm; T, W, F: 9am-6pm.
January: VIOLENCE IN SOCIETY. February: PERSONAL HEALTH. March: URBAN ISSUES. May: MORAL ISSUES AND RESPONSIBILITIES. Students needing accommodations must make an appointment with the ODS with official documentation to seafood essay, obtain special services for CWE testing . Further Info: 973-684-5582 www.pccc.edu - search for biology essay questions, CWE. Registration forms are available on the bulletin board outside the Basic Skills Lab. Contact: Kathy Coffey.
By appointment only: Contact: Treya Lynch. ALL EXAMS must be completed by closing time . See HOURS OF OPERATION here to see if hours are afftected by holidays. Students are given a choice of seafood essay two topics. One is from their major, the writing descriptive essays, other is a general topic. Here are some examples of love seafood essay past topics. For all topics, students should write: a well-developed essay supporting their position with specific details and concrete examples. A. We live in an age of new technological advances. Many of these technologies affect the descriptive, way we do business as we try to love seafood essay, cope with the rapid changes. Decisions! Some of these changes create new problems such as finding highly skilled employees, and the possibility of computer fraud and essay copyright infringement. A. The U.S. is known for in paradise part 1 essay, being a strong world power, but in the maths and sciences, our students are not considered competitive with many of the students who were raised and educated in seafood, considerably less economically advanced countries.
What can be done to make our students more competitive with students from other countries in the maths and sciences? A. Should children have an academic or a developmental program in the preschool? What are the advantages or disadvantages of general biology essay questions either program? COMPUTER INFORMATION SYSTEMS. A. One of the claims made for computers is essay that they would eliminate many of the tedious and repetitious tasks that were once performed by workers, and that they would simplify these tasks and create less waste and more efficiency on the job. In a well-developed essay, describe the custom papers, ways in which computers have improved or complicated your life. Be sure to use specific details and essay concrete examples to support and illustrate your ideas. NURSING/ ALLIED HEALTH. A. Culture affects the way people behave as patients in descriptive, the hospital. In an love seafood ethnically diverse and changing world, health care professionals come into contact with people from many different backgrounds. In a well-developed essay, discuss the importance of integrating cultural aspects into (health) nursing care.
Be sure to supply specific details and concrete examples to illustrate your ideas. B. What qualities does it take to be a successful emergency room nurse? Be specific to the job function. In a well-developed essay, support your position with specific details and problem solution research concrete evidence. C. How important are communication skills (speaking and writing) in the allied health professions?
Use specific examples to develop your ideas. In a well-developed essay, support your position with specific details and concrete evidence. D. Should all allied health professionals be required to perform some type of community service as part of their training? Explain. In a well-developed essay, support your position with specific details and concrete evidence. A. Love! College has little to do with the real world. Doing things and experiencing them as you make your way in this world is not the same as reading about them in a book. In reaction to the above statement, describe a real course you would like taught as part of the college curriculum, and essays give at least two developed reasons why you feel the essay, need for such a course. Remember to use specific details and concrete examples to illustrate your reasons. B. Success is decisions one of those vague terms that has an almost infinite number of definitions. Love Seafood! How would you define success?
What elements would you need to have in your life in order to consider yourself successful? In a well-developed essay, respond to the above. Be sure to include specific details and concrete examples to support your views. C. Open admissions is increasingly becoming a policy at many community colleges, meaning that any student that applies to legal resume, the college will not be denied acceptance to the school. Are there circumstances when a student should not be accepted into college? Do you think that this policy is a good idea? Does it have long-term ramifications that might be harmful? In a well-developed essay, respond to the above. Be sure to love essay, include specific details and concrete examples to support your views. D. Most private schools and many public schools have made wearing school uniforms mandatory for students. Is this a helpful idea that can resolve some existing problems, or will it only decisions 1 essay serve to create more problems for students and the school system?
In a well-developed essay, respond to love, the above. Be sure to include specific details and questions concrete examples to support your views. A. Jane is seafood a 25-year-old recovering drug addict. Problem Solution! She has been clean for almost two years and has gone for some vocational training so that she can enter the love essay, work force and support herself and her two kids instead of relying on experience essay, public assistance. She has encountered some negative responses from love seafood, employers who do not wish to interview her at all, or tell her that with her background, she really wouldn't fit in at their company. Jane is custom graduate papers getting frustrated and has admitted to you that she has considered getting high to relieve some of the stress of constant rejection. What would you advise Jane to do? B. Mike is a widower raising his teenaged children, a girl aged 15 and a boy of 13.
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Look at the essays that received a passing grade and at in paradise those that failed. TOPIC ASSIGNED: Recent studies claim that the broken window theory of crime is a major factor in neighborhood deterioration and that strict enforcement of quality of essay life issues such as noise, littering, loitering and truancy leads to sharp reductions in overall crime rates. Should police be more aggressive in enforcing quality of life issues, or should they ignore these nuisance crimes and just focus on major crime? The broken window theory of crime is a major factor in neighborhood deterioration and strict enforcement of quality of life issues leads to sharp reductions in crime rates. This statement has been proven to essay, be true by law enforcement agencies in large cities all across America in recent years. Seafood Essay! Cities such as New York, Chicago, Los Angeles and Detroit have waged an all-out war against people and practices that tear down the quality of life in our neighborhoods and cities.
Below are essays that would pass the CWE based on the scoring rubric. However, they are not perfect. Included in writing descriptive, the files are comments on the essays--both positive and critical--based on the scoring rubric. A minimum of love two readers evaluate each of the CWE essays. The two scores are combined to determine if the paper is a pass or fail. In general, the reader is graduate papers looking at: how well the topic is focused how well the essay develops ideas and.
The rubric used by readers looks at these 4 areas: VOCABULARY LANGUAGE - a strong essay will have a varied vocabulary and correct and seafood essay sophisticated use of language. CONVENTIONS - grammar, mechanics, spelling sentence structure and word form. A strong essay will have no serious errors and few minor errors. ORGANIZATION - For a strong essay, a reader will find that the paper is the appropriate length and well-organized with an in paradise part appropriate 5 paragraph structure and smooth transitions. CONTENT - Readers are looking for love seafood essay, convincing evidence that is on-topic and essay supports the thesis and argument. There are a number of love essay things you can do to prepare for this exam.
Perhaps the most important thing is to intern, prepare early . Doing one of essay these suggested preparation strategies will make a differenec - doing more than one is experience essay far more effective. Attend some CWE workshops in the Writing Center. We will review what the test asks, how to prepare your essay and explain how the test is evaluated. Writing Center Hours of Operation. The Writing Center will open for the Fall Semester on Monday September 11th!