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Introduction: GlobalizationPoverty Channels and Case Studies from Sub-Saharan Africa. Machiko Nissanke, University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Erik Thorbecke, Graduate School Professor and H.E. Babcock Professor of echeat essay php, Economics, Emeritus, Cornell University, Ithaca; e-mail: email@example.com Search for more papers by this author. In 2004 the United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER) embarked on a large-scale research project on statistics help, the ‘Impact of Globalization on essay, the World's Poor’ co-directed by Machiko Nissanke and and grendel, Erik Thorbecke. The first conference was essentially conceptual in nature, meant to essay php understand better the various mechanisms and channels through which globalization affects the poor either directly or indirectly. The other three conferences focused on each of the major regions of the critical thinking, developing world: Asia, Africa and Latin America.
The objectives of this introduction are threefold: first, to review briefly how the forces of globalization influence poverty in general; second, to describe and echeat essay, discuss the main transmission channels and mechanisms; and third to analyze the impact of globalization on Africa and present an overview of the six Africa case studies included in this issue. 1. The Impact of Globalization on the World's Poor. Globalization provides a strong potential for a major reduction in poverty in the developing world because it creates an environment conducive to faster economic growth and transmission of knowledge. 1 However, structural factors and policies within the world economy and national economies have impeded the full transmission of the benefits of the various channels of globalization for poverty reduction. In particular sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has been relatively less affected by the forces of globalization than other parts of the creative thinking, world. World income distribution continues to be very unequal and many poor countries particularly in php Africa are stagnating. Moreover, there is much empirical evidence that openness contributes to more within-country inequality.
China is a good example with coastal provinces as opposed to inland provinces reaping the major benefits of globalization. Progress on poverty reduction has also been uneven. Essay Topics? Although the share of the population of developing countries living below US$1 per day declined from 40 per cent to 21 per cent between 1981 and 2001, this was mainly achieved by the substantial reduction of the poor in echeat essay Asia, in position particular in China. Notwithstanding the drop in essay relative poverty, the help, total number of people living under US$2 per day actually increased worldwide. In particular, poverty has increased significantly in Africa in both absolute and relative terms.
The risks and costs brought about by globalization can be significant for fragile developing economies and the world's poor. Echeat Php? The downside of globalization is most vividly epitomized at times of global financial and economic crises. The costs of the repeated crises associated with economic and financial globalization appear to have been borne overwhelmingly by the developing world, and often disproportionately so by the poor who are the population a boon bane, most vulnerable. On the other hand, benefits from globalization in booming times are not necessarily shared widely and equally in the global community. Though any trend in poverty and income inequality observed so far cannot be exclusively or even mainly attributed to globalization without rigorous analyses, even the most optimistic estimates cannot dismiss concerns that the globalization process, as it has proceeded to date, may have had some adverse effects on poverty and income distribution.
These concerns have generated a passionate debate worldwide as well as a powerful anti-globalization movement. 2. Channels Linking Globalization to Poverty. What are the transmission mechanisms through which the process of globalization affects poverty directly and indirectly? The first and most important of these mechanisms is the echeat php, growthinequalitypoverty channel. Beowulf And Grendel Comparison? Other channels operate, respectively, through changes in relative prices of factors of production (labour and capital) and commodities, movements of capital and labour migration across borders and within countries, the nature of technological change and echeat php, technological diffusion, the impact of globalization on volatility and vulnerability, the computing, worldwide flow of information, global disinflation, and institutions. 2.1 The GlobalizationGrowthInequalityPoverty Causal Chain. To analyze and understand the essay, impact of openness on poverty, the globalizationopennessgrowthinequalitypoverty causal chain has to be scrutinized link by link.
The first link of the chain is from globalization via openness to growth. The main manifestation of openness is through trade and capital movement liberalization, affecting growth directly through increased exports, imports, and capital inflows. Trade liberalization policies encourage exports, which benefit export industries and contribute directly to GDP growth while switching from import substitution to opening up the domestic economy to imports leads over time to a more efficient resource allocation and creative critical thinking, a higher growth path. In turn, foreign direct investment (FDI) raises the productive capacity of the receiving countries, and is often the conveyer belt for transferring technology and know-how. The second link in the causal chain from openness to poverty is the interrelationship between growth and inequality. While it is echeat, most likely that the poor will benefit from growth, the cristo, ultimate poverty-reduction effects will depend on how the growth pattern affects income distribution. If growth leads to an increase in income inequality, the poor may benefit only slightly or, in some instances, actually be hurt by the globalization process.
Indeed, the growthinequality link is much more complicated than what the classical approach postulated with its emphasis on essay php, the growth-enhancing effects of inequality (the rich save a larger proportion of their incomes than the poor so that the impoverishment of the masses is a precondition to higher investment and growth). There are many consequences of, and phenomena linked to, inequality that at least potentially, could reduce future growth and hence future poverty alleviation such as the diffusion of social and political instability and conflict which could dampen investment because of greater uncertainty. The final link in the globalizationpoverty nexus captures the combined net effect of growth and a change in income inequality on poverty. A higher aggregate growth rate of GDP is good for int 2 2013, poverty reduction, while increased inequality acting as a filter dampens the positive effects of growth on echeat, poverty reduction. Consequently, policymakers should focus on the pattern (structure) of growth and development rather than the rate of growth per se. In short, poverty reduction requires a combination of higher growth and creative test, a more pro-poor distribution of the echeat essay php, gains from growth. 2.2 The GlobalizationCapital and cover teaching position with no experience, Labour MobilityPoverty Channel. According to economic theory, the impact of globalization on developing countries well endowed with unskilled labour should lead to a decline in php income inequality through an increased demand for unskilled labour, while unskilled labour in beowulf comparison essay developed countries would lose out with an adverse effect on essay, equity. However, the empirical evidence reveals that wage gaps between skilled and unskilled labour have been increasing in many developing countries, particularly in Latin America and cover letter for a teaching with no experience, Africa. Several specific features associated with the current phase of globalization explain why the theoretical prediction does not hold.
For example, the nature of technical progress and new technology is heavily biased in favour of skilled and essay php, educated labour, as technical change emanates from RD activities in the developed (industrialized) countries in response to local conditions. Hence, technical change tends to be labour-saving and skill-biased, and new technology is complementary to capital and skilled labour, while it is a substitute for unskilled labour and tends to increase inequalities in both developed and developing countries. Creative? Furthermore, technological diffusion and access to new technology is not universal and spontaneous, while intensified privatization of research (e.g. in bio-technology) may have adverse effects on echeat, access to new technology by developing countries and the poor. The resulting widened productivity differences explain cross-country wage/income inequality. ‘Perverse’ factor movements could provide another explanation.
Capital and skilled labour do not migrate to poor countries as much as among developed countries. Rather, there is a tendency for skilled labour to essay of monte migrate from developing countries to essay developed countries, as the massive migration of African nurses and medical doctors to the US and Europe testifies, while unskilled labour migration tends to be strictly controlled. With capital market liberalization, there is a propensity for capital flight from topics count of monte, developing to developed countries, particularly during periods of instability and crisis. Income convergence among the globalizing countries during the first wave of php, modern globalization was driven primarily by migration. Sixty million people, largely unskilled workers, migrated from Europe to North America and other parts of the new world between 1870 and 1914. In contrast, the extent of cross-border mobility differs significantly between skilled and unskilled labour in statistics help the current phase of globalization. Unskilled workers from developing countries face increasing obstacles in their attempts to migrate to developed countries. In consequence, wage equalization does not take place through labour migration, as was the case in the previous globalization era. 2.3 The GlobalizationTechnologyPoverty Channel. The nature of technical progress and technological diffusion can be a further channel through which globalization affects income distribution and poverty. As indicated, technological change tends to be highly capital- and skill-intensive and unskilled labour-saving, as befits the resource endowment of the rich industrialized countries where most innovations originate.
Even though much of the new technology does not conform to the resource endowment of poor countries, the potential exists for globalization to confer significantly higher food productivity and rural incomes on developing countries via the mechanism of NorthSouth technology transfer. For example, to realize the essay, potential positive effects of biotechnology on poverty reduction, the public and private sectors must: • establish institutions with local capacity for technology innovation and adaptation; • reduce transaction costs in the process of international transfer of technology; • provide standardization, transparency, and access to information for property rights over technologies. In addition to significant investment in higher education and letter position no experience, research capacity in low-income countries, a new type of institution (namely the Intellectual Property Rights Clearinghouse) might be capable of overcoming the lack of access to intellectual property rights and the burden of high royalty payments for small and poor farmers in the developing world. Even with such policies, there are important barriers to diffusing technology through globalization. Even if a new technology can potentially increase the income level of echeat essay, small farmers, its diffusion may be slow due to sunk costs of adoption and uncertainties about net payoffs of the technology in college help question. The lack of capital, credit, and risk-sharing possibilities as well as limited access to echeat information about statistics help new technologies hinders technology adoption and diffusion.
Adoption of new technologies can be slowed by uncertainties about their efficiency. For example, without independent external information sources, farmers in developing countries have to rely heavily on their neighbours (‘leaders’ who have already adopted the technologies) to echeat essay obtain vital information about new methods. 2.4 Other Channels: Vulnerability, Information Diffusion, and Institutions. Beyond increasing aggregate income, globalization increases uncertainty via greater variation in essay topics count income and expenditure caused by global shocks, such as the various financial crises that have hit Latin America and Asia in the last two decades. It was found that the echeat, extremely high volatility of consumption observed in Central and East Europe since the early 1990s is a boon bane essay, strongly related to trade shocks encouraged by trade liberalization. Consequently trade liberalization, as implemented in the 1990s, may have actually worsened growth and echeat, welfare performance in Eastern Europe. Furthermore, the analysis indicates that the per capita income of the poorest population quintile is most vulnerable to these trade shocks. These results point to a boon or a bane the need for emerging and transition economies to adopt forward-looking national policies to support trade liberalization, that is, policies to mitigate the impact of trade shocks, and enhance coping mechanisms.
A new ‘culture of prevention’ with mechanisms for limiting the size and essay, frequency of shocks at the international level might also be called for. It can be argued that while globalization is a major engine for growth in aggregate, globalization either introduces or exacerbates other trends that affect people's well-being as much if not more than income, for example, through the increasing flow of count, information about the living standards of others, both within and beyond country borders. This flow of essay php, information can result in changing reference norms and increased frustration with relative income differences, even among respondents whose own income is rising. For example, individuals in a given location or socio-economic group in a developing country compare their incomes increasingly with those of relatively similar individuals in other locations in cover for a teaching more developed regions or countries and might become frustrated by the rising differences in their standard of living vis-à-vis that of other groups. Many social and collective measures should be in echeat place for computing, globalization to have positive effects on poverty. These include measures such as: public investments in essay health; institutions that can ensure adherence to basic norms of equity and fairness; and collective investments in social insurance to protect workers from the coursework 2013, volatility that often accompany integration into global markets. In the absence of these measures, the process of globalization may only create opportunities for those that are best positioned to echeat essay take advantage of them, leaving behind large sections of poor and vulnerable individuals. Institutions mediate the various channels and mechanisms through which the globalization process affects poverty. Institutions act as a filter intensifying or hindering the positive and negative pass-through between globalization and poverty and can help explain the diversity, heterogeneity, and essay of monte cristo, non-linearity of outcomes.
Thus, on echeat, the one hand, the impact of globalization on the poor is mediated by domestic political economy structures and institutions such as social polarization, oligarchic structures, and predatory regimes, which may bias, confiscate or nullify the gains from globalization for particular groups of poor. On the other hand, the cover for a teaching no experience, positive effects of globalization on growth and poverty can be found when institutional conditions are characterized by such features as political participation, social cohesion and management of social conflict arising directly from globalization effects. Consequently, safety nets and essay php, appropriate social protection schemes that shelter the assets of cover position no experience, poor households (and particularly the erosion of their human capital) during crises triggered by globalization should be given high priority. Simple institutions such as rural banks (or branches) can play an important financial intermediation role of, among others, transferring the rising flow of migrants' remittances to their rural families and channelling savings and current account deposits to urban areas. Such institutions could reduce significantly the essay php, large rent (in the computing, form of transfer fees) presently captured by firms such as Western Union in the developed world.
3. Globalization and Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa. 3.1 Main Characteristics in the GlobalizationPoverty nexus in Sub-Saharan Africa. Following largely an inward-oriented development strategy in the early decades of the post-independence period, the majority of SSA countries failed to take advantage of the opportunities provided by dynamic growth impetus associated with globalization in the 1970s and echeat, 1980s. Instead of becoming more integrated into the world economy, they were largely marginalized and experienced slow growth and count, stagnation. With growing recognition of their disadvantageous positions, most of the php, SSA countries have increasingly searched for ways to accelerate their participation in the global economy over the past two decades. Indeed, most economies in college help SSA significantly liberalized their trade and investment policy regimes as part of Structural Adjustment Programme since the mid 1980s. In examining the aggregate economic ‘openness’ indicators and echeat, their trends over time, it is worth making a few general points at the onset.
First, as documented in detail by Round (2007) and reproduced here in Table 1, SSA is not behind other developing regions in terms of trade openness, as conventionally measured in essay topics count terms of a trade intensity index (imports and exports relative to echeat GDP in current US$). Further, as expected, average trade intensity has increased in statistics SSA in line with the overall global increase, but not as rapidly as almost all other low and middle income regions (this trend is observed irrespective of whether the intensity index is calculated with or without country GDP weights). In spite of the increase in trade intensity, however, Africa's share of total world trade has fallen over these two decades. According to UNCTAD (2003), Africa's share of world exports fell from php, about 6 per cent to 1.5 per cent, and imports from creative critical, 5 per cent to essay php 1.5 per cent (merchandise trade) over the period from 1980 to essay topics of monte 2002. a World Bank, World Development Indicators 2005 (calculated from current US$ estimates).
b World Bank, World Development Indicators 2005 (calculations by Round, 2007). c World Bank, World Development Indicators 2005 (average annual per cent). Many countries in SSA have also intensified their efforts to attract FDI along other developing regions with various fiscal and other incentive measures. Table 2, reproduced here from echeat essay php, Round (2007), shows estimates of FDI flows (inflows and 2013, outflows combined) expressed relative to GDP and (net inflows) as shares of the echeat essay, total net FDI received by test, developing countries, in both cases shown at the regional level. SSA shows a marked increase in FDI relative to GDP from 0.30 in echeat essay the first period to 2.74 per cent in the final five-year period.
However, FDI flows to the region so far have been largely in extraction of oil and other natural resources. Creative Critical Thinking Test? Further, again, in terms of the regional shares of FDI, the estimates are far less favourable to SSA, attracting only essay, around 6 per cent of total net FDI inflows to developing countries throughout this period. It is worth noting that in the 1990s, when there was a marked increase in the share of a boon bane, developing countries as a whole in world total FDI, Africa's share fell to 4 per cent. a World Bank, World Development Indicators 2005 (average annual ratios). b I (inflows) and O (outflows). c World Bank, World Development Indicators 2005 (calculation by Round, 2007). d Net inflows only: net inflows dominate net outflows in these regions. e Regional shares of total net inflows across the six regions. Echeat Essay? (These may include flows between regions.) These aggregate measures such as the trade intensity index are the outcome of many factors and population a boon bane essay, conditions that could affect these ratios, including low levels of per capita income, geographical location and the trade composition, and as such cannot be used as an indicator of the echeat essay php, outcome of liberalization policies (Round, 2007).
As Pritchett (1996) argues, for the latter, a ‘structure-adjusted’ trade intensity index should be used, which takes into account a host of structural characteristics such as size of GDP per capita, resource endowments, location factors. Hence, it is necessary to apply due caution in cover letter teaching position with assessing the results of the echeat essay php, policy regime shift by using these aggregate measures alone. Nevertheless, SSA presents a clear case to support the arguments that the shift to creative test the open policy regime alone cannot bring about echeat php economic growth and anticipated positive impacts from globalization on poverty reduction. As shown in the lower part of a boon or a bane, Table 1, the growth performance in SSA has been poor throughout the 1980s and 1990s. After the two decades' reforms dominated by liberalization, privatization and deregulation, the economies in SSA have not yet come out from the ‘growth tragedy’ syndrome the term popularly used in echeat essay php characterizing the region's economic performance in the comparative growth literature. A large number of studies have emerged that have sought to explain the differences in economic performances across developing countries through theoretical modelling and cross-country regression analyses in essay count of monte cristo a framework of endogenous growth theory. These have further extended the list of factors giving rise to weaker growth performances of the African economies to an array of variables such as natural and institutional endowments, the essay, quality of institutions and essay topics cristo, governance and geography (Acemoglu et al ., 2001a, 2001b; Rodrik et al ., 2002; Sacks and Warner, 1995, 1997, 2001 among others). Referring to echeat essay php these studies and based on their analyses carried out within the AERC Growth project, O'Connell and Ndulu (2000) and Ndulu (2006) provide further explanations for the slow growth of the SSA economies in terms of sovereign fragmentation, ethno-linguistic fractionalization and more generally geographical disadvantages. These conditions are seen to college statistics result in uncharacteristically high costs of development in the region and could explain in a large part the lower rates of economic growth, investment and very low productivity of echeat php, investment in SSA compared with other developing countries.
They observe that both the growth rates and investment efficiency in SSA are about half of the average obtained in other developing regions. It should be worth noting that the recent upturn in economic growth recorded in many natural resource-rich economies in SSA is comparison, closely associated with the price hike of oil and mineral commodities in the world markets. The growth rate of real GDP for oil-producing countries and resource-intensive countries in echeat SSA during the cover letter for a teaching with no experience, period of 20025 was 6.2 per cent and 7.0 per cent respectively, twice higher than those achieved by non-oil producing and php, resource-poor economies in the region (Round, 2007). Critical Test? 2 The sustainability of echeat essay php, such a high growth rate is very much dependent on exogenous factors unless windfalls of commodity booms are used purposely for diversification and transformation of economic and trade structures. Highly competent macroeconomic management over the commodity price cycle is required to avoid the ‘Dutch disease’ associated with the commodity boom (Nissanke, 1993). Otherwise, the population a boon essay, foundation for long-term economic development of these natural resource-rich economies would remain fragile. Indeed, today, several decades after gaining political independence, the high primary commodity-dependence remains one of the essay, most conspicuous characteristics of the trade linkage of countries in SSA with the rest of the world. The failure of these economies to diversify and undergo structural transformation, and hence, to for a teaching no experience benefit from the technology-driven, highly dynamic aspects of essay php, on-going globalization has entailed a high cost to population or a the region not only in low economic growth but also in persistent poverty. The incidence and depth of poverty has deepened in echeat essay the region.
According to the estimates provided by Chen and Ravallion (2004), reported in Round (2007), the number of statistics help, poor, measured in income poverty based on the US$1 a day international poverty line, increased in SSA, almost doubling from about 164 million in 1981 to 313 million in 2001 (Table 3). As the total number of poor in the world fell on account of the sharp reduction in China and other countries in php Asia for this period, the proportion of the world's poor in Africa rose from statistics, about 11 per cent to approximately 29 per echeat cent during this period. In terms of the headcount ratio, the test, poverty incidence in SSA is 46 per cent in 2001 the highest in the world. Ali and Thorbecke (2000) argue that poverty in SSA is both most prevalent and severe in rural areas. a Chen and essay, Ravallion (2004, Table 3) based on international poverty line (US$1.08 1993 PPP). b Chen and Ravallion (2004, Table 4) based on international poverty line (US$1.08 1993 PPP). Poverty is an essentially multi-dimensional concept that can only imperfectly be assessed by money-metric measures such as income or consumption. Sahn and Younger (2007) explore how globalization affected non-income measures of well-being health and education in and grendel comparison Africa over the past 1520 years. Echeat? They expected to essay topics count cristo find, as they had previously in Latin America, that progress in the provision of public services and the focus of public spending in the social sector would contribute to declining poverty and php, inequality in health and education, even in an environment of stagnant or worsening income poverty. Unfortunately, their results indicate that in the area of health, little progress is being made in terms of reducing pre-school age-stunting, a clear and robust manifestation of poor overall health.
Likewise, their health inequality measure revealed that there was, on balance, little evidence of success in improving equality of outcomes. Similar results were obtained in their examination of underweight women as an indicator of general current health of adults. While the story is somewhat more positive with regard to education, the overall picture gives little cause for cover for a no experience, optimism that Africa has, or will soon reap the essay php, benefits of the process of globalization, unless it scales up efforts in a number of the fronts including the provision of public services in the social sector. Furthermore, as Milanovic (2003) notes, countries in SSA have a relatively high intra-country inequality among the highest in essay topics count cristo the world. This can be seen as a puzzle: Africa should be a low-inequality continent according to the Kuznets hypothesis because ‘African countries are poor and agriculture-based, and also because the main productive asset agricultural land is relatively evenly distributed in essay most of SSA (except the region of Southern Africa) in part thanks to the tradition of help, communal-land holding’ (Milanovic, 2003, p. 2). Round (2007) also notes that the degree of income inequality in Africa has increased sharply between the 1980s and the 1990s. There is no doubt that sustained poverty reduction requires economic growth. However, as we note elsewhere (Nissanke and Thorbecke, 2006), the pattern of growth does significantly affect the rate of poverty reduction. In this context, it can be argued that Africa's growth has been distinctly against essay php, the poor not only in int 2 2013 terms of its ability to deliver the required growth rate to ensure that the poor could benefit from economic growth, but also in terms of echeat essay, its pattern.
Economic growth in SSA, where it has occurred, has not been translated much into statistics, poverty reduction. Critically, the nature and pattern of integration into the global economy in SSA as well as domestic conditions have not been conducive to generating virtuous cycles of globalization-induced growth as generally observed in Asia (Nissanke, 2007). In most of East Asia, the structural transformation of their economies has been considerably facilitated by the integration/globalization process. As we suggest in Nissanke and Thorbecke (2008), the growth accompanied by a substantial reduction of abject poverty in East Asia can be explained in terms of the essay php, region-wide comparative advantage recycling in production and export of labour-intensive goods. The process involves a strong demand for unskilled and semi-skilled labour, driven by thinking, exporting labour intensive goods and echeat essay php, pro-trade FDI through effective technology and knowledge skill transfer. Beowulf Comparison Essay? 3 Most of the East and essay php, South-East Asian economies have successfully gone through the structural transformation of their production and trade structures with continuous upgrading of their human skill endowments and technology/knowledge base. Critical Thinking? By relying on their dynamic comparative advantages these countries were able to echeat essay maximize the benefits from and grendel comparison essay, dynamic externalities. Specialization in essay sectors with large spillovers and dynamic externalities is more apt to engender a pattern of equalizing growth. Moreover, in most of essay of monte, East Asia, the pro-poor pattern of public expenditure in favour of essay, rural poor at help early stages of development produced and sustained the ‘shared’ growth for some time. There were concerted efforts on the part of governments to facilitate building primary assets of the echeat, poor through such measures as an equitable distribution of land (through appropriate land reforms); extensive public provision of bane, free and universal primary education; promotion of small-scale enterprises and development of rural infrastructure roads, irrigation, schools, agricultural support outposts, health stations, and irrigation systems.
In contrast, the high susceptibility and vulnerability to echeat essay exogenous shocks through its fragile trade linkage may have left SSA behind and suffering from vicious cycles of globalization-induced decline (Nissanke, 2007; Nissanke and Thorbecke, 2006). Many parts of SSA remain isolated from global markets and the global community as the region's access to int 2 coursework information and technology is limited. There is some evidence to suggest that in SSA ‘globalization may be associated with increasing inequality and (hence) with an increase in poverty’ (Round, 2007). 3.2 Case Studies of the Impact of Globalization on Poverty within Sub-Saharan Africa. The six case studies in this issue cover the macromicro spectrum from completely aggregate focusing on the whole SSA continent to detailed village studies. They also rely on a variety of techniques such as computable general equilibrium modelling, reduced form regression equations, benefit incidence analysis, and qualitative and quantitative surveys of echeat essay, rural households.
Likewise, these studies employ a wide range of cover letter for a teaching position, data sets ranging from cross-sectional data covering all SSA countries to very detailed micro surveys of villages to explore how different manifestations of globalization such as trade liberalization, FDI, migration within and between rural and urban areas, rural commercialization and institutional changes in land tenure systems affected the structure of growth and poverty. 4. Fosu and Mold analyze the gains from trade liberalization for SSA estimated by previous studies on multilateral liberalization, focusing on findings from a number of computable general equilibrium models. They conclude that studies on the global implications for poverty reduction from trade liberalization are constrained by data limitations but that, in any case, the impact is likely to be very modest with one recent estimate of only 20 million fewer poor for the whole SSA region. On the basis of simulation exercises run on the standard GTAP model the authors calculate that the welfare gains from further trade liberalization would be minuscule of the order of one-fourth of one per cent of SSA's GDP (excluding South Africa, the welfare result is a loss for echeat essay, SSA). Fosu and Mold suggest that African countries reconsider the emphasis of coursework, their policies towards trade, for example by essay, pushing more aggressively the agenda on regional trade liberalization and the much higher potential pay-off of population a boon or a bane, policies facilitating international migration.
Finally, the authors warn that without sufficient reforms that render labour demand more elastic, the essay, marginal expected gains from trade for SSA are most unlikely to create significantly more employment and could possibly even result in adverse effects on poverty reduction. Asiedu and Gyimah-Brempong explore the int 2, effect of capital liberalization (as a manifestation of globalization) on employment and the flow of FDI in Africa. Two empirical equations are estimated on the basis of data for 33 African countries over the period 19842003. The first equation regresses FDI in country i at time t on FDI policy in the same country and echeat essay, time-span; while the a boon bane, second equation regresses employment on echeat essay php, FDI policy. Assuming that capital and labour are complementary inputs, one would expect an increase in capital inputs to lead to an increase in labour inputs hence employment. However, two qualifications need to be made: first, multinational firms investing in Africa are likely to population a boon essay adopt relatively modern technologies that are capital- and skill-intensive using relatively little unskilled workers and php, possibly shedding some; and second, when the motivation for FDI is tariff-jumping to serve protected markets the outcome is unclear; liberalization policies could lead to increased or decreased employment.
Given the relatively small sizes of African countries the tariff jumping motive may not be relevant and beowulf and grendel, only of essay php, marginal importance. Int 2 Computing 2013? Based on their econometric work, the authors found strong evidence that the liberalization of echeat, investment policies is positively associated with FDI flows to Africa. Population A Boon Bane? In turn, capital liberalization by essay, encouraging investment, indirectly stimulates employment by thinking, multinational firms. Noting that FDI tends to employ skilled labour, Asiedu and Gyimah-Brempong recommend that to ensure that some of the benefits of FDI go to the poor, countries might consider implementing policies that encourage multinational companies to utilize more unskilled labour through such incentives as tax breaks. Daniels examines how trade liberalization through price transmission affects the echeat php, welfare of female-headed households as opposed to male-headed households.
By focusing on three years, i.e. 1995, 2000, and cover for a teaching position with no experience, 2004, Daniels is echeat, able to evaluate the impact of tariff reductions on gender in letter teaching position with no experience two periods, 19952000 and 20002004. The study reveals that the consumption pattern of female-headed households is different from php, that of male-headed households ceteris paribus : women tend to allocate a larger proportion of the budget to and grendel comparison food, child and health care than men and vice versa for echeat essay php, alcohol and tobacco products. Hence female-headed households benefited relatively more from tariff reductions on imported food, while men benefited relatively more from tariff reductions on alcoholic beverages and tobacco products. Another interesting finding is that the impact of the first period round of tariff reductions was strongly in favour of the wealthy and the very poor in contrast with the tariff reductions in the second period which favoured the lower part of the income distribution. Most economies in SSA significantly liberalized their trade and investment regimes as part of Structural Adjustment Programmes since the int 2 computing coursework 2013, mid 1980s. Yet, most rural communities in the region were left relatively untouched by the globalization process, as they have remained isolated due to the poor physical infrastructure and high transaction costs as well as the rudimentary stage of other market supporting institutions hindering access to markets and information. Essay Php? The last three papers included in this issue examine a few mechanisms through which globalization affected rural poverty in Ghana, Nigeria, and Cameroon, respectively, using household survey data. Oduro and critical thinking, Osei-Akoto investigate the factors that influence market participation and poverty profiles by conducting a comparative analysis of php, four villages in Ghana. The starting point of their empirical investigation is that globalization is predicated not only on the liberalization of the external trade regime, but also on the existence of the supportive infrastructure and institutions needed to population a boon or a bane essay facilitate the flow of goods, services and information.
The authors chose four different rural communities for their case studies: the essay, first is located on the coast, close to essay Accra, the capital city, engaging in producing and exporting a non-traditional commodity (pineapples); the second is located in the forest zone, consisting predominantly of cocoa farmers; the third, located on the border of the forest and savannah zone produces domestic food crops such as cereals and root crops for echeat essay php, the domestic market; and the fourth is situated in the savannah zone to the north of the country, with few links to the domestic and international markets. They calculate the pattern of output commercialization ratios by crop and location and try to explain the variation of these ratios in terms of resource endowments of individual farmers and their households as well as institutional variables such as credit, membership of cooperatives, land tenure system, access to market information and marketing arrangements. On the basis of their empirical results, they suggest that the rural economy in Ghana is not adequately endowed with social and economic infrastructure and market supporting institutions to int 2 computing 2013 participate effectively in the globalization process. Essay Php? Their findings also confirm that access to information and int 2 computing 2013, institutions that are conducive to participation in domestic and global markets is very unevenly distributed within rural economies and the very poor are particularly disadvantaged in essay this regard. Onyeiwu, Polimeni, and Polimeni examine the distributional and poverty impact of globalization-induced migration on a rural community in Nigeria. Using micro-level survey data from over a boon or a bane essay 300 poor households in a small village of south-east Nigeria (about 30 miles from the regional capital), the echeat, paper investigates whether individuals who migrate from the village to int 2 computing take advantage of the echeat essay, urban-biased globalization process do better than non-migrant villagers. According to the authors, this village is representative of a rural Nigerian village, isolated and very poorly endowed with physical infrastructure such as transport and power/water supply. Food crop-based agriculture is mainly for subsistence and fragile due to the low soil quality. The villagers are extremely poor with 87 per cent of all the respondents living below US$1 per day and 94 per cover position no experience cent below US$2 per day.
When Port Harcourt, a big oil city, started experiencing a huge increase of FDI flow under globalization in the 1980s, about echeat essay php 20 per cent of int 2 computing, villagers began to move to a regional capital not far from Port Harcourt to take advantage of the job opportunities opened up by the FDI-induced globalization process and diversify risks facing them as farmers. However, the echeat essay php, change in relative prices against urban poor and migrant workers, resulting from the implementation of the Structural Adjustment Programmes, reduced the statistics, real incomes of migrant workers. The paper concludes that, while the echeat, migrant villagers tend to earn slightly higher incomes than the non-migrant villagers, the poverty profiles of both categories of households remain essentially the same. Hence, they argue that globalization has not succeeded in alleviating poverty amongst the poor villagers who migrated. In addition, there has been an increasing feminization of poverty because of the rising number of female-headed households left behind by migrating males. Baye illustrates how the population or a, evolving land-tenure arrangements under globalization are prone to generate conflict situations over land rights in Cameroon, and then examines the implications of such conflicts on security in accessing primary assets for the poor in two villages located in different ecological zones one in the north-west highland and the other in the south-west lowland provinces in Anglophone Cameroon.
The author argues that the land laws in Cameroon are an outcome of its colonial heritage and exist alongside the communal tenure system, creating formal and informal institutions governing access to the prime productive asset of the echeat essay, poor. The ambiguity and inconsistency surrounding these arrangements generates and college statistics, exacerbates conflict situations, which create insecurity and restrict productivity-enhancing investments on land. The first village, situated in echeat essay a savannah grassland region with poor infrastructure, is a more homogenous community in terms of ethnicity and tradition. It experiences net out-migration, but is more dynamic in synchronizing group effort. In comparison, the second village, situated in a fertile agricultural ecological zone, has historically attracted migrants with fairly developed farm-to-market roads and also established large plantations of banana, rubber, and oil palms. Commercialization of agricultural produce is college, much more advanced and land markets are more buoyant in the second village. As the issue of land awareness comes to the fore, engendered by population pressure, relative price changes and essay, the commoditization of land, conflicts have developed farmergrazer conflicts in the first village, and farmerfarmer, and indigenous peoplestate conflicts in the second village.
The rent-seeking attitude of help, administrative and judicial authorities, who exploit inconsistencies in the dual tenure system, tends to reduce the possibility of negotiating lasting solutions to land-related conflicts in the surveyed villages. The author also observes that land transfer in the first village characterized by a more homogenous society with strong traditional conventions, remains biased in favour of males, while the second village enjoys gender neutrality in access to land. However, the changes in relative prices between traditional cash crops and food cash crops under globalization tend to modify the division of labour by gender in both villages. In summary, while globalization has made some contribution to economic growth in SSA, it has not yet facilitated the process of structural transformation required for essay php, countries in SSA to reach the take-off stage and accelerate economic development and poverty reduction. Instead, it has increased intra-country inequality and done very little to reduce poverty. The case studies have illustrated clearly that the impact of globalization on poverty are extremely context-specific. In general, however, the limited scope of test, globalization in SSA appears to be the result of php, a combination of poor initial conditions, such as fundamental disadvantages of location (disease-prone tropical countries with a harsh environment); inadequate political institutions; extremely under-developed physical infrastructure, and a related high risk investment climate.
5 Progress on creative thinking, all these fronts will be necessary if Africa is to enjoy the potential benefits of globalization. The first two sections of this introduction are based on the first two publications of this UNU-WIDER project, i.e. Nissanke and Thorbecke (2006 and 2007). The data are from the IMF Regional Economic Outlook: Sub-Saharan Africa, September 2005. The growth rate of real GDP per capita is of course much more modest, as the population growth rates are high in most countries in SSA.
The six case studies in this issue were presented at the UNU-WIDER conference on ‘The Impact of Globalization on the Poor in echeat Africa’, held in int 2 computing Johannesburg in December 2005. See Dercon (2007) for a more thorough discussion of these issues. The Authors. Journal compilation African Development Bank 2008. Issue online: 12 March 2008 Version of record online: 12 March 2008. Acemoglu, D. , S. Echeat Php? Johnson and J. A. Robinson ( 2001a ), ‘ Reversal of Fortune: Geography and Institutions in the Making of creative thinking test, Modern World Income Distribution ’, NBER Working Paper 8460, Cambridge , MA . Acemoglu, D. , S. Johnson and J. A. Echeat Essay Php? Robinson ( 2001b ), ‘ The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation ’, NBER Working Paper 7771, Cambridge , MA . Ali, A. and E. Thorbecke ( 2000 ), ‘ The State and Path of Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa: Some Preliminary Results ’, Journal of African Economies , Vol. 9 , No. 1 , Supplement, pp.
9 40 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 14 Chen, S. and M. Ravallion ( 2004 ), ‘ How Have the World's Poorest Fared since the college, Early 1980s ?’, World Bank Research Observer , Vol. 19 , No. 2 , pp. 141 70 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 46 Dercon, S. ( 2007 ), ‘ Globalization and Marginalization in php Africa: Poverty, Risk and Vulnerability in Rural Ethiopia ’, UNU-WIDER Research Paper, 2007/73. College Help? Milanovic, B. ( 2003 ), ‘ Is Inequality in Africa Really Different ?’, Policy Research Working Paper 3169, World Bank, Washington , DC . Ndulu, B. Echeat Essay? ( 2006 ), ‘ Infrastructure, Regional Integration and Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: Dealing with the Disadvantages of Geography and Sovereign Fragmentation ’, Journal of African Economies , Vol. 15 , No. 2 , Supplement, pp. 212 44 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 2 Nissanke, M. ( 1993 ), ‘ Stabilization-cum-Adjustment over the Commodity Price Cycle ’ in M.Nissanke and A.Hewitt (eds.), Economic Crisis in or a essay Developing Countries : New Perspectives on Commodities, Trade and Finance , Pinter, London . Nissanke, M. ( 2007 ), ‘ Pro-Poor Globalisation: an echeat essay, Elusive Concept or a Realistic Perspective ?’, SOAS Inaugural Lecture Series, University of London. Nissanke, M. and test, E. Thorbecke ( 2006 ), ‘ Channels and Policy Debate in the GlobalisationInequalityPoverty Nexus ’, World Development , Vol. 34 , No.
8 , pp. Essay Php? 1338 60 , in the Special Issue: The Impact of Globalization on the World's Poor. CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 7 Nissanke, M. and comparison, E. Thorbecke ( 2007 ), The Impact of Globalization on the World's Poor: Transmission Mechanisms , Palgrave Macmillan for UNU-WIDER, Basingstoke . CrossRef Nissanke, M. and E. Thorbecke ( 2008 ), Globalization and the Poor in Asia: Can Shared Growth be Sustained ? Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke . CrossRef Pritchett, L. ( 1996 ), ‘ Measuring Outward Orientation in echeat essay php LDCs: Can it Be Done ?’, Journal of Development Economics , Vol. 49 , No. 307 35 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 56 O'Connell, S. and B. Ndulu ( 2000 ), Africa's Growth Performance: A Focus on Sources of Growth , African Economic Research Consortium, Nairobi . Ozawa, T. ( 2006 ), ‘ Asia's Labour-Driven Economic Development, Flying-Geese Style: An Unprecedented Opportunity for creative critical thinking test, the Poor to Rise ?’, UNU-WIDER Research Paper 2006/59, UNU-WIDER, Helsinki . Rodrik, D. , A. Subramanian and F. Trebbi ( 2002 ), ‘ Institutions Rule: The Primacy of Institutions over Integration and Geography in Economic Development ’, International Monetary Fund Working Paper 02/189, Washington , DC . Round, J. ( 2007 ), ‘ Globalization, Growth, Inequality and echeat essay php, Poverty in Africa: A Macroeconomic Perspective ’, UNU-WIDER Research Paper 2007/55. Sachs, J. D. and A. M. Warner ( 1995 ), ‘ Natural Resource Abundance and Economic Growth ’, NBER Working Paper 5398, Cambridge , MA . Essay Topics Count? Sachs, J. D. and A. M. Warner ( 1997 ), ‘ Sources of Slow Growth in African Economies ’, Journal of African Economies , Vol. 6 , No.
3 , pp. 335 76 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 141 Sachs, J. D. and echeat essay, A. M. Warner ( 2001 ), ‘ The Curse of Natural Resources ’, European Economic Review , Vol. Population A Boon Bane Essay? 45 , pp. 827 38 . Essay? CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 159 Sahn, D. and S. Younger ( 2007 ), ‘ Inequality and Poverty in Africa in an Era of Globalization: Looking beyond Income to Health and Education ’, UNU-WIDER Research Paper 2007/74. Articles related to the one you are viewing. 1 Eric Akobeng , Growth and Institutions: A Potential Medicine for the Poor in Sub-Saharan Africa, African Development Review , 2016 , 28 , 1, 1 Wiley Online Library 2 Mawdudur Rahman , Mostaq Hussain , Social business, accountability, and performance reporting, Humanomics , 2012 , 28 , 2, 118 CrossRef 3 Maktoba Omar , Collins Osei , Ayantunji Gbadamosi , Re-branding Africa, Marketing Intelligence Planning , 2011 , 29 , 3, 284 CrossRef.
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A critical analysis of Philip Larkin's 'Mr Bleaney'. Extracts from this document. Rachael Ward Tutor: Mr R. Pooley Twentieth Century Literature: 20% Exercise A critical analysis of Philip Larkin's 'Mr Bleaney'. Richard Davie once claimed that whilst he recognised in essay php Larkin's [poetry] the seasons of college present-day England, [he also] recognised. the seasons of an English soul.1 In fact Philip Larkin's very interest in human nature, together with his dislike of essay . self-indulgent romanticism. 2, contributed to the character and final draft of 'Mr Bleaney'. By pulling the life and personality of the ordinary English bachelor with that of the poetic personae who is cover teaching no experience about to buy into Mr Bleaney's apartment, not to mention his life and ways, Larkin is able debate whether 'how we live [actually] measures our own nature', a fear that plagued the author as well as the poetic personae. Essay! As we are escorted around Mr Bleaney's apartment the landlady describes how he stayed there 'the whole time he was at int 2 computing 2013 the Bodies'. Echeat Php! To be at 'the Bodies' suggests that Mr Bleaney's stay in the apartment and even on a boon or a essay, this earth was only temporary.
His body appears to be just a casing, thus implying that Mr Bleaney was simply the php, shell of man who was waiting to die. . read more. an anonymous and autocratic landlady.6 Mr Bleaney, after all depends on his sister's independence for his Christmas celebrations and a married couple for the holidays. Additionally the lack of books is substituted for the 'jabbering set', which is important as at the time 'Mr Bleaney' was written Larkin had recently moved into an uncomfortable apartment where he complained that the radio was a nightmare7, a mere way of rotting the brain. Instead of being independent Mr Bleaney has become almost numb to int 2 computing coursework, the rest of echeat essay php humanity. In the end Mr Bleaney's so-called life is ideal without really being a life. In this sense Mr Bleaney and the narrator are both extremely isolated, Mr Bleaney's only form of beowulf comparison communication being the 'jabbering TV set', whilst the poetic personae interestingly tries to essay php, 'drown [out the sound]. with cotton wool', in some way the former ears have already been 'stuffed' by it.
However this isolation is also shown in the distance between Mr Bleaney and nature. Like Larkin who on the one hand was an extreme humanist [who made] himself numb to the non-human world in order to stay compassionate towards the human8, Mr Bleaney doesn't contemplate the essay of monte, 'frigid wind tousling the clouds' choosing only to emphasis his own control by taking the 'bit of garden properly in hand'. . read more. Here there is a sudden realisation for the narrator, the delayed 'I don't know' echoing throughout the echeat php, rest of the poem eclipsing what the narrator had been convinced he was better than. In the end neither Mr Bleaney nor the narrator 'warranted no better' than a 'hired box'. 'Mr Bleaney' is an int 2 coursework 2013 exploration of a small world and is concerned primarily with the self-revelation of the echeat php, narrator, not to mention the thinking test, author, as when regarded an php insight into Philip Larkin, 'Mr Bleaney' is a breaking away from his [own] self protecting privacy. 14. A Boon Essay! The narrator realises that the small world of Mr Bleaney has become the php, same small world that he belongs to. The main figure of the poem, therefore is not 'Mr Bleaney' but the narrator, who struggles with the essay, worth of essay php his own life. Help! Whilst he may have learnt to respect Mr Bleaney simply because he is content leading an ordinary life, he may also resent him for making him realise that he isn't a superior figure, but belongs to the same real world as Mr Bleaney, bringing about the sudden collapse of his own morale15. 'Mr Bleaney' is an intelligent poem that explores ideas of male identity, loneliness, simple modesty and false fantasies bringing them all into essay php, small yet equally complicated real world. . read more. This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in thinking our University Degree Larkin section.
Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Related University Degree Larkin essays. Php! Some critics suggest that Larkin portrays human existence as bleak in his poetry - . It also implies that there is another person with the narrator. It can be ascertained that this other voice is the Landlady. The utilisation of un-poetic concrete nouns 'Bed, upright chair, sixty watt bulb' emphasise a rigid routine. 'Behind the and grendel, door, no room for books or bags' begins the echeat php, third stanza.
Discursive Written Analysis of Wherever I Hang by Grace Nichols and Reflections by Mario . repetition of nouns and reiteration determiners to emphasise just what she has given up to come to a new land. Possibly giving the reader the vehicle of travel and a new country and the tenor of a lack of feeling of belongingness. By referring to at least two poems, discuss by what means Larkin illustrates the . As well as this, cigarettes are another way of advertising in of monte cristo the poem and illusion pervades this, as it does not explain that these smokers are dying. Finally, similar to 'Sunny Prestatyn,' we are left with a dramatically effective last few lines where illusion becomes reality because it is the nature of 'Essential Beauty.' Critical evaluation of High Windows by echeat, Philip Larkin. The older generation of Larkin's youth are shown to 2013, be jealous of the echeat essay, freedom that young people have with respect to the church and and grendel essay the lack of control it had over their lives, whilst Larkin's generation are concerned at echeat essay having missed out on the so called sexual revolution that they see taking place around them. Larkin - a look at the mood poems were written in by Larkin. (Larkin page 143 Wild Oats) He does everything with her but still has a crush on the English Rose. Computing! This leads the girlfriend of his to then say to him: That I was too selfish, withdrawn, And easily bored to love. The Whitsun Weddingsamp;quot; is Larkin's longest poem and describes the essay php, protagonists long, leisurely train . It is debatable whether the ending of the poem is pessimistic or hopeful.
The bright sunlit. Whitsun' of the opening verse has become rain by the end of the poem. College Help! The word rain can be interpreted negatively (dreary and depressing), however, rain is also associated with life and fertility. Essay Php! An interviewer once remarked to Larkin thatamp;quot; Your favourite subjects are failure and weaknessamp;quot; . Larkin goes on to describe Mr Bleaney's lifestyle. Position With! He the bleak, predictable routine in his life, 'I know his habits-what time he came down, his preference for sauce to gravy' This could be a big flaw in Mr Bleaney's life, his routine. This could suggest that his life was unfulfilling and boring and the subject of failure is brought up again. A Critical Appreciation of Campos De Castilla. Echeat Essay! Machado makes references to many humble characters which he associates with the Soria countryside, namely in this poem that of jinetes, arrieros and a self reference to a guisa de pastoril.
This interest has much to do with the concept of intrahistoria in essay which the most significant part of a nation's life takes place beneath the surface of historical events. of student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and echeat essay php Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the rest? Sign up to and grendel comparison, view the whole essay and download the PDF for echeat, anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone. Beowulf Comparison Essay! Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Looking for php, expert help with your Linguistics, Classics and related subjects work?
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The . metaphor of caring if the essay, trust, professional, mutual respect, caring , partnership the giving of self to others to beowulf and grendel comparison regain their trust for us to essay php do our duty as a registered nurse to provide for essay of monte cristo, our own survival while hoping to php get a flow of a great amount of computing coursework, people at risk of their survival for us not to be sent home for not being busy with, dying, sick, patients is to truly. Bachelor of echeat, Science in essay topics of monte, Nursing , Florence Nightingale , Healthcare occupations 1497 Words | 4 Pages. To the Elderly , It has come to my attention that retirement for the elderly has become more than the aged merely going into php, a . metaphoric hibernation, to topics count of monte cristo rest after the struggles of echeat php, life, no, retirement has turned into more than just a time of rest. Retirement has become an imprisonment for you our respected and dearly beloved forefathers. Retirement has and is turning you energetic, happy, dandy elderly into sluggish, boring, irksome, golf playing couch potatoes. This is population or a bane essay a large concern to our. Ageing , Death , Elderly care 1006 Words | 3 Pages. Top Ten Problems the Elderly Face With Transportation Add to my favorites Print Jan 17, 2011 | By Walt Pickut Top Ten Problems the . Elderly Face With Transportation Photo Credit Jupiterimages/BananaStock/Getty Images You might be called elderly if you are older than 60, by some definitions, and your physical abilities might start limiting your freedom to go where you want to go when you want to go there. Essay. For instance, according to a 2011 report by and grendel comparison essay statisticians at Caregivers Library, there. Ageing , Bus , Elderly care 651 Words | 3 Pages. for the echeat, Homeless 2201 P Street, NW Washington, DC 20037-1033 http://www.nationalhomeless.org Tel.
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There are endless possibilities of php, concepts that loan themselves to analysis. For your paper in this course we . are going to keep it simple. Topics Count Of Monte Cristo. You can choose one of the following four concepts for your paper: caring , hope, trust or fear. 2. Determine the aim or purpose of the analysis. Ask yourself Why am I doing this? The answer may be something similar to clarifying meanings, developing an operational definition, or may be as simple as “I have to…” 3. Identify. Concept , Concepts , Idea 1293 Words | 4 Pages. caring for the elderly L3 unit safeguarding of vulnerble adults. the elderly and disabled are more at risk of this as they may not understand what is happing or be able to defend themselves. Echeat Php. physical abuse . can be caused in many different ways such as: * Biting * Hitting * Punching * Restraint * Slapping * Pushing * Misuse of topics of monte, Medicines * Inappropriate sanctions These are the most common ways of physical abuse . the main signs of abuse are: * lacerations * dislocations * bruising * fractures * finger prints If you are caring for. Abuse , Bruise , Bullying 1423 Words | 6 Pages.
Honor Thy Father and Mother: an Essay Concerning the Condition of Elderly Care in the United States. Jason Brown English 101: Personal Narrative Essay Serptember 4, 2013 Honor Thy Father and Mother: An Essay Concerning the essay php, . Condition of Elderly Care in the United States In the world we live in, we grow up and get older. It's a sad and simple fact that we can't be young forever. When we are growing up, we are cared for by our parents, relatives, and many more people. Cover. They care for us because at that point in our lives, we didn't know how to echeat essay php take care of ourselves. As we grew older we learned. Abuse , Elderly care , Geriatrics 1312 Words | 4 Pages. Care for the Elderly The greatest challenge for health care is for the Elderly . The elderly population has . And Grendel Essay. been rising steadily for echeat php, the past few decades.
The elderly population is help usually defined as people aged 65 years or above. However, a longer life span in essay php, the elderly population brings along poorer health. This involves an increased demand for health care services for elderly people. Population Or A. About two-thirds of the elderly population has limited or no monthly income and this generation will have. Ageing , Ageism , Aging 1089 Words | 3 Pages. ? Mayeroff’s Major Ingredients of Caring Related to Coaching Soccer This essay explains how Milton Mayeroff’s . “Major Ingredients of Caring ,” in his book, On Caring , relates to coaching soccer. There are eight “ingredients” that Mayeroff discusses in echeat php, his book that all relate to becoming a successful coach. If a coach anaylzes and considers each ingredient, he can deeply develop his skill as a caring trainer and guide of the int 2 2013, players in his charge.
Mayeroff’s basic principle is that. Association football , Association football terminology , Corner kick 1699 Words | 5 Pages. Depression in the Elderly Depression later in life frequently coexists with other medical illnesses and disabilities. Echeat Essay Php. In addition, . advancing age is often accompanied by loss of key social support systems due to the death of a spouse or siblings, retirement, and/or relocation of count, residence. Echeat Essay Php. Because of their change in circumstances and the fact that they're expected to position slow down, doctors and essay, family may miss the diagnosis of and grendel essay, depression in elderly people, delaying effective treatment. As a result. Death , Electroconvulsive therapy , Gerontology 1245 Words | 4 Pages. ? Parole For The Elderly CJHS/430 Evelyn Diaz 12/08/14 Tina Sebring Paroling the essay php, elderly and sick could be the . best way to deal with the cost and overcrowding of he prisons. There is a large number of topics count, inmates who are elderly and have served half their sentence or more. Even though this is a good idea there are many factors that need to echeat essay be taken into consideration. The most important of these factors is population or a bane community safety.
In this paper, we will discuss the echeat essay php, arguments for and against keeping. Corrections , Criminal justice , Health care 1147 Words | 5 Pages. ? Elderly Abuse Name California State University of Sacramento Lifespan stage and counseling-related problems. As part of being a . human being, we are born and we grow old as time passes and then we die as life comes to creative critical an end. Part of human development is the stage of late adulthood. From the book “Human Behavior in the Social Environment,” by Jose B. Ashford and Craig Winston LeCroy, the years from age sixty until death are considered late adulthood. At this stage of life, there are. Abuse , Ageing , Ageism 2036 Words | 9 Pages.
2008). The fundamental basis to echeat nursing is caring , which is defined as “to feel interested or concerned by” (Hawkins J. et. al. Beowulf Comparison. (2003)). . Within the nursing profession caring , or care is a much more detailed process, it incorporates knowing, the echeat php, way in which we understand and perceive the world, and knowledge, referring to what is taken to be accurate and evidence based (Chinn p. and Kramer M. 1999). Count. The article will explore how we came from the caring of Florence Nightingale, to the science of. Florence Nightingale , Health , Health care 1636 Words | 5 Pages. ? Elderly Abuse and Neglect When discussing abuse and neglect we often think of echeat, children first. That being said, children are not the . only a boon or a bane, ones who will be abused and/or neglected. In fact, this happens to some elderly as well.
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African slave trade , Answer , Atlantic slave trade 857 Words | 4 Pages. Communication strategies police can use with the elderly. (2002) defines elderly as 'past middle age', and the term middle aged is essay php described as 'the time of human life between youth and old age, . usually reckoned as the years between 40 and 60', (Dictonary.com, 2005). Of Monte Cristo. From these definitions, an elderly person is someone who is over the age of 60. This age group accounts for around 2.5 million people, which is over 12.8% of Australia's population. (Photius Coutsoukis, 2004) This essay will outline the majority of problems that the elderly have and will describe. Audiogram , Communication , Deaf culture 1717 Words | 6 Pages. As we all know, one of the global issues, ageing population has affected the worldwide and are known to increase within the next few decades. This . essay will analyse the impact of ageing population where it is echeat one of the essay, main impacts of global issues in the 21st century today which have influences on not only essay php, socially and essay topics cristo, economically but also politically as well from the Ministry of Health. Php. In addition, the ageing population have effects from different perspectives such as towards the New Zealand. Ageing , Aging , Demography 1905 Words | 5 Pages.
networks Daily This discussion focuses on three models of healthcare in essay count of monte cristo, today’s society and the different aspects of echeat essay, longterm care for the . And Grendel Essay. elderly . A healthcare model is ………… Three popular healthcare models are 1._______2._______3.________. Positive aspects concerning all three models are 1._______2._______3.________. State how each model helps the elderly with long term care: increase functionality, promoting health, proper ways of identifying risk factor “studies have found a strong relationship. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services , Health care , Health insurance 953 Words | 4 Pages. A Study of Nurse Caring Megan McMahon University of Illinois at Chicago A Study of Nurse Caring Although there are many . common themes in both nursing practice and nursing theory, the concept of caring in nursing may be the most central theme of essay php, them all.
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The Elderly, a Vulnerable Population. The Elderly , a vulnerable population Nina Brown BSHS 301 Introduction to Human Services September 20, 2011 University of int 2 2013, Phoenix . Alberto Reynoso The Elderly , a vulnerable population Many segments of the population can fall prey to the abuses of others, it can be physical, mental, sexual, and even financial; the essay php, elderly are a vulnerable group. The elderly can be susceptible to essay influences that can be devastating to their well- being. Abuse , Child abuse , Domestic violence 1465 Words | 4 Pages. Assessment: The Impact of falls in the Elderly Grand Canyon University: NRV433V-1030 Date: November 01, 20013 Falls . and essay, its related injuries is alarming problem with the elderly population that needed prompt attention of authorities and society, impact on the elderly population is serious. In the article many aspect of falls and its impact in the elderly population is studied. It is important to reduce the associated risk factors of falls in the elderly . Population A Boon Or A Bane. Falls continued to be the major. Demography , Life expectancy , Mortality rate 1005 Words | 3 Pages. HEALTH STATUS OF THE ELDERLY IN SELECTED BARANGAYS OF THE CITY OF VIGAN. ?HEALTH STATUS OF THE ELDERLY IN SELECTED BARANGAYS OF THE CITY OF VIGAN: DIMENSIONS AND CORRELATES Introduction Older adults . in our society are stereotyped.
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WRITTEN RESPONSE This essay aims to represent an argument between two view points: to remain in their own homes with ongoing support . from population bane essay, families and the health system or going to residential aged care of elderly in Australia. Especially, it deals with the issue of increasing ageing population in Australia includes statistical information highlighting some causes and php, telltales. The context presented is economic and social. Cover Position With. It also looks at the effects that increasing of the ageing population. Ageing , Elderly care , Geriatrics 1915 Words | 5 Pages. Elderly need care, not neglect and indifference. PHYSICALLY, the elderly are not longer as able and essay php, agile as the coursework 2013, young. To most old people, walking can be an ordeal – and crossing the road . is even more difficult without help. While it is already hard for most of the echeat, aged to get to the other side of a busy road that has no pedestrian crossing, what is statistics help even sadder is that motorists seldom stop for them. Old people whose sense of judgement is echeat impaired through ageing, are frequently run over on the road.
They can no longer handle heavy traffic. Ageing , Ageism , Gerontology 838 Words | 3 Pages. Elderly in American and Vietnamese Culture. may sound a little dramatic but is it true that American elderly is not well treated? In this paper, I aim to discuss about the critical, American and . Vietnamese society’s treatment of elderly . Moreover, I also suggest some explanations for the differences between the ways two cultures treat its old people. First of echeat essay php, all, the strength of the America is: living condition. The developed economy and essay count cristo, technology have brought many benefits to the elderly . Old American people live quite comfortably; they don’t have. Ageing , Ageism , Elderly care 1810 Words | 5 Pages.
attack of a cold spell at the same year. It was the first charitable institution offering emergency link service to php the elderly in essay topics of monte, Hong Kong. . Making use of echeat, innovative technology and personalized service, the association aims to create a quality living environment for the seniors by beowulf comparison the operating as a self-financed social enterprise. Echeat Php. Situation Analysis Industry Trend : The elderly -care-service industry is on a favourable growth trend. With the computing coursework 2013, aging population5, the market size of customers will. Guangzhou , Hong Kong , Macau 928 Words | 4 Pages. Social Inequality in Elderly Americans. Social Inequality in Elderly Americans Elderly people (women and echeat essay php, men age sixty-five or older) (Macionis, 2005), Have many . Creative Critical. obstacles to face as they grow older, many of these obstacles involve social inequality. Not only do the elderly have to learn to deal with many forms of Ageism (the stereotyping and prejudice against individuals or groups because of their age), some also have to deal with the essay, fact that they do not have enough savings or pension benefits to be self supporting, for essay, most people. Abuse , Ageing , Ageism 1105 Words | 3 Pages. Jean Watson's Theory of Caring Jean Watson's Theory of Caring Dr. Echeat. Jean Watson developed a theory of human . caring that has become essential in nursing.
Caring is at count of monte cristo the core of echeat essay, nursing and is vital in providing positive patient outcomes. Watson’s theory of caring can be applied to patient situation and his or her environment. She based her theory upon computing, human caring relationships and experiences of human life. She acknowledges a caring relationship and echeat essay, a caring environment preserve human dignity. Health , Health care , Human 1918 Words | 5 Pages. Alzheimer’s is the most common type of dementia) experience some form of statistics help, abuse. 10. While 91 percent of federal abuse prevention dollars are spent on essay php child . abuse, 7 percent is spent on domestic abuse, and only 2 percent goes towards protecting the elderly . 11. Legislatures in all 50 states have passed some type of elder abuse law.
Types Although there are common themes of beowulf and grendel essay, elder abuse across nations, there are also unique manifestations based upon history, culture, economic strength, and essay, societal. Abuse , Child abuse , Domestic violence 960 Words | 3 Pages. ? Dealing with Dementia in the Elderly Danaya Gilchrist Touro College of Applied Studies General Survey of Mental Health (GHU . 140) Professor Wyatt April 29th, 2014 Abstract Dementia is a scary disease for statistics help, the elderly to deal with it. It changes their lives and who they are. Dementia affects the essay php, daily living activities of people who are dealing with it; a person who is living with dementia can no longer do anything for themselves or live their lives the way that they want to. Alois Alzheimer , Alzheimer's disease , Brain 1810 Words | 9 Pages. ? Parole for the Elderly Students Name CJHS/430 Date Instructor Solitary confinement of prisoners exists under a scope of cover letter position no experience, . names: confinement, control units, supermaxim jails, the gap, regulatory isolation, greatest security, or changeless lockdown. Echeat Essay. Detainees can be sent to computing coursework 2013 any of these units for essay php, many reasons: for beowulf comparison essay, disciplinary reasons even though while they are under scrutiny; as a component for conduct change, when associated with posse contribution; as reprisal for political activism;. Compassionate release , Criminal justice , Criminal law 1511 Words | 8 Pages. Elderly as a Vulnerable Population.
Elderly as a Vulnerable Population According to the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2002), vulnerability is the ability to “Be . easily physically, emotionally, or mentally hurt, influenced or attacked.” At any given time, anyone can become vulnerable. Demographically, the essay php, nature of population a boon bane essay, society is changing. The population of older people is dramatically increasing. Essay Php. The U.S Census Bureau states that the population of people greater than 65 is projected to double by the year. Ageing , Aging , Alzheimer's disease 1281 Words | 7 Pages. Watson's Theory of Human Caring Carmen Martinez NUR403 Aug 8th, 2013 Gail Williams Watson's Theory of Human Caring . Background and major concepts of Watson’s Theory of critical, Human Caring Dr. Jean Watson is considered a theorist, a philosopher, and a healer.
She directed her life works to the science of human caring and proposed a new and innovative approach to echeat essay the nurse-patient interaction. Dr. Watson resumed her life career as “devoted to the phenomena of human caring , and inner subjective feelings. Health , Health care , Human 1597 Words | 5 Pages. influence us to create a good environment of learning and I hope we will work hand by hand on this campaign to make it sucess as the creative critical test, saying goes many hand . Echeat Essay Php. make a light work. p/s:This essay are made up by all my classmates.With this sharing,i hope you guys will get some idea for count of monte cristo, essay writing. SHARING IS CARING . Echeat Essay. :). Classroom , Education , Learning 796 Words | 3 Pages. and the unique problems that elderly prisoners face while incarcerated and subsequent to release” (Stojkovic, 2007, pg. 98). Incarceration of . A Boon Or A Bane Essay. elderly criminals is a highly debated topic in criminal justice. Essay. The definition of elderly criminal in this case will be a person 60 years or older that commits a criminal offense.
This is not a new topic; however, there is not a lot of research conducted on 2013 elderly offenders. There are many arguments as to whether these elderly criminals should be treated. Ageing , Crime , Criminology 2560 Words | 7 Pages. Elderly in echeat php, the Netherlands Writing on college help Topics 5/21/2012 Elderly in the Netherlands Nowadays, the . elderly is essay a serious issue around the world; nearly all industrial countries are facing enormous pressure about the coming of aging society. As one of the most advanced countries in the world, how about the situation of elderly in the Netherlands ? Can Dutch society provide the best care to the Baby Boomer? Aging society, the Netherlands is on the way “For the Netherlands. Ageing , Aging , Death 1471 Words | 5 Pages.
Psychology III-3 Did respect for the elderly stopped? ABSTRACT The experiment focuses on the recent study by Professor Luke Gormally about . the dignity and letter with, respect for the elderly . This study aims to know about the prudence and care of the essay php, teenagers in elderly people. This will determine whether prudence of younger female and male is comparison essay still manifest in our society. Essay Php. The researcher used field observation. And the result was the male still has the prudence to help elderly people. INTROCUCTION One of the. 653 Words | 3 Pages.
Epidemiology in the Elderly with Heart Disease. Epidemiology in the Elderly with Heart Disease Epidemiology in the Elderly with Heart Disease Public health . promotes healthy living for each community through epidemiology. And Grendel Comparison. Disease prevention and control is the common goal of epidemiology, nursing practice, and public health. Echeat Essay. “Epidemiology is the study of the population in order to monitor the health of the population, understand the computing 2013, determinants of health and disease in the community, and investigate and evaluate interventions. Coronary artery disease , Disease , Epidemiology 1769 Words | 5 Pages. Examination Of Caring The purpose of this paper is to discuss the concept of “ CARING ” and to describe experiences and . observations of caring and to describe experiences and echeat essay php, observations of caring in the professional nurse. Caring is present in all aspects of nursing and population a boon or a, is used to improve holistic needs of the individual person, family, and community. Essay Php. Caring is college statistics used in many ways and have many definitions. Caring is a state of essay php, mind in thinking, which one is troubled, worry, anxiety, or concern. It is.
Florence Nightingale , Nonverbal communication , Nurse 931 Words | 3 Pages. on Sexuality of essay, elderly sexuality Human sexuality means the ways in which people experience and express themselves as sexual beings (Rathus et . al., 2010).Sex is part of and grendel, human life, it is a common sense that people normally concern sex since adolescence, but there is no absolute answer for, when sex should be terminated in echeat essay php, human life. During the Cho Yiu Chuen’s elderly interview, I saw an adult magazine on an old man’s bed; it triggered me to computing coursework 2013 concern about the sexual need of elderly . Literature review . Human sexual behavior , Human sexuality , Orgasm 1932 Words | 6 Pages. Should Elderly Live in Old Folks' Home? 3. Echeat. “ The elderly should live in old folks’ home. Essay Topics Count Cristo. ” Give your opinion. You should write at least 350 words, illustrate your opinion with . Echeat. examples. Caring for coursework, the aged has recently been one of the main concerns among many individuals in echeat php, today’s society. Bane Essay. More and more individuals are choosing to send their elderly parents to old folks’ homes instead of living under the same roof as them. The debate has heated among the community today. There are people that agreed to this statement as well as opposed.
Ageing , Geriatrics , Gerontology 911 Words | 3 Pages. Medical Care for the Elderly Population. early medical screening for serious diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension and strokes, and COPD. These diseases can cause . severe disabilities and even death. If the risk factors can be identified early, then the elderly person can begin a medication regime or a treatment quickly. Patient populations should be identified and echeat php, health education about the importance of health care screening should begin. Portable health care centers should be set up at key locations. Elderly care , Geriatrics , Health 936 Words | 7 Pages. I decided to write my paper on elderly nutrition. I have chosen this topic because I believe nutrition is important at creative test all ages now, . especially in those of the elderly . Fattening foods are around more now than ever, so the problem of obesity is getting out of essay, control. Obesity as we all know causes heart attacks and other such medical problems.
People are not noticing the problem anymore until the worst happens. Everyone thinks that heart disease always happens to someone else, until. Ageing , Death , Food 1714 Words | 6 Pages. ?Elderly Care in America: A Closer Look by Culture. ? Elderly Care in America: A Closer Look by Culture Elderly Care in America: A Closer Look by Culture . College Statistics. While Elder Abuse is common in all three cultures, Ethnic variations in caregiving exist in echeat, Elderly care. Even though there are common themes among Whites, Blacks, and essay, Hispanic elderly care, each culture deals with it in different ways. Each culture approaches caregiving for the elderly with dementia differently. There are cultural variations in the uses of formal services. African American , Culture , Family 1461 Words | 5 Pages. Gambling Away: The Well-Being of the php, Elderly over Sixty Dominic J. Williams, Billy McCoy, Georgina Williams, Jessica 5-1-13 Dr. Janet Chang . SW 301A Cal State San Bernardino Certificate of Authorship: As students of Cal State San Bernardino, we fully acknowledge that all work written is creative thinking original set by the standards of the University.
We also give due credit to all references used to echeat php their original authors, and college statistics, cited correctly according the essay, APA writing style. Letter Teaching No Experience. Student's signature. Addiction , Casino , Gambling 1417 Words | 4 Pages. characteristic that seems to be consistent through time is essay php a nurse should be caring . Jean Watson incorporated a theory- The Theory of Human . Caring . Watson (2002) developed a theory in which nursing is centered around helping the patient achieve a higher degree of harmony within mind, body, soul, and this harmony is essay topics count of monte cristo achieved through caring transactions involving a transpersonal caring relationship. According to Watson, caring consists of carative factors that result in the satisfaction of certain human.
Family centered care , Human , Nurse 1817 Words | 4 Pages. NURSING AS CARING 1 Boykin and Schoenhofer: Theory of Nursing as Caring NURSING AS CARING 2 . Introduction The theory of Nursing as Caring was developed by echeat php Anne Boykin and int 2 computing, Sarvina Schoenhofer. In the late 1980’s, the two were involved in research involving elements of essay php, caring and the practical implications of caring elements when they discovered there was little to no research or literature in for a with no experience, this area. Caring and its. Health care , Healthcare occupations , Nurse 1775 Words | 7 Pages.
Ethical Challeges for echeat essay, the Elderly. Malinda Smith Instructor Mr. Curl Nursing 101 21 October 2009 ETHICAL CHALLENGES FOR THE ELDERLY When patient problems . arise in the nursing profession, our knowledge and education usually help us find the obvious and correct solution. There are, however, situations that arise where the correct choice is not readily apparent. These situations are difficult enough to handle when the letter with no experience, patient is young and able to understand what’s going. As the patient ages, she’s less able to echeat essay php assist. Decision making , Ethics , Hippocratic Oath 1604 Words | 5 Pages. Should Healthcare For The Elderly Be Limited? HSM 501 Ethics in Healthcare Jose Joe Rodriguez . Our healthcare system in the United States is currently going through a massive change. For the and grendel essay, past 4 years, our healthcare system has been dissected, analyzed, and restructured, with a single objective: Deliver better and more costeffective care. Php. The Affordable Care Act, which was enacted in 2010, promised to accelerate both the rate of teaching position with, change and essay, level in which we delivered care across this country (cms.
Health care , Health care provider , Health care proxy 3597 Words | 12 Pages. cases, once the elderly are placed in comparison essay, nursing homes, they are forgotten about by the people who once cared for and loved them. This story is . Essay. played out on a daily basis throughout the essay topics of monte, world. Each year, thousands of seniors are neglected or abused by family members and caretakers. This happens to essay php elderly people who cannot meet their own basic needs; and are mostly, or totally dependent on the help of for a position, others for echeat essay php, the most routine aspects of bane, life. Essay. Neglect and abuse of the elderly can take many. Abuse , Bullying , Child abuse 801 Words | 5 Pages. University Fall 2012 Seminar – EDU495 Article Critique -4- Caring Teachers: The Key to Student Learning Hajar Traiki A090095 . Abstract The following paper is a critique of an article written by Angela Lumpkin a professor at the University of Kansas and who has an interest in 2013, teaching effectiveness. The article “ Caring Teacher: The Key to Student Learning” that will be analyzed is about the characteristics of echeat php, a caring teacher who can improve and college statistics, facilitate students’ learning. Teacher-students.
Critical thinking , Education , History of essay, education 1020 Words | 3 Pages. ? Elderly Driving There has been an topics count of monte, increase of accidents caused by elderly drivers over the course of many years. With such . a dramatic increase, should elderly drivers have driving restrictions? I believe that after the age of 75, seniors should have to retake their drivers test or have restrictions, regardless of their driving record. There is support for some restrictions on elderly drivers based on evidence that older drivers are more involved in traffic accidents than any age group except.
Ageing , Death , Driver's license 1503 Words | 5 Pages.