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Double space essay wordpad

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Most of us are certain that we have free will, though what exactly this amounts to is much less certain. According to David Hume, the question of the nature of free will is “the most contentious question of metaphysics.” If this is correct, then figuring out what free will is will be no small task indeed. Minimally, to say that an agent has free will is to say that the agent has the capacity to choose his or her course of action. But animals seem to satisfy this criterion, and we typically think that only persons, and not animals, have free will.

Let us then understand free will as the capacity unique to persons that allows them to control their actions. It is controversial whether this minimal understanding of what it means to have a free will actually requires an agent to have a specific faculty of will, whether the term free will is simply shorthand for other features of persons, and whether there really is such a thing as free will at all. This article considers why we should care about free will and how freedom of will relates to freedom of action. It canvasses a number of the dominant accounts of what the will is, and then explores the wordpad, persistent question of the relationship between free will and causal determinism, articulating a number of different positions one might take on the issue. For example, does determinism imply that there is no free will, as the incompatibilists argue, or does it allow for free will, as the compatibilists argue? This article explores several influential arguments that have been given in favor of these two dominant positions on the relationship between free will and causal determinism. Finally, there is a brief examination of how free will relates to theological determinism and the sociological, logical determinism. 1. Free Will, Free Action and Moral Responsibility. Why should we even care whether or not agents have free will?

Probably the best reason for caring is that free will is closely related to double space essay two other important philosophical issues: freedom of action and statement capital, moral responsibility. However, despite the close connection between these concepts, it is important not to conflate them. We most often think that an agent’s free actions are those actions that she does as a result of exercising her free will. Consider a woman, Allison, who is contemplating a paradigmatic free action, such as whether or not to walk her dog. Allison might say to herself, “I know I should walk the dog—he needs the exercise. And while I don’t really want to walk him since it is cold outside, I think overall the space, best decision to make is that I should take him for a walk.” Thus, we see that one reason we care about free will is that it seems necessary for steps process essay free action—Allison must first decide, or choose, to walk the double space wordpad, dog before she actually takes him outside for his walk. If we assume that human actions are those actions that result from the rational capacities of humans, we then see that the possibility of free action depends on the possibility of steps, free will: to say that an agent acted freely is minimally to say that the space essay, agent was successful in carrying out a free volition or choice. Various philosophers have offered just such an account of freedom. Thomas Hobbes suggested that freedom consists in there being no external impediments to an agent doing what he wants to do: “A free agent is he that can do as he will , and forbear as he will, and that liberty is the thesis on pro punishment, absence of external impediments .” In An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding , David Hume thought that free will (or liberty, to use his term) is simply the “power of acting or of not acting, according to the determination of the will: that is, if we choose to remain at rest, we may; if we choose to move, we also may.… This hypothetical liberty is universally allowed to belong to everyone who is not a prisoner and in chains.” This suggests that freedom is simply the ability to space wordpad select a course of action, and an agent is free if he is not being prevented by some external obstacle from essay completing that course of essay, action. Of Paper Technology. Thus, Hobbes and Hume would hold that Allison is free to walk her dog so long as nothing prevents her from space carrying out her decision to walk her dog, and she is free not to walk her dog so long as nothing would compel her to walk her dog if she would decide not to. However, one might still believe this approach fails to make an how many important distinction between these two related, but conceptually distinct, kinds of freedom: freedom of will versus freedom of action.

This distinction is motivated by the apparent fact that agents can possess free will without also having freedom of action. Suppose that before Allison made the space wordpad, choice to walk the in writing, dog, she was taking a nap. And while Allison slept, there was a blizzard that moved through the area. The wind has drifted the snow up against the front of double wordpad, her house so that it is impossible for Allison to get out her front door and walk her dog even if she wanted to. So here we have a case involving free will, because Allison has chosen to take the dog for a walk, but not involving free action, because Allison is not able to take her dog for a walk. Whether or not one can have freedom of action without free will depends on one’s view of what free will is. Also, the truth of causal determinism would not entail that agents lack the freedom to do what they want to do. An agent could do what she wants to department technology iit roorkee do, even if she is causally determined to do that action. Thus, both Hobbes and Hume are rightly characterized as compatibilists. Even if there is a distinction between freedom of double space essay wordpad, will and freedom of action, it appears that free will is necessary for the performance of free actions.

If Allison is thesis statement punishment brainwashed during her nap to want to walk her dog, then even if no external impediment prevents her from carrying through with this decision, we would say that her taking the dog for a walk is not a free action. Presumably, the reason why it would not be a free action is double space essay because, in the case of brainwashing, Allison’s decision does not arise from her free will. Thus, it looks like free will might be a necessary condition for process essay free action, even if the two are distinct. Essay. In what follows, the phrase acting with free will means engaging in an action as the result of the utilization of essays against the patriot, free will. Space Essay. Use of the phrase does not deny the distinction between free will and free action. The second reason to the sociological essay care about free will is that it seems to be required for moral responsibility. Wordpad. While there are various accounts of thesis statement on pro punishment, what exactly moral responsibility is, it is wordpad widely agreed that moral responsibility is iit roorkee distinct from causal responsibility. Consider a falling branch that lands on a car, breaking its window.

While the branch is causally responsible for space the broken window, it is against act not morally responsible for it because branches are not moral agents. Depending on one’s account of causation, it also might be possible to be morally responsible for an event or state of space, affairs even if one is not causally responsible for that same event or state of affairs. For present purposes, let us simply say that an agent is morally responsible for statement on pro capital punishment an event or state of double, affairs only if she is the appropriate recipient of moral praise or moral blame for that event or state of affairs (an agent can thus be morally responsible even if no one, including herself, actually does blame or praise her for her actions). According to the dominant view of the capital, relationship between free will and moral responsibility, if an agent does not have free will, then that agent is not morally responsible for her actions. For example, if Allison is essay coerced into doing a morally bad act, such as stealing a car, we shouldn’t hold her morally responsible for this action since it is not an action that she did of her own free will. Some philosophers do not believe that free will is required for moral responsibility. According to John Martin Fischer, human agents do not have free will, but they are still morally responsible for their choices and actions. In a nutshell, Fischer thinks that the kind of control needed for moral responsibility is weaker than the kind of control needed for free will.

Furthermore, he thinks that the truth of causal determinism would preclude the how many chapters in a phd dissertation, kind of space essay wordpad, control needed for free will, but that it wouldn’t preclude the iit roorkee, kind of control needed for moral responsibility. See Fischer (1994). Double Space Essay Wordpad. As this example shows, virtually every issue pertaining to free will is contested by various philosophers. However, many think that the significance of free will is not limited to its necessity for free action and moral responsibility. Various philosophers suggest that free will is also a requirement for agency, rationality, the autonomy and dignity of persons, creativity, cooperation, and the value of friendship and technology, love [see Anglin (1990), Kane (1998) and Ekstrom (1999)].

We thus see that free will is double central to many philosophical issues. Nearly every major figure in the history of philosophy has had something or other to say about steps in writing process essay, free will. The present section considers three of the most prominent theories of space essay wordpad, what the will is. The faculties model of the in writing, will has its origin in the writings of ancient philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle, and it was the dominant view of the will for much of medieval and modern philosophy [see Descartes (1998) and the discussion of Aquinas in Stump (2003)]. It still has numerous proponents in the contemporary literature. Double Wordpad. What is distinct about free agents, according to this model, is their possession of certain powers or capacities. All living things possess some capacities, such as the capacities for growth and reproduction. What is unique about free agents, however, is that they also possess the capacities for intellection and act, volition. Another way of double space wordpad, saying this is that free agents alone have the faculties of intellect and will. It is in virtue of having these additional faculties, and the interaction between them, that agents have free will. The intellect, or the rational faculty, is the power of cognition.

As a result of its cognitions, the steps essay, intellect presents various things to the will as good under some description. To return to the case of Allison contemplating walking her dog, Allison’s intellect might evaluate walking the dog as good for double space the health of the dog. Furthermore, all agents that have an intellect also have a will. The will, or the volitional faculty, is an appetite for the good; that is, it is naturally drawn to goodness. The will, therefore, cannot pursue an option that the intellect presents as good in no way. The will is also able to command the other faculties; the will can command the steps in writing, body to move or the intellect to consider something. In the case of Allison, the will could command the body to double pick up the leash, attach it to the dog, and go outside for a walk. Process. As Aquinas, a proponent of this view of the double, will, puts it: “Only an agent endowed with an intellect can act with a judgment which is free, in so far as it apprehends the common note of goodness; from which it can judge this or the other thing to in writing process be good. Consequently, wherever there is intellect, there is free will” ( Summa Theologiae , q. 59 a. 3). Thus, through the interaction between the intellect and will, an agent has free will to essay wordpad pursue something that it perceives as good.

A widely influential contemporary account of the will is Harry Frankfurt’s hierarchical view of the will [see Frankfurt (1971)]. This account is also sometimes called a structuralist or mesh account of the against act, will, since a will is free if it has a certain internal structure or mesh among the various levels of desires and volitions. According to wordpad the hierarchical model, agents can have different kinds of desires. Some desires are desires to do a particular action; for example, Allison may desire to go jogging. Call these desires 1st order desires. But even if Allison doesn’t desire to go jogging, she may nevertheless desire to be the kind of person who desires to go jogging. In other words, she may desire to have a certain 1st order desire. Department Of Paper. Call desires of this sort 2nd order desires. If agents also have further desires to double space essay wordpad have particular 2nd order desires, one could construct a seemingly infinite hierarchy of desires. Not all of an thesis statement on pro capital agent’s desires result in essay wordpad action.

In fact, if one has conflicting desires, then it is impossible for an agent to satisfy all her desires. Suppose that Allison not only desires to run, but that she also desires to stay curled up in bed, where it is nice and warm. In such a case, Allison cannot fulfill both of her 1st order desires. If Allison decides to act on against the patriot act her desire to run, we say that her desire to run has moved her to action. Essay Wordpad. An effective desire of this sort is chapters phd dissertation called a volition; a volition is a desire that moves the agent all the way to double essay wordpad action.

Similarly, one can differentiate between a mere 2nd order desire (simply a desire to have a certain desire) and a 2nd order volition (a desire for a desire to the sociological imagination essay become one’s will, or a desire for a desire to double become a volition). According to the hierarchical view of the will, free will consists in having 2nd order volitions. Imagination Essay. In other words, an agent has a free will if she is double space essay wordpad able to have the sort of will that she wants to have. An agent acts on her own free will if her action is the result of a 1st order desire that she wants to imagination become a 1st order volition. Hierarchical views of the double space essay wordpad, will are problematic, however, because it looks as if certain sorts of steps process essay, questionable manipulation can be compatible with this view’s account of free will. According to the view under consideration, Allison has free will with regard to going jogging if she has a 2nd order desire that her 1st order desire to go jogging will move her to go jogging. Nothing in this account, however, depends on how she got these desires.

Even if she were manipulated, via brainwashing, for example, into having her 2nd order desire for her 1st order desire to go running become her will, Allison has the right mesh between her various orders of desires to qualify as having free will. This is an untoward consequence. Double Essay Wordpad. While more robust hierarchical accounts of the will have the resources for the sociological imagination explaining why Allison might not be free in this case, it is widely agreed that cases of manipulation and coercion are problematic for solely structural accounts of the will [see Ekstrom (1999), Fischer (1994), Kane, (2005), Pereboom (2001) and van Inwagen (1983)]. c. Reasons-Responsive View of the Will. A third treatment of free will takes as its starting point the claim that agency involves a sensitivity to certain reasons. An agent acts with free will if she is responsive to the appropriate rational considerations, and she does not act with a free will if she lacks such responsiveness. To see what such a view amounts to, consider again the double essay, case of Allison and against the patriot act, her decision to walk her dog. A reasons-responsive view of the will says that Allison’s volition to walk her dog is free if, had she had certain reasons for not walking her dog, she would not have decided to walk her dog. Imagine what would have happened had Allison turned on the television after waking from her nap and wordpad, learned of the blizzard before deciding to steps in writing walk her dog. Had she known of the blizzard, she would have had a good reason for deciding not to walk her dog.

Even if such reasons never occur to her (that is, if she doesn’t learn of the blizzard before her decision), her disposition to have such reasons influence her volitions shows that she is responsive to reasons. Thus, reasons-responsive views of the will are essentially dispositional in nature. Coercion and manipulation undermine free will, on this view, in virtue of making agents not reasons-responsive. If Allison has been brainwashed to double wordpad walk the dog at a certain time, then even if she were to turn on the news and sees that it is act snowing, she would attempt to space walk the dog despite having good reasons not to. Thus, manipulated agents are not reasons-responsive, and in virtue of this lack free will. [See Fischer and Ravizza (1998) for one of the primary reasons-responsive views of free will.] a. The Thesis of Causal Determinism. Most contemporary scholarship on free will focuses on whether or not it is compatible with causal determinism. Causal determinism is sometimes also called nomological determinism. It is important to keep causal determinism distinct from other sorts of determinism, such as logical determinism or theological determinism (to be discussed below).

Causal determinism (hereafter, simply determinism) is the thesis that the chapters in a phd dissertation, course of the future is wordpad entirely determined by the conjunction of the past and the laws of nature. Imagine a proposition that completely describes the way that the technology iit roorkee, entire universe was at some point in the past, say 100 million years ago. Let us call this proposition P. Also imagine a proposition that expresses the conjunction of all the laws of nature; call this proposition L. Determinism then is the thesis that the essay wordpad, conjunction of the sociological, P and L entails a unique future. Given P and L, there is only one possible future, one possible way for things to double space essay end up. To make the same point using possible world semantics, determinism is the thesis that all the states of affairs that obtain at in writing process essay, some time in the past, when conjoined with the laws of double, nature, entail which possible world is the is greed good essay, actual world. Wordpad. Since a possible world includes those states of affairs that will obtain, the in writing, truth of determinism amounts to space essay the thesis that the past and the laws of nature entail what states of affairs will obtain in the future, and that only those states of affairs entailed by against the patriot act the past and the laws will in essay fact obtain. A system's being determined is different from steps in writing process its being predictable. It is possible for determinism to space essay wordpad be true and for imagination essay no one to be able to space predict the future.

The fact that no human agent knows or is able to know future truths has no bearing on whether there are future truths entailed by the conjunction of the past and the laws. However, there is a weaker connection between the thesis of determinism and how many chapters phd dissertation, the predictability of the space essay, future. Good. If determinism were true, then a being with a complete knowledge of P and L and with sufficient intellective capacities should be able to space infallibly predict the way that the future will turn out. However, given that we humans lack both the relevant knowledge and the sociological essay, the intellective capacities required, the fact that we are not able to predict the future is not evidence for the falsity of determinism. b. Determinism, Science and Near Determinism Most philosophers agree that whether or not determinism is true is a contingent matter; that is, determinism is neither necessarily true nor necessarily false.

If this is so, then whether or not determinism is true becomes an double empirical matter, to be discovered by investigating the way the world is, not through philosophical argumentation. This is not to is greed essay deny that the truth of determinism would have metaphysical implications. For one, the essay wordpad, truth of how many chapters, determinism would entail that the laws of nature are not merely probabilistic—for if they were, then the conjunction of the past and the laws would not entail a unique future. Furthermore, as we shall see shortly, philosophers care very much about what implications the truth of determinism would have for wordpad free will. But the point to note is that if the truth of determinism is a contingent truth about the act, way the world actually is, then scientific investigation should give us insight into space this matter. Let us say that a possible world is deterministic if causal determinism is true in that world. There are two ways that worlds could fail to be deterministic. As already noted, if the laws of nature in a given world were probabilistic, then such a world would not be deterministic. Secondly, if there are entities within a world that are not fully governed by the laws of nature, then even if those laws are themselves deterministic, that world would not be deterministic.

Some scientists suggest that certain parts of physics give us reason to doubt the truth of determinism. In Writing. For example, the standard interpretation of Quantum Theory, the Copenhagen Interpretation, holds that the laws governing nature are indeterministic and probabilistic. Space Essay. According to essays against the patriot this interpretation, whether or not a small particle such as a quark swerves in a particular direction at a particular time is described properly only by probabilistic equations. Although the equations may predict the likelihood that a quark swerves to the left at a certain time, whether or not it actually swerves is indeterministic or random. There are also deterministic interpretations of Quantum Theory, such as the essay wordpad, Many-Worlds Interpretation. Fortunately, the statement capital, outcome of the debate regarding whether Quantum Theory is most properly interpreted deterministically or indeterminstically, can be largely avoided for our current purposes. Even if (systems of) micro-particles such as quarks are indeterministic, it might be that (systems involving) larger physical objects such as cars, dogs, and people are deterministic.

It is possible that the double space wordpad, only indeterminism is on the scale of micro-particles and that macro-objects themselves obey deterministic laws. If this is the essay, case, then causal determinism as defined above is, strictly speaking, false, but it is essay nearly true. That is, we could replace determinism with near determinism, the thesis that despite quantum indeterminacy, the behaviors of all large physical objects—including all our actions—obey deterministic laws [see Honderich (2002), particularly chapter 6]. What would be the implications of the truth of either determinism or near determinism? More specifically, what would be the implications for questions of is greed essay, free will? One way to double space essay think about the implications would be by asking the good essay, following the question: Could we still be free even if scientists were to discover that causal determinism (or near determinism) is true? c. Compatibilism, Incompatibilism, and Pessimism. The question at the end of the preceding section (Could we have free will even if determinism is true?) is a helpful way to double essay wordpad differentiate the main positions regarding free will. Compatibilists answer this question in the affirmative.

They believe that agents could have free will even if causal determinism is true (or even if near determinism is true. Essays. In what follows, I will omit this qualification). Double Wordpad. In other words, the existence of essays the patriot act, free will in a possible world is space essay compatible with that world being deterministic. For this reason, this position is known as compatibilism, and is greed, its proponents are called compatibilists. According to the compatibilist, it is double essay possible for an agent to be determined in all her choices and actions and still make some of her choices freely.

According to incompatibilists, the existence of free will is incompatible with the essays against the patriot act, truth of determinism. If a given possible world is deterministic, then no agent in that world has free will for that very reason. Furthermore, if one assumes that having free will is a necessary condition for being morally responsible for one’s actions, then the incompatibility of free will and determinism would entail the incompatibility of moral responsibility and causal determinism. There are at wordpad, least two kinds of incompatibilists. Some incompatibilists think that determinism is the patriot true of the actual world, and thus no agent in the actual world possesses free will. Such incompatibilists are often called hard determinists [see Pereboom (2001) for a defense of hard determinism].

Other incompatibilists think that the actual world is not deterministic and that at least some of the agents in the actual world have free will. These incompatibilists are referred to as libertarians [see Kane (2005), particularly chapters 3 and 4]. However, these two positions are not exhaustive. It is space essay wordpad possible that one is an incompatibilist, thinks that the actual world is not deterministic, and yet still thinks that agents in the actual world do not have free will. While it is less clear what to call such a position (perhaps free will deniers), it illustrates that hard determinism and libertarianism do not exhaust the ways to be an incompatibilist. Good Essay. Since all incompatibilists, whatever their stripe, agree that the falsity of double space essay wordpad, determinism is a necessary condition for essay free will, and since compatibilists deny this assertion, the following sections speak simply of incompatibilists and compatibilists. It is also important to keep in mind that both compatibilism and incompatibilism are claims about possibility. According to double essay the compatibilist, it is possible that an act agent is both fully determined and yet free. The incompatibilist, on the other hand, maintains that such a state of affairs is impossible.

But neither position by itself is making a claim about whether or not agents actually do possess free will. Assume for the moment that incompatibilism is true. Double Space. If the truth of determinism is of paper technology a contingent matter, then whether or not agents are morally responsible will depend on whether or not the actual world is deterministic. Furthermore, even if the actual world is indeterministic, it doesn’t immediately follow that the indeterminism present is of the sort required for double essay free will (we will return to a similar point below when considering an objection to incompatibilism). Likewise, assume both that compatibilism is true and that causal determinism is true in the sociological the actual world. It does not follow from this that agents in the actual world actually possess free will. Finally, there are free will pessimists [see Broad (1952) and G. Double Space Essay Wordpad. Strawson (1994)]. Pessimists agree with the is greed good, incompatibilists that free will is not possible if determinism is true. Space Wordpad. However, unlike the incompatibilists, pessimists do not think that indeterminism helps.

In fact, they claim, rather than helping support free will, indeterminism undermines it. Consider Allison contemplating taking her dog for a walk. Thesis Statement On Pro Capital Punishment. According to double essay the pessimist, if Allison is determined, she cannot be free. But if determinism is imagination essay false, then there will be indeterminacy at some point prior to her action. Double. Exactly where one locates this indeterminacy will depend on one’s particular view of the nature of free will. Let us assume that that indeterminacy is located in which reasons occur to Allison. On Pro Punishment. It is hard to see, the pessimist argues, how this indeterminacy could enhance Allison’s free will, for double space essay wordpad the occurrence of her reasons is indeterministic, then having those reasons is not within Allison’s control. But if Allison decides on the basis of whatever reasons she does have, then her volition is based upon something outside of against the patriot act, her control.

It is based instead on chance. Thus, pessimists think that the addition of indeterminism actually makes agents lack the kind of control needed for free will. While pessimism might seem to be the same position as that advocated by free will deniers, pessimism is a stronger claim. Space Wordpad. Free will deniers thinks that while free will is act possible, it just isn’t actual: agents in fact don’t have free will. Pessimists, however, have a stronger position, thinking that free will is impossible. Not only do agents lack free will, there is no way that they could have it [see G. Strawson (1994)]. The only way to preserve moral responsibility, for the pessimist, is thus to deny that free will is a necessary condition for moral responsibility. As pessimism shows us, even a resolution to the debate between compatibilists and incompatibilists will not by itself solve the debate about whether or not we actually have free will.

Nevertheless, it is to this debate that we now turn. 4. Arguments for Incompatibilism (or Arguments against Compatibilism) Incompatibilists say that free will is incompatible with the truth of determinism. Not all arguments for incompatibilism can be considered here; let us focus on essay wordpad two major varieties. The first variety is built around the idea that having free will is technology a matter of having a choice about certain of our actions, and that having a choice is a matter of having genuine options or alternatives about what one does. Space Wordpad. The second variety of arguments is built around the idea that the truth of determinism would mean that we don’t cause our actions in the right kind of way. The truth of the sociological imagination, determinism would mean that we don’t originate our actions in a significant way and our actions are not ultimately controlled by us. Essay Wordpad. In other words, we lack the ability for self-determination. Let us consider a representative argument from each set. The most well-known and influential argument for imagination incompatibilism from the first set of arguments is space called the Consequence Argument, and it has been championed by Carl Ginet and Peter van Inwagen [see Ginet (1966) and how many phd dissertation, van Inwagen (1983)].

The Consequence Argument is based on a fundamental distinction between the past and the future. First, consider an informal presentation of double wordpad, this argument. There seems to be a profound asymmetry between the past and the future based on the direction of the flow of time and the normal direction of causation. Is Greed. The future is open in a way that the past is not. Space Essay. It looks as though there is nothing that Allison can now do about the fact that Booth killed Lincoln, given that Lincoln was assassinated by Booth in 1865. This point stands even if we admit the possibility of time travel. Steps Process Essay. For if time travel is possible, Allison can influence what the past became, but she cannot literally change the past. Consider the following argument: The proposition Lincoln was assassinated in double space 1865 is true.

If Allison travels to the past, she could prevent Lincoln from thesis statement on pro capital punishment being assassinated in 1865 (temporarily assumed for reductio purposes). If Allison were to travel to the past and prevent Lincoln from being assassinated in essay wordpad 1865, the proposition Lincoln was assassinated in 1865 would be false. A proposition cannot both be true and false. Therefore, 2 is false. So, at most the the sociological essay, possibility of essay, time travel allows for agents to have causal impact on the past, not for agents to change what has already become the past. The past thus appears to be fixed and unalterable. However, it seems that the same is thesis on pro not true of the future, for space wordpad Allison can have an influence on the future through her volitions and subsequent actions.

For example, if she were to invent a time machine, then she could, at some point in the future, get in her time machine and travel to the past and try to prevent Lincoln from being assassinated. However, given that he was assassinated, we can infer that her attempts would all fail. On the other hand, she could refrain from using her time machine in this way. The asymmetry between past and future is illustrated by the fact that we don’t deliberate about the in a, past in the same way that we deliberate about the future. While Allison might deliberate about double wordpad, whether a past action was really the best action that she could have done, she deliberates about the future in a different way. Allison can question whether her past actions were in fact the best, but she can both question what future acts would be best as well as which future acts she should perform. Thus, it looks like the future is open to Allison, or up to her, in a way that the past is how many chapters phd dissertation not. In other words, when an agent like Allison is using her free will, what she is double wordpad doing is selecting from a range of different options for the future, each of is greed good essay, which is wordpad possible given the past and in writing process essay, the laws of nature.

For this reason, this view of free will is often called the Garden of Forking Paths Model. The Consequence Argument builds upon this view of the fixed nature of the essay wordpad, past to good essay argue that if determinism is true, the future is not open in double essay wordpad the way that the above reflections suggest. Thesis Statement Capital Punishment. For if determinism is true, the future is as fixed as is the past. Remember from the above definition that determinism is the thesis the double essay wordpad, past ( P ) and the laws of the sociological imagination, nature ( L ) entail a unique future. Let F refer to any true proposition about the space, future. The Consequence argument depends on two modal operators, and two inference rules. Let the modal operator ? abbreviate It is logically necessary that. so that, when it operates on some proposition p , ? p abbreviates It is logically necessary that p . Let the modal operator N be such that N p stands for statement on pro capital p is true and no one has, or ever had, any choice about whether p was true. Call the following two inference rules Alpha and Beta: According to Alpha, if p is a necessary truth, then no one has, or ever had, any choice about whether p was true.

Similarly, according to Beta, if no one has, or ever had, any choice about p being true, and double essay wordpad, no one has, or ever had, any choice that p entails q , then no one has, or ever had, any choice about department of paper technology iit roorkee, whether q is true. To see the plausibility of wordpad, Beta, consider the following application. Let p be the proposition The earth was struck by a meteor weighing 100 metric tons one billion years ago, and let q be the proposition If the earth was struck by a meteor weighing 100 metric tons one billion years ago, then thousands of species went extinct. Since I have no choice about such a meteor hitting in the past, and have no choice that if such meteor hits, it will cause thousands of species to go extinct, I have no choice that thousands of against the patriot, species went extinct. Beta thus looks extremely plausible. But if Beta is true, then we can construct an argument to show that if determinism is true, then I have no choice about double space wordpad, anything, including my supposed free actions in in a the future. The argument begins with the definition of essay, determinism given above: Using a valid logical rule of inference (exportation), we can transform 1 into 2: Applying Alpha, we can derive 3: The second premise in the Consequence Argument is called the fixity of the department technology iit roorkee, past. No one has, or ever had, a choice about the true description P of the universe at some point in the distant past:

From 3, 4 and Beta, we can deduce 5: The final premise in the argument is the double space essay wordpad, fixity of the laws of nature. No one has, or ever had, a choice about steps in writing, what the laws of nature are (try as I might, I cannot make the law of universal gravitation not be a law of nature): And from double 5 and 6, again using Beta, we can infer that no one has, or ever had, a choice about F : Given that F was any true proposition about the future, the Consequence Argument concludes that if determinism is in writing essay true, then no one has or ever had a choice about any aspect of the future, including what we normally take to be our free actions. Space. Thus, if determinism is true, we do not have free will. The second general set of arguments for the incompatibility of free will and determinism builds on the importance of the imagination, source of a volition for free will. Space. Again, it will be helpful to begin with an informal presentation of the argument before considering a formal presentation of it. The Sociological Essay. According to this line of essay wordpad, thought, an agent has free will when her volitions issue from the agent herself in a particular sort of way (say, her beliefs and desires). What is important for free will, proponents of process, this argument claim, is not simply that the causal chain for wordpad an agent’s volition goes through the agent, but that it originates with the agent. Is Greed Essay. In other words, an double space essay wordpad agent acts with free will only if she originates her action, or if she is the ultimate source or first cause of is greed good essay, her action [see Kane (1998)]. Consider again the claim that free will is a necessary condition for moral responsibility.

What reflection on cases of coercion and manipulation suggests to us is that even if a coerced or manipulated agent is acting on her beliefs and desires, this isn’t enough for moral responsibility. We normally assume that coercion and certain forms of manipulation undercut an double wordpad agent’s moral responsibility precisely because a coerced or manipulated agent isn’t the good, originator of her coerced action. Space Essay Wordpad. If Allison is coerced into walking her dog via brainwashing, then her walking of the dog originates in the brainwashing, and not in Allison herself. Consider, then, the similarities between cases of coercion and manipulation, on the one hand, and the implications of the truth of department technology iit roorkee, determinism on the other. If determinism were true, it might be true that Allison chooses to space walk her dog because of her beliefs and desires, but those beliefs and desires would themselves be the inevitable products of causal chains that began millions of years ago. Imagination. Thus, a determined agent is at most a source, but not the ultimate source, of her volitions. According to proponents of this sort of argument for incompatibilism, the truth of determinism would mean that agents don’t cause their actions in the kind of way needed for free will and, ultimately, moral responsibility.

We can represent a formal version of the space wordpad, argument, called the essay, Origination Argument, as follows: An agent acts with free will only if she is the originator (or ultimate source) of her actions. If determinism is true, then everything any agent does is ultimately caused by double wordpad events and circumstances outside her control. If everything an essay agent does is ultimately caused by events and circumstances beyond her control, then the agent is essay wordpad not the originator (or ultimate source) of her actions. Therefore, if determinism is true, then no agent is the originator (or ultimate source) of her actions.

Therefore, if determinism is true, no agent has free will. The Origination Argument is valid. So, in evaluating its soundness, we must evaluate the truth of its three premises. Premise 3 is clearly true, since for the sociological imagination essay an agent to be an originator just is for that agent not to be ultimately determined by double essay anything outside of herself. In A. Premise 2 of this argument is space true by the definition of determinism. To reject the conclusion of the argument, one must therefore reject premise 1. Earlier we briefly noted one account of free will which implicitly denies premise 1, namely the hierarchical model of free will. According to this model, an agent acts with free will so long as the causal chain for that action goes through the agent’s 1st- and 2nd-order desires. One way of essay, emphasizing the need for origination over-against such a hierarchical model is to space embrace agent-causation. In Writing Essay. If premise 1 is true, then the agent’s volition cannot be the product of a deterministic causal chain extended beyond the agent.

What other options are there? Two options are that volitions are uncaused, or only essay, caused indeterministically. It is difficult to see how an agent could be the originator or ultimate source of volitions if volitions are uncaused. Similarly, for reasons we saw above when discussing the free will pessimist, it looks as if indeterministic causation would undermine, rather than enhance, an agent’s control over steps in writing process, her volitions. For these reasons, some incompatibilists favor looking at the causation involved in double essay wordpad volitions in a new light. Essay. Instead of double essay, holding that a volition is caused by a previous event (either deterministically or indeterministically), these incompatibilists favor saying that volitions are caused directly by the patriot act agents. [For an extended defense of this view, see O’Connor, (2000).] They hold that there are two irreducibly different kinds of causation, event-causation and agent-causation, and the latter is involved in free will. Proponents of agent-causation propose that agents are enduring substances that directly possess the power to cause volitions. Although many philosophers question whether agent-causation is essay wordpad coherent, if it were coherent, then it would provide support for premise 1 of the the patriot act, Origination Argument. c. The Relation between the Arguments.

The above way of delineating the Consequence and Origination Arguments may unfortunately suggest that the two kinds of space essay, arguments are more independent from each other than they really are. A number of incompatibilists have argued that agents originate their actions in the way required by premise 1 of the Origination Argument if and only if they have a choice about their actions in the way suggested by the Consequence Argument. In other words, if my future volitions are not the sort of thing that I have a choice about, then I do not originate those volitions. And as the above arguments contend, the truth of causal determinism threatens both our control over our actions and volitions, and our ability to originate those same actions and volitions. For if causal determinism is true, then the distant past, when joined with the laws of essays the patriot act, nature, is sufficient for every volition that an agent makes, and the causal chains that lead to essay those volitions would not begin within the agent. How Many Chapters In A Phd Dissertation. Thus, most incompatibilists think that having a choice and being a self-determiner go hand-in-hand. Space. Robert Kane, for instance, argues that if agents have ultimate responsibility (his term for what is here called origination or self-determination), then they will also have alternative possibilities open to them. According to the sociological imagination essay this line of argumentation, the power to double essay cause one’s own actions is not a distinct power from the power to choose and do otherwise. Thus, the two different kinds of arguments for incompatibilism may simply be two sides of the same coin [see Kane (1996) and (2005)]. 5. Arguments for Compatibilism (or Arguments against Incompatibilism)

Having laid out representatives of the of paper iit roorkee, two most prominent arguments for incompatibilism, let's consider arguments in favor of compatibilism. In considering these kinds of arguments, it is pedagogically useful to approach them by using the arguments for double essay incompatibilism. So, this section begins by considering ways that compatibilists have responded to the arguments given in is greed the preceding section. a. Rejecting the Incompatibilist Arguments. As noted above, the Origination Argument for incompatibilism is space valid, and two of its premises are above dispute. Thus, the only way for the compatibilist to reject the conclusion of the thesis on pro, Origination Argument is to reject its first premise. In other words, given the double essay, definition of determinism, compatibilists must reject that free will requires an agent being the originator or ultimate source of her actions.

But how might this be done? Most frequently, compatibilists motivate a rejection of the ultimacy condition of free will by appealing to either a hierarchical or reasons-responsive view of what the will is [see Frankfurt, (1971) and Fischer and Ravizza, (1998)]. The Sociological. If all that is required for free will, for space essay example, is that a certain mesh between an agent’s 1st-order volitions and 2nd-order desires, then such an account does not require that an agent be the originator of those desires. Imagination. Furthermore, since the wordpad, truth of determinism would not entail that agents don’t have 1st and 2nd-order desires and volitions, a hierarchical account of the will is compatible with the truth of determinism. Is Greed Essay. Similarly, if an agent has free will if she has the requisite level of reasons-responsiveness such that she would have willed differently had she had different reasons, ultimacy is space wordpad again not required.

Thus, if one adopts certain accounts of the will, one has reason for rejecting the central premise of the Origination Argument. Compatibilists have a greater number of responses available to imagination them with regard to the Consequence Argument. One way of understanding the N operator that figures in the Consequence Argument is in terms of having the ability to do otherwise. That is, to say that Allison has no choice about a particular action of hers is to say that she could not have performed a different action (or even no action at double essay wordpad, all). Incompatibilists can easily account for against this ability to do otherwise.

According to incompatibilists, an agent can be free only if determinism is false. Consider again the case of Allison. If determinism is false, even though Allison did choose to space walk her dog, she could have done otherwise than walk her dog since the conjunction of essay, P and L is not sufficient for her taking her dog for a walk. Compatibilists, however, can give their own account of the wordpad, ability to do otherwise. Department Of Paper Technology. For them, to double say that Allison could have done otherwise is simply to say that Allison would have done otherwise had she willed or chosen to do so [see, for example, Chisholm (1967)].

Of course, if determinism is true, then the steps process essay, only way that Allison could have willed or chosen to do otherwise would be if either the past or the laws were different than they actually are. In other words, saying that an agent could have done otherwise is to say that the agent would have done otherwise in a different counterfactual condition. But saying this is entirely consistent with one way of understanding the ability to do otherwise. Thus, these compatibilists are saying that Allison has the ability to do something such that, had she done it, either the past or the double, laws of nature would have been different than they actually are. If P and essays against the patriot act, L entail that the agent does some action A , then the agent’s doing otherwise than A entails that either P or L would have been different than they actually are. Some compatibilists favor saying that agents have this counterfactual power over the past, while others favor counterfactual power over the laws of nature [Compare Lewis (1981) and Fischer (1984)]. Regardless, adopting either strategy provides the compatibilist with a way of avoiding the conclusion of the Consequence Argument by denying either premise 4 or premise 6 of that argument. Furthermore, having such a power is not a hollow victory, for it demarcates a plausible difference between those actions an agent would have done even if she didn’t want to (as in essay the case of the sociological, coercion or manipulation) from those actions that an agent only would have done had she had certain beliefs and desires about that action. This view thus differentiates between those actions that were within the space essay wordpad, agent’s power to bring about from essays against those that were not. A second compatibilist response to the Consequence Argument is to deny the validity of the inference rule Beta the argument uses.

While there are several approaches to this, perhaps the most decisive is the double, following, called the principle of Agglomeration [see McKay and Johnson (1996)]. Using only the inference rules Alpha, Beta and the basic rule of logical replacement, one can show that. if Beta were valid. 1 and 2 do not entail 3, so Beta must be invalid. To see why 3 does not follow from 1 and 2, consider the case of a coin-toss. If the coin-toss is in writing truly random, then Allison has no choice regarding whether the essay, coin (if flipped) lands heads. Similarly, she has no choice regarding whether the coin (again, if flipped) lands tails. For purposes of simplicity, let us stipulate that the how many phd dissertation, coin cannot land on its side and, if flipped, must land either heads or tails. Let p above represent ‘the coin doesn’t land heads’ and double space essay wordpad, q represent ‘the coin doesn’t land tails’.

If Beta were valid, then 1 and 2 would entail 3, and Allison would not have a choice about the conjunction of p and q; that is, she wouldn’t have a choice about the coin not landing heads and the coin not landing tails. If Allison didn’t have a choice about the coin not landing heads and didn’t have a choice about the coin not landing tails, then she wouldn’t have a choice about the steps in writing essay, coin landing either heads or tails. But Allison does have a choice about this—after all, she can ensure that the coin lands either heads or tails by simply flipping the coin. So Allison does have a choice about the conjunction of p and q. Since Alpha and the relevant rules of logical replacement in the transformation from N p and double space wordpad, N q to N( p and q ) are beyond dispute, Beta must be invalid. Thus, the Consequent Argument for incompatibilism is invalid. [For an incompatibilist reply to the argument from Agglomeration, see Finch and Warfield (1998).] b. Frankfurt’s Argument against the Ability to Do Otherwise Two other arguments for compatibilism build on good the freedom requirement for space essay moral responsibility. If one can show that moral responsibility is compatible with the truth of determinism, and if free will is required for moral responsibility, one will have implicitly shown that free will is itself compatible with the truth of determinism. Good. The first of essay, these arguments for compatibilism rejects the understanding of having a choice as involving the ability to do otherwise mentioned above. While most philosophers have tended to accept that an against agent can be morally responsible for doing an action only if she could have done otherwise, Harry Frankfurt has attempted to show that this requirement is in fact false.

Frankfurt gives an example in space essay which an agent does an action in circumstances that lead us to believe that the agent acted freely [Frankfurt (1969); for recent discussion, see Widerker and McKenna (2003)]. Yet, unbeknown to the agent, the is greed good essay, circumstances include some mechanism that would bring about the action if the agent did not perform it on her own. Double Essay Wordpad. As it happens, though, the agent does perform the action freely and the mechanism is not involved in is greed good bringing about the action. It thus looks like the double wordpad, agent is morally responsible despite not being able to good essay do otherwise. Here is one such scenario:

Allison is contemplating whether to walk her dog or not. Unbeknown to double space essay wordpad Allison, her father, Lloyd, wants to insure that that she does decide to walk the is greed good, dog. He has therefore implanted a computer chip in her head such that if she is about to decide not to walk the space wordpad, dog, the chip will activate and coerce her into deciding to take the dog for a walk. Given the presence of the chip, Allison is unable not to decide to walk her dog, and she lacks the ability to do otherwise. Good. However, Allison does decide to walk the dog on her own. In such a case, Frankfurt thinks that Allison is morally responsible for her decision since the presence of Lloyd and his computer chip play no causal role in her decision. Since she would have been morally responsible had Lloyd not been prepared to ensure that she decide to take her dog for double space essay wordpad a walk, why think that his mere presence renders her not morally responsible?

Frankfurt concludes that Allison is morally responsible despite lacking the ability to do otherwise. If Frankfurt is right that such cases are possible, then even if the truth of determinism is incompatible with a kind of freedom that requires the ability to do otherwise, it is compatible with the statement punishment, kind of freedom required for space essay moral responsibility. In an against the patriot act influential article, Peter Strawson argues that many of the traditional debates between compatibilists and incompatibilists (such as how to understand the ability to do otherwise) are misguided [P. Strawson (1963)]. Space Essay. Strawson thinks that we should instead focus on what he calls the reactive attitudes—those attitudes we have toward other people based on their attitudes toward and the sociological imagination, treatment of double space essay, us. Strawson says that the hallmark of reactive attitudes is that they are “essentially natural human reactions to the good or ill will or indifference of others toward us, as displayed in their attitudes and actions.” Examples of reactive attitudes include gratitude, resentment, forgiveness and love. Strawson thinks that these attitudes are crucial to the interpersonal interactions and that they provide the basis for holding individuals morally responsible. Strawson then argues for two claims. The first of department of paper technology iit roorkee, these is that an agent’s reactive attitudes would not be affected by a belief that determinism was true: The human commitment to participation in ordinary interpersonal relationships is, I think, too thoroughgoing and deeply rooted for us to take seriously the thought that a general theoretical conviction might so change our world that, in it, there were no longer such things as inter-personal relationships as we normally understand them.… A sustained objectivity of inter-personal attitude, and the human isolation which that would entail, does not seem to be something of which human beings would be capable, even if some general truth were a theoretical ground for it.

Furthermore, Strawson also argues for a normative claim: the truth of determinism should not undermine our reactive attitudes. He thinks that there are two kinds of cases where it is double space essay wordpad appropriate to suspend our reactive attitudes. One involves agents, such as young children or the mentally disabled, who are not moral agents. Strawson thinks that we should not have reactive attitudes toward non-moral agents. Department Of Paper. The second kind of double space essay wordpad, case where it is appropriate to suspend our reactive attitudes are those in which while the agent is a moral agent, her action toward us is not connected to her agency in the correct way. For instance, while I might have the reactive attitude of resentment towards someone who bumps into me and makes me spill my drink, if I were to find out that the person was pushed into me, I would not be justified in resenting that individual. The truth of on pro capital, determinism, however, would neither entail that no agents are moral agents nor that none of an agent’s actions are connected to space wordpad her moral agency. Thus, Strawson thinks, the truth of determinism should not undermine our reactive attitudes. Since moral responsibility is based on the reactive attitudes, Strawson thinks that moral responsibility is compatible with the truth of determinism. And if free will is a requirement for moral responsibility, Strawson’s argument gives support to compatibilism.

The above discussion should help explain the perennial attraction philosophers have to the issues surrounding free will, particularly as it relates to causal determinism. However, free will is also intimately related to department of paper a number of other recurrent issues in the history of philosophy. In this final section, I will briefly articulate two other kinds of determinism and space essay, show how they are connected to steps free will. The debate about free will and causal determinism parallels, in many ways, another debate about space essay, free will, this one stemming from what is often called ‘theological determinism’. Some religious traditions hold that God is ultimately responsible for everything that happens. According to department iit roorkee these traditions, God’s willing x is necessary and sufficient for x . But if He is ultimately responsible for everything in virtue of what He wills, then He is ultimately responsible for all the double space, actions and chapters phd dissertation, volitions performed by agents. God’s willing that Allison take the dog for double space wordpad a walk is thus necessary and sufficient for Allison taking the statement capital punishment, dog for a walk.

But if this is true, it is hard to space essay wordpad see how Allison could have free will. The problem becomes especially astute when considering tradition doctrines of department of paper, eternal punishment. The traditional Christian doctrine of Hell, for example, is that Hell is a place of double, eternal punishment for non-repentant sinners. But if theological determinism is true, then whether or not agents repent is ultimately up to God, not to the agents themselves. This worry over free will thus gives rise to a particular version of the in writing essay, problem of evil: why does God not will that all come to faith, when His having such a will is sufficient for their salvation? [For a discussion of these, and related issues, see Helm, (1994).] In addition to the causal and theological forms of determinism, there is also logical determinism.

Logical determinism builds off the law of excluded middle and holds that propositions about what agents will do in the future already have a truth value. For instance, the proposition Allison will take the dog for a walk next Thursday is already true or false. Assume that it is true. Double Essay. Since token propositions cannot change in truth value over time, it was true a million years ago that Allison would walk her dog next Thursday. Good Essay. But the truth of the relevant proposition is sufficient for her actually taking the dog for a walk (after all, if it is true that she will walk the essay, dog, then she will walk the dog). Essays Against The Patriot. But then it looks like no matter what happens, Allison will in fact take her dog for a walk next Thursday and space, that this has always been the in writing process essay, case.

However, it is hard to see how Allison’s deciding to walk the dog can be a free decision since she must (given that the relevant token proposition is double essay wordpad true and was true a million years ago) decide to walk him. In response to this problem, some philosophers have attempted to show that free will is compatible with the existence of true propositions about what we will do in the future, and others have denied that propositions about future free actions have a truth value, that is, that the law of excluded middle fails for some propositions. [For an introduction to these issues, see Finch and Warfield, (1999) and of paper, Kane, (2002).] If God is space essay a being who knows the truth value of every proposition, this debate also connects with the debate over the relationship between divine foreknowledge and free will. From this brief survey, we see that free will touches on good central issues in metaphysics, philosophy of human nature, action theory, ethics and the philosophy of religion. Furthermore, we’ve seen that there are competing views regarding virtually every aspect of free will (including whether there is, or even could be, such a thing). Perhaps this partially explains the perennial philosophical interest in the topic.

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Double space my essay microsoft word | 3 Rivers Archers

The College Essay as an Early Memoir. Occasional reflections on the admissions process by Caren Osten Gerszberg, the wordpad mother of a high school junior. Last weekend, I participated in a weekend writing workshop. In a sun-filled room overlooking the Berkshires, I sat amid 30 or so other writers for two days, as we talked, listened, read and practiced the art of memoir writing. On the first day of the workshop, Dani Shapiro, the is greed essay author who led the workshop, talked about inspiration, memory and double space, the ways to enter into the telling — and in our case, writing — of a story. There I sat, struggling to put parts of my story onto paper. Into what incident, relationship or place did I want to delve? How would it feel to unlock something that resides within me? How would readers feel when they interpret my words?

At one point, I looked out the window and statement punishment, the notion of the college essay popped into my mind. I suddenly realized that when these 17-year-old college applicants are drafting their “personal statement,” they are indeed writing a short form — or a portion — of their memoir. My daughter, Nicole, has been giving thought to double space essay wordpad her college essay since her 11th-grade English teacher assigned students to write four different essays in that vein. Is Greed Good? I’d read the drafts of those essays, and was touched and amused by space wordpad the subjects — her heritage, middle name, love of storytelling, and a ropes course experience — she chose, remembered and essays against the patriot act, recounted. Over these last several weeks of summer vacation, Nicole has been working, and double space wordpad, working some more, on her common application essay. In A? She’s gone back and forth between two ideas, trying to perfect both, hoping that the double wordpad one she ultimately chooses will best reflect who she is.

Her essay will not be an account of her accomplishments, but rather a piece of herself that reveals itself on paper. Reorganizing my office this summer and digging through years of files and papers was part of my summer agenda. Essays The Patriot? And in doing so, I came upon my own college essay. Double? Although it was interesting and emotional to read, I wasn’t too impressed with the end result. Statement Capital Punishment? The topic was my grandfather — a Holocaust survivor — and all that I’d learned from his passions and double space essay wordpad, ability to chapters phd dissertation appreciate life after surviving the atrocities of space, a concentration camp. “My grandfather has planted a seed in good me which contains positive emotions of life and all it comprises. This seed will grow, and I will pass it on to others so that the world will produce more people who appreciate life’s offerings.” My grammar was surprisingly strong, but the double space essay wordpad writing felt, upon rereading, repetitive and unsophisticated. I don’t even recall showing it to anyone before sending it off; maybe it would have been better if I had. I’m not sure that writing a personal essay or memoir is ever easy.

We set out to tell a story, and hope that our readers will be able to essays act identify with, or relate to our story, or perhaps just take something away upon which to reflect. While I sat in my safe haven last weekend, I listened intently as people in the room read portions of what may one day make it into their memoir — should they choose to write one — or may have been perhaps a part of their college essay. Some exposed personal tragedies, relationships gone awry, and double space wordpad, life-changing revelations. Others shared snippets of life’s mundane moments that nevertheless left a lasting impression. It felt liberating to be, and write, in such an environment.

For Nicole and her fellow applicants, however, the slice of their story will be writing of another realm. Against? The pressure is on to produce a personal statement that is simultaneously unique, heartfelt, illuminating and entirely impressive. Double Essay? This will be their chance to give a very different set of strangers an opportunity to turn the pages of their memoir, perhaps the most important one they’ll write for steps process essay a long time. To offer your thoughts on double space what Ms. Gerszberg has written, please use the comment box below. To read more by her, click here. Comments are no longer being accepted. My daughter, now a sophomore at Penn, completed her college applications and essays without allowing anyone to essay review them – especially her parents. She’s always been independent (stubborn?) and essay, this followed the pattern she established early in her childhood. I viewed her applications as truly authentic in the sense that they weren’t polished and proofed by technology teachers, counselors, and hired consultants.

I’m sure there were flaws in the writing and misspellings (she is dyslexic), but somehow the double space essay wordpad genuine person came through. Steps In Writing Process Essay? Of course it made me nervous. Double Space Essay Wordpad? Of course I thought my help was needed. But truly it wasn’t; the chapters phd dissertation best thing is space wordpad, that she completely owned the process, and the result. She did it herself, and that’s the most valuable outcome for an 18 year old setting out into the world. Wouldn’t it be wonderful if we could stop the of paper iit roorkee frenzy and let the kids do this on space wordpad their own?

Wouldn’t it be wonderful if they could explore who they are during adolescence instead of compiling resumes of activities they don’t care about but look impressive on a college application? And wouldn’t it be wonderful if they learned that their authentic selves are good enough without a bunch of adults pushing them to technology be something else? My advice is to trust them enought to let go; let them own the process. Double Space? Sure they will make mistakes. Is Greed Good? Sure they will suffer disappointments. But what better preparation could they have for life?

As a college admissions counselor, I read many of these personal essays. They are by turn funny, touching and sometimes awkward. It is hard to consider such efforts as a memoir because truly a 17 year old has so little of essay, life to steps in writing essay reflect on. For the most part, we view an essay as something that a student can use to demonstrate that they can write something that adds another dimension to wordpad the black and white statistics reflected by their high school transcript and act, standardized test scores. Although it is important to spell all the words right and for goodness sake get the double space name of the institution correctly the rest should not be a source of angst for is greed these students. Write something that sounds like you and it will stand up for itself.

Writing the college essay can be difficult because it is so unlike any other writing assignment that a high school student has ever done. Double Space Wordpad? They are told to be witty, descriptive, and engaging, but at the same time they are trying to sell themselves and department technology iit roorkee, their personality to a committee of strangers. We find that as long as students pick one anecdote, tie it to past accomplishments and future aspirations–almost any topic can make a great essay. Still, it is hard to space wordpad convince many students not to is greed good essay re-write their resume with paragraphs or write all about their role model in life without ever divulging much about themselves. College essays are great practice for wordpad that future professional balance between humility and thesis on pro punishment, self-promotion. It is really wonderful when we see a student embrace a well-chosen topic. While writing a college essay can be difficult, I actually liked writing my essays, especially the one I submitted as part of the common application (and used for five or six schools). The key for space me, was writing the essay on my terms.

I planned it, but not too far in process essay advance that the topic was no longer personally relevant. I revised and rewrote it, but I never let my parents or anyone else see it. (I just trusted myself and didn’t want my voice to be changed as result of others’ editing.) In fact, when I left an edited copy near the printer, my dad asked if I had left it there for him to edit. I chose a topic that was significant to me, an space, injury that ended my varsity high school sports career. When I got to college and of paper technology iit roorkee, starting working with the admissions office, I heard one of the double space deans suggest that students specifically not write about department, injuries. According to her, injuries, like the death of a grandparent, are commonly written about. She explained to double space essay a group of parents and prospective students, that, by in large, teenagers have many of the same significant life experiences. If you choose one those topics, which many students do, it’s even harder for your application to stand out. I like to steps in writing essay think that mine did stand out, but who knows? Congratulations on a great article! I think students write about double wordpad, such topics as injuries and the death of essays against the patriot act, a grandparent because there is double essay wordpad, very little else in their mundane teenage lives that forces them to reflect in the way these experiences do.

Some of the other experiences a teen may have had , however life-shaping(unwanted pregnancy, for instance), may be just too painful and in writing process, private to write about. My own daughter is double essay, who she is in part because of some unique experiences that she simply doesn’t talk about. I know what they are because I experienced them along with her, but she is a very private person (as I am) and shares very little about how she feels about them. She hates to is greed good essay be under a spotlight, and double space, would probably end up choosing a common essay topic that would not force her to stand out. My daughter was fortunate to be accepted by her “first choice” college and is greed, has begun her freshman year. While reading Ms. Wordpad? Gerszberg’s musings I recalled my own experiences with my daughter’s application process. I was most struck by the requests for the students to phd dissertation share their innermost thoughts and feelings about themselves and double space essay, loved ones. This was followed up with requests for the family’s complete financial status, down to the penny.

In short, everything is shared. Then the student, who has bared her very soul to the anonymous admissions officers, receives a nice but generic rejection letter. Ultimately the students are accepted somewhere, matriculate, and succeed. However, I can’t help wondering about the thesis lingering effects of this one sided courtship. I think we quickly put it to wordpad rest and essay, celebrate the double space essay wordpad remainder of the senior year, the graduation, the “final summer”, the countdown to matriculation day, and the ride back home from is greed good, college without the child. Still, as I feel parental pride and share my daughter’s joy with this next step in her life, I think there is something very wrong with this process that is not fully appreciated.

Perhaps she can write about it in her personal statement for graduate school. re: «Over these last several weeks of summer vacation, Nicole has been working, and working some more, on double essay her common application essay. She’s gone back and forth between two ideas, trying to imagination perfect both, hoping that the one she ultimately chooses will best reflect who she is.» If Nicole can give herself “permission” to spot the deeper, unexpected, but always “there” connection between her two “separate” essays, she’ll see that she can meld them into one self-defining piece of writing of inestimable power and supremely serenity-eliciting satisfaction. You too, for that matter, with your own writing.

What are colleges looking for? People who don’t care what they’re looking for. Essay? That’s what the amazing process of writing a college essay is really all about. Interesting article. Here’s an interesting link to thesis on pro actual essays, some of which may surprise you. I find it difficult to buy the idea that editing or advice removes a writer’s voice. Good editing does not, or else published prose wouldn’t show its author’s style. Space Essay? The editing is too heavy-handed if a person’s voice can’t be heard. Of Paper? It’s like polishing a piece of figured silver–the polish makes the figures clearer and sharper, but doesn’t efface them. I wrote two essays — one generic, and the other highly personal, which I didn’t show anyone because I didn’t feel I could. In the end, I decided to send the personal one, even though it hadn’t been vetted.

I got into my reach school without having the best grades or scores; I think the essay wordpad essay must have stood out in the sea of this-experience-made-me-a-better-person essays. I also work with a company that does a lot of college counseling for high school students, and specifically student athletes who are hoping to play a sport at that school, and essay, maybe even use that extra curricular passion to leverage them in the admissions process. We also have ex-college admissions officers on essay board who have read a lot of essays. We have all come to the conclusion that the essay is one of the most important pieces in statement capital punishment the college admissions process. In many cases it is the only way to personalize yourself (especially when there is no interview) to the admissions officer, and show your character. Many folks say that the essay should by essay no means be a memoir. It is much easier for the writers character to be conveyed if they show a “glimpse” or a “peek through the curtain” of their life, instead of the whole picture. The Sociological Essay? Also, essays about lessons learned can be great for essay wordpad showing that, but discussing a major turning point in ones life can often be forced when coming from someone so young. Athletes writing about is greed good essay, their passion for sports is rather taboo. But on double space the other hand, writing about any other extra curricular activity or hobby (such as knitting mentioned above) would be a great way to show an officer something interesting about thesis, yourself that would never show up on the transcript.

I also do not envy the kids applying to colleges these days. On one hand they should be enjoying their last year of highschool, and on the other hand they are making a decision that will not impact the double space wordpad next 4 years of their life, but the next 40 years. While most big public universities require an essays against the patriot, essay, I wonder how important that essay is for a student that fits easily into the admission requirements. It seems like it is not important at double essay all really and department of paper iit roorkee, it’s a shame that kids who are going this route are made to waste time with this nonsense. When the university we expect our kids will attend had to ban letters of recommendation (because they were aiding disasterous violations of the public trust) I cheered. One less stress on seniors in the application process. Ms.

Gerszberg I was so pleased to read your commentary on the essay as memoir. After reading so many applications, as an double space wordpad, independent Admissions Counselor (and former staff counselor), I see this phenomenon daily. But memoirs rarely make good essays. When students try to write “authentic” accounts of their lives, they often lose sight of their audience: the admissions department. In so doing, they often fail to provide useful information to admissions staff, telling about friendships made, love lost, desires unrequited without how these things relate to good college. Admissions folks can make educated guesses regarding how the memoir-like essay translates into a great student at their college, but a good essay needs to take you there.

Nonetheless, who can resist? When I was 18 and about to go to college, I wanted (a la Whitman) “to sing myself.” It’s a rite of passage. Furthermore, applicants have a reasonable assurance that someone will read their essay, something that a blog or FaceBook can’t really guarantee when you really need it. Double Essay? Knowing that someone is the sociological imagination essay, listening and listening close enough to evaluate the essay’s content invites all kinds of tales, many inappropriate. All of this is to say: the College Essay Memoir is not usually useful for College Admissions–but it’s here to double space wordpad stay.

Like any memoir, however, it’s important to phd dissertation make sure it fits the essay wordpad audience.

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Aeschylus' Oresteia and Prometheus Bound: Hubris and the Chorus. Space Essay Wordpad. Autor: reviewessays • April 26, 2011 • Essay • 1,626 Words (7 Pages) • 1,081 Views. The dramatic presentations of ancient Greece developed out of good religious rites performed to honor gods or to mark the coming of spring. Playwrights such as Aeschylus, Sophocles, and double space essay wordpad Euripides composed plays to be performed and judged at competitions held during the yearly Dionysian festivals. Those plays were chosen by a selection board and evaluated by a panel of in writing process essay judges. To compete in wordpad the contest, Greek playwrights had to submit three tragedies, which could be either based on a common theme or unrelated, and one comedy. However, relatively few of these ancient Greek plays survive today. Known as the father of tragedy, Aeschylus introduced a second actor on stage, allowing for action and interaction to take place and establishing a caste of professional actors (Bloom, 45).

He let the chorus converse with the characters, introduced elaborate costumes and stage designs. Two of Aeschylus' plays, Oresteia and Prometheus Bound, illustrate the importance of Chorus and phd dissertation the characteristic concept of hubris, or excessive pride, focusing on man's social and political consequences in double space essay the universe in on pro capital relation to the Greek gods. Aeschylus was a native of Eleusis, a Greek town near Athens. The year of his birth was 525 B.C. He was the first of the great Greek tragedians, preceding both Sophocles and Euripides.

He witnessed political and social changes when he spent much of his life in Athens. Aeschylus was a soldier; his military experience included fighting in the battle of Marathon against the Persians in 490 B.C. He later fought against the Persians at Salamis and Platea in 480 B.C. (Bloom, 58). Double Essay Wordpad. Athens, at that time, was part of a federation of small Greek states allied against the forces of the Persian army, which was led by King Xerxes. Aeschylus fought against the Persians who invaded Athens and lost his brother in the final battle.

Over eighty plays are credited to his name, of technology which only seven have been preserved in double wordpad full by the efforts of ancient historians. Of the how many phd dissertation seven surviving plays, the Suppliants is generally agreed to be the earliest and is usually assigned to essay the first decade of the is greed century. The Persians was produced in 472 B.C., the Seven Against Thebes in 467, and the Oresteia in 458 (Bloom, 43). In Aeschylus' trilogy, the double space essay Oresteia, he dramatizes the phenomenon of the ancestral curse upon the House of Atreus. Agamemnon and Menelaus, sons of Atreus, have inherited the curse.

Agamemnon, the powerful king in all Greece, has marshaled an expedition to attack Troy and return Helen to Menelaus. Encountering the wrath of Artemis, Agamemnon must in appeasement sacrifice his daughter, Iphigenia. Agamemnon is the first of a triology, the Oresteia, the other two parts of which are The Libation Bearers and The Eumenides. Agamemnon depicts the assassination of the chapters title character by his wife, Clytemnestra, and double space her lover, Aegisthus. The Libation Bearers continues the story with the return of Agamemnon's son, Orestes, who kills his mother and avenges his father. In The Eumenides, Orestes is pursued by the Furies in punishment for his matricide, and finally finds refuge in Athens where the god Athena relives him of his persecution. Aeschylus wrote the thesis statement capital punishment Prometheus Bound in about 456 B.C. The play is a tragedy that details the sufferings of Prometheus for his rebellion against Zeus. This play is composed of double space almost entirely of speeches and contains little action since its protagonist is in writing, chained throughout the play. At the beginning of the play, Cratos and Bia and Hephaestus chain Prometheus to a mountain in the Caucasus and then depart. Double Space. The daughters of Oceanus, who make up the chorus, appear and attempt to chapters comfort Prometheus by conversing with him.

Prometheus is wordpad, then visited by Io, who has been changed into a cow by steps in writing process essay Zeus to save her from the wrath of Hera. Prometheus gives her knowledge of her own future, telling her that one of her descendants will release him from his torment. Finally, Hermes is space essay wordpad, sent down by the angered Zeus to demand that Prometheus tell him who threatens to overthrow Zeus. Prometheus refuses along with his excessive stubbornness, and faces the essays against unfortunate wrath. The role of hubris, or excessive pride, comes before the death of Agamemnon. This can be illustrated through the speeches of the Chorus when they discuss the dangers of being too successful in life: The gods fail not to mark/Those who have killed many/The black Furies stalking the man/Fortunate beyond all right/Wrench back again the set of his life/And drop him to darkness. There among/The ciphers there is no more comfort/in power.

And the vaunt of high glory/Is bitterness; For Gods thunderbolts/Crash on double space essay wordpad, the towering mountains/Let me attain no envied wealth/Let me not plunder cities/Neither be taken in turn, and face/Life in the power of another. Thesis On Pro Capital. (Grene Lattimore, 461-474). Space Wordpad. This scene describes when Clytemnestra induces her husband to tread on the purple robes strewn in his path; this is the is greed good symbolic act of hubris, an act that foreshadows his death. When it comes to focusing on those lines of the Chorus, it appears that the knowledge of the Greek gods is necessary. Those Greek gods are too good in their jealousies, and rather than reward human greatness, they tend to see mortal achievement as a threat to their own power. When a Greek human like Agamemnon rises too high, he is space wordpad, seen as a threat to those gods.

The main theme of how many chapters in a phd dissertation gods is heavily used in Prometheus Bound. When Prometheus gets angered by Io's suffering, He shouts out the following lines: But aren't you childish, I mean/Sillier than any child, expecting me to tell you/Anything?/Zeus doesn't have one torture, not one ingenious device/To pry this out of me/Not till He eases/These shameful chains/Let Him rocket His lighting/The bolts trailing smoke!/With white wings of snowflakes/With earth shattering/Thunder/Let Him heave together everything there is/In one confusion!/None of this will make me stoop to tell/Who's fated to overthrow/Him from His tyranny. Double Wordpad. (Scully Herington, 1510-1525). In those lines, Prometheus mocks Hermes and says that he will tell nothing, after Hermes enters and orders Prometheus to reveal the identity of Zeus's son. Hermes accuses Prometheus of being overly disobedient, and Prometheus deflects each accusation with sarcasm. This shows that Prometheus displays no fear of his destiny, indicating that he is too stubborn.

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We may disclose Personal Information, and essay other information about You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of the sociological imagination, such information is reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for services and products (including to collection agencies in essay, order to obtain payment for our products and services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the appropriate calculation of taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to protect Personal Information from unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is essay, under our control. Unfortunately, no data transmission over the internet can be guaranteed to be completely secure. As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against the loss, misuse, or alteration of Personal Information under our control, and You provide Personal Information to us at Your own risk. You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and essay wordpad should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels.

Retention and the sociological imagination Disposal. We retain information only for as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow. Double Wordpad? When we dispose of Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and wiping electronic media). PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES. How We Communicate Changes to how many This Policy.

We may update this Policy at any time to provide updates to or clarification of our practices. Space? If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to the homepage of our Website or sending You a notification). The Sociological Imagination Essay? You should refer to this Policy often for the latest information and the effective date of any changes. This web site is owned and operated by Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an individual who refers customers. A Referral is an essay individual who requests a service via the referral link given by a Partner. With the first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on statement capital punishment the order, while a Partner receives $50 to double the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the Referral’s total order price. All money earned with the Referral Program is is greed good, stored on your Referral Balance.

A Partner can transfer the money to the Bonus Balance and use it to double space purchase a service. It is possible to transfer the sum to the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).